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THERE is no better guide by which the future of 
our country may be discerned than an intelligent 
study of the past. In a score of years hence the 
affairs of the nation will be controlled by the young 
men and women who are now preparing to close the 
period of school life. To be a good and efficient 
citizen, it is not enough merely to know the political 
history of the past ; one must be a part of the politi 
cal affairs of to-day. In other words, every good 
citizen, whether man or woman, boy or girl, must 
be an active politician, earnestly engaged in politics 
not the sort of political life that bears the odor 
of graft and corruption, but the healthful political 
activity that develops the highest and the best in 
citizenship. Remember that your political life must 
stand the test when examined by the searchlight 
of virtue and the rule of everlasting righteousness. 



THE influence of climate and topography as dominant factors 
in shaping the destiny of mankind is no longer a question having 
two sides ; on the contrary, political history may be broadly 
summed up as a quantitative expression of temperature, rainfall, 
and surface features. When the man has been wise enough to 
adapt himself easily to the conditions of his environment, there 
has been but little friction in his political history as a rule ; on 
the other hand, if the attempts to adapt himself to his environ 
ment have been attended with a great deal of difficulty, either 
there has been much friction in his history or else he has drifted 
to a materially lower plane of civilization. 

Nowhere are these fundamental principles of history better 
illustrated than in the industrial development of the American 
nation. The wonderful development of commerce in New Eng 
land when the harbor facilities were discovered and utilized ; the 
transference of food production to the prairies of the Missis 
sippi Valley ; the wresting of the cotton industry from India and 
its relocation in the Southern states ; the localization of steel- 
making at a position where cheap fuel and a low rate of trans 
portation have made it a world-commanding economy these, 
and not the eloquence of statesmen in legislative halls, have 
made the political fabric of the nation what it is to-day. Politi 
cal revolution is almost always the chief result of commercial 
evolution. Two wars with Great Britain gave to the Republic 
the only independence that is real namely, commercial inde 
pendence; the Civil War broke the bonds that for years had 
prevented commercial expansion. These great struggles, it is 



hardly necessary to add, were the tremendous efforts whereby 
the man adapted himself to his geographic environment and the 
conditions which it imposed. 

A text-book adapted to the needs of to-day requires a discus 
sion of certain principles that have come to be a part of modern 
life. In discussing these especially in Chapter XX the 
teacher should consider the maturity of the pupil s mind. With 
young pupils it will be wise to postpone, or even to omit, such 
topics as cannot be comprehended. In such cases it is not a 
question of capability but of age. In the lists of collateral read 
ing the books mentioned are those most likely to be found in 
available libraries; others covering the subjects may be used 
instead. A comprehensive list of good books for further read 
ing is given in the Appendix. 

In the preparation of this book, I am greatly indebted to 
Mr. Charles A. Shaver, former Supervisor of Institutes of New 
York, for valuable assistance, especially in the plans of the 
Eevolutionary and the Civil wars and for various maps relating 
to the same. I also desire to acknowledge the kindness of 
Professor Cyrus W. Hodgin of the Department of History of 
Earlham College, Indiana, for a critical reading of the text. 

J. W. K. 







First Settlements 25 

Virginia 26 


The Carolinas North and South 



New York 45 

New Jersey 52 


Delaware 57 



Plymouth Colony 


Rhode Island 73 

Connecticut and New Haven 76 

New Hampshire and Maine 78 

The New England Confederacy 81 




French Explorations and Settlements 1 6 

Wars between the French and the English . . . .111 




The War in New York and the Middle States 

The War in the South 164 










INDEPENDENCE, 1800-1816 20G 

XV. A PERIOD OF INDUSTRIAL GROWTH, 1789-1840 . . . 232 

ANNEXATION OF TEXAS, 1816-1845 . . . .246 
TRIAL PROGRESS, 1845-1860 270 

XVIII. THE CIVIL WAR ......... 299 

Opening Events ......... 299 

The First Year of the War . 306 

The Campaign in the West, January, 1862, to May, 1862 . 313 
The War in the East, January, 1862, to July, 1863 . .317 

Opening the Mississippi, January, 1863, to July, 1863 . 325 
The Campaign in Tennessee and Georgia, July, 1863, to 

July, 1864 . .328 

The Closing Campaigns in Virginia, May, 1864, to April, 

1865 331 

"Naval Work of the Civil War, 1861 to 1865 . . .335 

Financing the War ........ 342 

Reconstruction 345 




XXII. RECENT EVENTS ......... 413 


The Declaration of Independence ....... 3 

The Constitution of the United States ...... 8 

The States 25 

Presidents of the United States ....... 32 

Topical Analysis for Review ........ 33 

A List of Reference Books ........ 44 

A Pronouncing List of Proper Names ...... 46 





Trade Routes to the East 5 

The World as known in the Time of Columbus 6 

Toscanelli s Map, 1474 8 

The Line of Demarcation and the Routes of Columbus s Voyages . 11 

Grants of London and Plymouth Companies, 1606 .... 28 

The Southern Colonies .......... 39 

The Maiollo Map, 1527 45 

The Middle Colonies 53 

The New England Colonies 66 

The Location of the Eastern Indian Tribes 85 

French Explorations and Forts . . . . . . . 108 

The Colonies during the French and Indian War. (Colored) Following 110 

The Gateway to the St. Lawrence 112 

Gateways through the Appalachians . . . . . . .114 

The Campaign around Boston, 1775-1776 ...... 142 

Campaigns in New York and New Jersey . . . . . .155 

The Campaigns in the Middle States ....... 159 

Clark s Campaign in the Northwest, 1778-1779 162 

The Campaigns in the South ......... 166 

The States and their Land Claims at the Close of the Revolution. 

(Colored) . . Following 176 

The Districts of Ohio 197 

The United States in 1800. (Colored) .... Following 206 

The Expansion resulting from the Louisiana Purchase .... 208 

Western Explorations, 1804-1806 211 

The Route of the Cumberland Road ....... 213 

Scene of Operations in the War of 1812 221 

The Development of the Northwest Territory, 1790-1810 

The Regions of Cotton and of Manufactures 236 

The Route of the Erie Canal 241 

Slave and Free Areas after the Missouri Compromise .... 250 

The Oregon Country . . 267 

The Territorial Growth of the United States. (Colored) Following 270 

The Mexican War . .... 277 

xu MAPS 

The United States in 1850, showing the Result of the Compromise 

regarding Slavery. (Colored) .... Following 284 

Where Wheat is grown in the United States ...... 296 

The United States during the Civil War (Colored) . Following 298 

Scene of Operations in Virginia ........ 310 

Western Campaigns. (Colored) . . .. .. . Following 312 

The Peninsular Campaign ......... 318 

Virginia Campaigns. (Colored) . Following 318 
The Battleground of Gettysburg . . . . . . .324 

The Vicksburg Campaign .... ..... 326 

The Limits of War Territory, May, 1861, August 1, 1863, and January 

1, 1865. (Colored) ...... . Following 328 

Sherman s Campaign in Georgia ........ 331 

The United States in 1906. (Colored) .... Following 372 

A Trunk Railway Line .......... 375 

The Hawaiian Islands, a Station on Commercial Routes . . 407 

The Philippine Islands .......... 409 

The United States and its Dependencies, showing Commercial Routes. 

(Colored) ..... ... Following 412 




Chinese and Japanese Legends. 
When we speak of the New World, 
almost always the mind reverts to 
the voyage of Columbus and that 
eventful day in October when the 
banner of Spain was unfurled on 
the island which the great ex 
plorer named San Salvador. But 
there are accounts of voyagers 
who may have found this same 

_^_^- " ~~W 3P * 

^sf^ new land five hundred and possi 

bly one thousand years before the 
discoveries of the great explorer. 
Certain legends common to the knowledge of both the Chinese 
and the Japanese relate the deeds of one Hwui Shan, 1 a Buddhist 
missionary, who found, many miles to the eastward of 
China, a land which he called Fusang. 2 About the 
year 499 he, with five brother priests, went along the 
coast of China to Kamchatka, and thence by way of the Aleutian 
Islands to Alaska. Hwui Shan s description of the people he 
found applies very correctly to the Aleuts and the Eskimos 
living in this region to-day. From Alaska, which they called 

1 For the pronunciation of difficult names, see the Appendix, page 46. 

2 This story only recently came into the literature of western peoples. A few 
years ago the Chinese government directed one of its best scholars to search the 
records of the imperial historian, and from these records came the story as here 
given. The details are vague, and scholars are divided between assigning the 
description to Japan or the American coast. 


The Chinese 
find America 


Great Han, the missionary party proceeded along the coast to 
Fusang. Hwui Shan describes the houses of Fusang as made 
of sun-dried bricKs of mud, and containing many people a 
description which fits the pueblos of ancient America. He men 
tions a plant which was used in making both cordage and paper, 
which afforded a vegetable milk, and which yielded tender 
sprouts that were used for food. Now there is but one plant 
which answers to this description, and that is the maguey. 1 He 
also describes a plant and its fruit which must have been the 
cactus, or prickly pear. Fusang, according to these accounts, 
was very much like Mexico. 

Whatever credit we may give to the story, one fact cannot be 
overlooked. Steady winds blow from China and Japan toward 
Uncertainty ^ ne P ac i nc coast of North America, dragging with 
of our them the surface drift of the Japan Current. More- 

knowledge OV er, the Chinese of the coast and the Japanese are 
born sailors, and their junks, numbering tens of thousands, went 
everywhere. From the very nature of the conditions, one or 
more of these junks must accidentally have been blown across 
the ocean. Certain it is, too, that Asiatic peoples must have 
crossed Bering Strait, or traversed the chain of the Aleutian 
Islands. But the records and proofs concerning such voyages 
are unsatisfactory, and the evidence of them is circumstantial. 

Norse Discoveries. In the accounts of discoveries by adven 
turous mariners of northern Europe, however, we are dealing with 
historic facts about which there is no doubt; and although the 
settlements made by the Northmen have no connection with the 
history of modern America, we should at least notice the leading 

Shortly after the settlement of Iceland (probably 875) a master 
mariner named Gunnbjorn lost his reckoning at sea and was 

carried to the unknown Greenland coast, where he 
Greenland n , .. ,. , -, , -, . . i 

was torced to spend the winter locked in an ice pack. 

This land was again visited, about 983, by a Norse sea rover 
named Eric the Bed. He made a settlement there, and in time 
several hundred people came out from Iceland. For more than 

l Pronounced ma -gwa. 



four centuries Greenland was a commercial center. Late in the 
fourteenth century the Danish government made this great sea 
commerce a crown monopoly and forbade her colonies, Greenland 
and Iceland, either to engage in it, or even to own the vessels in 
which the goods were carried. As a result, the trade dropped off 
and, little by little, the Greenland colony passed out of existence. 
A short time after the settlement of Greenland an adventurous 
young fellow named Herjulf, who was on his way to Greenland 

from Iceland, sailed into foggy weather, and after 

. , , P *, ., ,. , , Leif Ericson 

several days came in sight 01 a low, heavily timbered 

coast, apparently free from ice and snow. Finding his position, he 
turned his vessel north 
eastward to his home 
in Greenland. One of 
the hearers of Herjulf a 
story was Leif Ericson, 
a son of Eric the Red. 
His curiosity was ex 
cited, and he resolved 
to learn for himself 
about the strange coast 
that Herjulf described. 
So in the year 1000 he 
left his home with a 
crew of thirty-live men. 
Their first landing was made somewhere along the coast of 
Labrador or Newfoundland. The surface was so thickly covered 
with rock that they called it Helluland, meaning "Slateland." It 
was not an attractive country, and so they turned the vessel south 
ward along the coast. After several days they reached a timbered 
coast, probably that of Nova Scotia, which they named Mark- 
land. Thence they sailed southward for two days, casting anchor 
in a pleasant place where Ericson and his crew resolved to spend 
the fall and winter. 

In the following spring Leif Ericson returned to Greenland, 
his vessel laden with timber. The trade in lumber proved so 
successful that his brothers, one after another, fitted out vessels 



to engage in the business, which was regularly carried on until 
the year 1011. Then a quarrel ended in the massacre of half the 
people of the settlement, and the survivors returned to Green 
land. And so ended the settlement at Vinland, as it was called, 
the first definitely known to have been established by Europeans 
in America. 1 No evidence exists to show that the Norse rovers 
intended to colonize the coast. Their settlement was a lumber 
camp, founded for commerce and for no other purpose. 

The visit of the Ericson brothers should not be considered as 
the finding of a new continent. It was an incident and a note 
worthy one ; but it is wholly apart from the voyages and explora 
tions that, one after another, resulted in the discovery of a then 
unknown continent. 

Trade Routes between Europe and India. The blockading of 
trade routes between Europe and India, more than five hundred 
years ago, would seem to have little connection with the first 
settlement of the United States of America, but the two occur 
rences are links in the same chain of events. During the wars 
of the Crusades the people of western Europe for the first time 
began to have open trade not only with one another, but also 
with India and China. Only in those two countries could then 
be procured the silks, muslins, spices, pearls, gems, and ivory 
commodities that were wanted by the wealthy people of 
Europe. A splendid trade resulted in the course of time, and 
most of this trade concentrated at the ports of Venice and 

Now, although we commonly consider Europe and Asia as a 
single great body of laud, as a matter of fact an almost impass 
able barrier separates them. This barrier is the desert highland 
that rises abruptly in front of the Persian Gulf and culminates in 
the Hindu Kush plateau. In only two or three places can this 

1 Just where the Vinland camp was pitched is not known. Two circumstances 
afford a slight clew. From casual statements made by Leif Ericson it has been 
inferred that the shortest day of winter was about nine hours long. Moreover, 
they found an abundance of wild grapes, probably the common fox grape, and 
this gave the camp its name. From these statements it is reasonable to believe 
that Vinland was somewhere between Nova Scotia and Massachusetts Bay 
more likely nearer the latter than the former. 


lofty highland be crossed; in two or three others it can be 
avoided. The chief routes of travel and trade were : 

(1) From Venice to Alexandria, through the Red Sea, to the 

coast of India. 

(2) From Genoa to Constantinople, by way of the Black Sea, the 

Tigris and Euphrates, to the Persian Gulf, and the coast of 

(3) From Constantinople and the Black Sea, across to the Cas 

pian Sea, up the Amu Darya (or Oxus), to the Indus. 

Route from Venice: 

Route from Genoa: 

Route from Constantinople 
oute of Vasco da Gama: 


The Turks blockade the Trade Routes. Half-savage Turko 
mans in their zeal for the religion taught them by followers of 
Mohammed began to interfere with this trade of the Christian 
European nations. In 1453 they captured Constantinople, and a 
few years later they barred every other gateway to the East. 
Commerce must always move along lines in which there are no 
great obstacles. In the face of high mountain ranges across 
which there are no passes, or over wide deserts, the transit of 



goods at that time was next to impossible. Even though it might 
be possible to transport the goods, the cost would foe so great as 
to be prohibitive. This blockading of the trade routes caused gen 
eral concern, for people were beginning to realize the importance 
of commerce and trade routes. 

The Search for a Route around Africa. Energies were di 
rected toward the search for a route around Africa which the 
Turks could not blockade. In this search Portugal took the 


lead mainly from the fact that Prince Henry of Portugal, best 
known as " the Navigator," had established a school for training 
master mariners, and this institution had drawn to itself many of 
the best sailors of the Mediterranean. 1 

Long before the voyage of Columbus the Portuguese sailors were 
Vascoda actively at work. Many geographers believed that 
Gama Africa was a peninsula, and therefore there must be a 

1 Pope Eugenius IV had conferred (about 1442) upon Portugal "all heathen 
lands from Cape Bojador [on the west coast of Africa, about latitude 28 North] 
eastward even to the Indies." Spain therefore must look westward for her route 
to India, and her sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, were consequently interested 
in the proposals of Christopher Columbus for an expedition across the Atlantic 
to India. 


way around its southern point. Under the direction of Prince 
Henry, the Portuguese vessels, one after another, got farther and 
farther along the west coast until, in 1487, Bartholomew Dias 
passed the cape now called Cape of Good Hope. 1 Ten years later 
(1497) Vasco da Gama rounded the cape in a furious cyclone that 
carried him in a northeasterly direction, almost to the west coast 
of India. When he let go his anchors, his vessel was at the city 
of Calicut, India. And thus one part of the problem of reaching 
India was solved. 

The Search for a Westward Route : Columbus. Before Vasco 
da Gama had reached India, a new factor was introduced into the 
problem. This factor was a man 
of both power and perseverance. 
His name was Christopher Colum 
bus. Columbus was a native of 
the state of Genoa, and possibly 
of the city of that name ; he was 
born within a few years of 1434. 
He had begun a sea-faring life 
when in his teens, and at the age 
of fifty was well known as a 
master mariner and a maker of 
charts and globes. 2 

Some years before the voyage 
of Da Gama, Columbus had made 
up his mind that India might 
be reached by a westward route 
across the Atlantic instead of eastward, around Africa. In reach 
ing this conclusion he had been guided by a number of traditions 


1 His vessel was so badly shattered by a cyclone that he put back to Portugal 
in sore distress. He called the headland Cape Tormentoso, meaning " Cape of the 
Furies." After Da Gama s voyage, however, King John of Portugal gave it its 
present name. 

2 Contrary to common opinion, the rotundity of the earth was generally ac 
cepted at that time by merchants, sailors, and people engaged in commercial 
pursuits. Columbus thought the circumference to be 20,400 miles, and this ap 
pears to have been his greatest error. Many years before, Eratosthenes had 
computed it at 25,290 nautical miles ; but apparently Coluinbus did n.Qt know this. 



about land to the west in the untraveled ocean. 1 There was evi 
dence which none could gainsay. Tropical vegetation, borne by 
winds and ocean currents, had been cast on European shores, and 
so also had the drowned bodies of people of a swarthy-colored 
race. Perhaps the matter which more than any other influenced 
him was a letter and a map that had been sent by Toscanelli, the 


Columbus saw this map before he 
sailed. It explains the general 

idea of the site of the World at that 
time and how he expected to find 

India where he found America. 

astronomer of Florence in Italy, to an officer in the household 
of the king of Portugal. Toscanelli believed that India could 
be reached by sailing west across the Atlantic. He afterward 
sent a copy of the map and the letter to Columbus, and this 
seems greatly to have strengthened the explorer s determination. 
The plans of Columbus were well laid, and his ideas were very 
clear. It was about eighteen years, however, before he was able 
to carry them out. 

Although both Genoa and Venice had everything to gain and 
nothing to lose in the discovery of a new route to India, neither 

1 Among the master mariners there was a story about a certain Jean Cousin 
whose vessel had heen blown from the African coast clear across the ocean to an 
unknown land, which was probably Brazil. This actually happened to Cabral in 
1500. Another story referred to Alonzo Sanchez, a Spanish pilot, who was in 
similar fashion cast ashore on the island now called Haiti. This story was com 
mon at the time and was known to Columbus. Indeed, the air was full of that 
sort of talk, and had been since the blockade of the old trade routes. 



in Portugal 

state seems to have taken any interest in the matter. Portugal 
alone was active ; Columbus therefore turned to that state. He 
made a favorable impression on King John, and, had 
Prince Henry the Navigator been living, it is prob 
able that the plans of Columbus would have been 
accepted by the Portuguese king. Unfortunately for Portugal, 
the matter was referred by the king to certain learned men of 
the state, and by them condemned. The king then fitted out 
a vessel secretly and dispatched it along the route suggested 
by Columbus. The 
master of the vessel, 
however, lacking the 
courage to attempt 
such an uncertain 
voyage, put back to 
Lisbon, and thus the 
secret was out. In 

disgust, Columbus 
shook the dust of 
Portugal from his 
feet and departed 
for Spain. 

In 1486 he sub 
mitted his plans to 


a group of Spanish 

scholars, and the latter practically derided them. Fortunately 
there were several priests among them who were inclined to give 
the plans of Columbus a fair trial, and their influence 
finally prevailed. Perhaps the fact that all the idle 
gossip about India made it a country of fabulous 
wealth had something to do with the favorable decision of the 
king, for he was sorely pressed for funds. At all events it was 
Queen Isabella who came to the front at the last moment and 
pledged her jewels for the amount necessary to fit out the expedi 
tion. A flagship and two caravels were purchased for the expedi- 

in Spain 

1 This picture is from a photograph of the caravels built for the Columbian 
Exposition in 1893, exactly reproducing the ships of Columbus. 


tion ; they were the Santa Maria (or Capitana), the flagship, the 
Pinta, and the Nina. The largest of the three was about ninety 
feet in length over all. 

The First Voyage of Columbus. 1492. The squadron set sail 
from Palos, a small seaport of Spain, August 3, 1492. The ves 
sels put in at the Canary Islands to repair the rudder of the 
Pinta ; this done, they turned south westward headed, as Columbus 
thought, for Zipango, or Japan. As the days and weeks passed, 
the crew, a motley lot of roustabouts, showed signs of mutiny, 
and laid plans to throw Columbus overboard. Then their fears 
were calmed by occasional signs of land, and so the squadron kept 
on. Columbus had understated his daily runs intentionally, 
so that by October 7 the real distance of twenty-seven hundred 
miles was made to appear five hundred miles less. 

In a few days, however, the signs of land were unmistakable, 
and on the 12th of October, 1492 (October 21, present style of reck 
oning), seventy days after their starting, land was sighted. That 
same morning Columbus went ashore on one of the islands now 
known as the West Indies and took possession of the land in 
the name of Spain. He named the island San Salvador; the 
natives, of whom he found a great number, called it Guana- 
hani. 1 Columbus spent a few days among the islands, feeling 
certain that he was near the coast of Asia. The natives he called 
Indians, because he supposed he was in the East Indian archi 
pelago. He found many of them wearing gold ornaments, and he 
learned from them that the precious metal came from a large 
island to the southwest. He visited this island, now known to be 
Cuba, thinking it might be Japan; and then he went to Haiti, 
which he named Espagnola, or Little Spain. 

On Christmas the Santa Maria was wrecked on a shoal off the 
coast of Haiti. From the timbers of this vessel Columbus built 
a fort, and left in it a small garrison. With the rest of his men 
he returned to Spain. Fort Nativity, as it was called, was the 

1 It is not with certainty known on which island of the Bahama group the first 
landing was made; various historians have favored Cat Island, Turks, and Wat- 
ling, but the strongest evidence is in favor of Samana, or Atwood Key, a small 
island northeast of Ackliu and Crooked islands. 



first European colony established in the New World, after the 
lumber camp of Leif Ericson, nearly five hundred years earlier. 

Other Voyages of Columbus : South America Discovered. Colum 
bus made three more voyages, in which he discovered other islands 
of the West Indies. On his third voyage he entered the mouth 
of the Orinoco Iliver (1498). The great volume of the stream, 


greater than that of any European river, convinced him that it 
could drain nothing less than a continent ; and so the discovery 
of South America justly belongs to him. On his fourth voyage 
(1502-1504) he coasted the shore of that part of North America 
now called Central America. 

The gold, gems, and spices which the Spanish monarch had 
hoped for were not found. Enemies rose up to plot against the 
great discoverer, and he died forsaken and in poverty. His 


remains, first buried at Valladolid in Spain, were several times 
removed, and to this day no one knows their final resting place. 1 
Columbus died ignorant of the fact that the land he had found 
was not India. 

The Outcome of the Discoveries. The voyages of Columbus 
and Da Gama are turning points in the history of America 
and of Europe. In time it was learned that, instead of a 
new route to an old land, a new world was discovered. Still it 
was nearly twoscore years after the first voyage of Columbus 
before Europe seemed to realize the fact that an unknown con 
tinent, and not the eastern shores of India and China, had been 

In order to keep peace between Spain and Portugal, Pope Alex 
ander VI (1494) issued a decree which gave to Spain all lands 
west, and to Portugal all lands east, of the meridian 
demarcation ^ at ^ a j three hundred and seventy leagues west of 
the Azores and Cape Verde. Possibly this measure, 
which established the " line of demarcation," kept a nominal 
peace between the two countries, but it left open the gates 
to hordes of adventurers from all parts of maritime Europe : 
and for more than a century afterward the history of the New 
World was the history of plunder, rapine, warfare, and massacre. 

The Cabots discover the Coast of North America. 1497-1498. 
The half century beginning with the year 1475 was a period of 
active research and exploration. In addition to Da Gama s dis 
covery of the cape route to India and the voyages of Columbus 
to the new land in the west, several other expeditions of discovery 
were undertaken which greatly influenced the course of history. 

The merchants and trading companies of England were deter 
mined to look ahead for the possibilities of enlarging their field 
of commerce. In 1497 John Cabot, and probably his son Sebas 
tian, undertook to find a shorter route to India by the northwest. 
Cabot did not find a northwest passage to India, but he did land 
upon the shores of Labrador or Newfoundland, which he claimed 

1 The sarcophagus long in the cathedral at Havana, Cuba, and removed to 
Spain about the close of the nineteenth century, may have contained the remains 
of his son, but it seems certain that they were not those of Columbus. 



for England. He was, so far as history records, the first European 
after Leif Ericson to see North America. On his return an expe 
dition of five ships was quickly 
fitted out for further explora 
tion. The squadron of vessels 
failed to force a passage through 
the ice-bound straits of the 
northwest, and so Cabot turned 
southward and explored the 
coast possibly as far as Cape 
Hatteras (1498). Upon this 
discovery of the Cabots England 
in after years based her claim to 
North America. In an account 
book of Henry VII, known as 
the "Privy Purse," there occurs 
this entry : 

10th August 1497. To him that 
found the New Isle 10. 

Voyages of Vespucci. 1499- 
1503. In 1499 Amerigo Ves 
pucci, a master mariner of 
Florence in the service of Por 
tugal, became an active factor 
in exploration. On his first 
voyage he followed the coast 
of Venezuela and Guiana, and 
possibly he may have con 
tinued along the northeast coast of Brazil. His subsequent 
expeditions were the result of an interesting circumstance. 

It seems that Cabral, also in the service of Portugal, who was 
following the African coast, got into foul weather and was carried 
westward across the Atlantic to the east coast of Brazil. He was 
somewhat surprised at the sight of land lying so far to the east; 
he knew that it must be east of the " demarcation- line " and 
that it therefore must belong to Portugal by his discovery. 
Cabral dispatched a ship to the king to inform him of the fact, 





and Vespucci was sent to explore the region. His three ships 
seem to have followed about eighteen hundred miles of coast, and 

Vespucci himself entered the 
mouth of the Rio de la Plata, 
or Plata River. The discoveries 
of Cabral and Vespucci secured 
Brazil to Portugal. 

The report of Vespucci s work 
greatly interested Europe. Ves 
pucci was not only a 

good explorer but an T f h ! Daming 
of America 

excellent chronicler as 
well, and his accounts of his 
explorations were widely read. 
There had been traditions for 
more than twenty centuries that 
the world " contained four parts." 
Three of these, Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, were known; the great 

new continent to the southwest was looked upon as the " fourth 
part." 1 Waldseemiiller, a German geographer, proposed calling 
the " fourth part " America, in honor of Amerigo Vespucci. This 
name was in time applied to the whole northern and southern 

Completing the Discovery of America. The growing belief that 
the new land was not a part of Asia was intensified when, in 1513, 
Vasco Nunez de Balboa, in the service of Spain, crossed 
the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific 
Ocean, or South Sea, as he named it. The belief was confirmed 
by the most remarkable voyage ever made up to that time. 

Ferdinand Magellan, as the name is called in English, a Portu 
guese master mariner in the service of Spain, conceived the idea 
of reaching the Molucca Islands, lying to the southeast of Asia, 

1 Herodotus expresses the opinion, "All men say that the earth contains 
three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), now certainly they should add a 
fourth part, the Delta land of Egypt." The geography of Mela also taught that 
there were four parts, though Ptolemy s geography claimed only three. 




by a westward passage. In order to avoid the Portuguese and 
the English lands, he determined upon a southerly course. In 
1519 he cleared from the coast of Spain with five ships 
and two hundred and eighty men. Fallowing the 
east coast of South America, they reached a break in the coast 
which proved to be the strait now bearing the commander s name. 
It required five weeks to work the ships through the strait. 
About this time one ship was wrecked and one deserted. During 
their long voyage across the 
Pacific, the crew of the three 
remaining vessels suffered most 
horribly from starvation. They 
stopped at one of the islands 
now called the Ladrones and at 
the Philippines, where Magel 
lan was killed in a fight with 
the natives. Thence the squad 
ron proceeded to the Moluccas, 
where one ship was burned and 
another condemned as unsea- 
worthy. After three years of 
^hardship and suffering, one 
ship, with eighteen starved and 

, . , ., -. . 

scurvy-stricken men, sailed in 
to the Guadalquivir Eiver of 
Spain. The surviving ship of 
the squadron had sailed around the world. 1 

Even after Magellan s voyage, it was more than half a century 
before the fact that America was a continent was fully realized. 
Other work of discovery and exploration was necessary. Eirst 
among these explorations was the voyage of Sir Francis Drake 
(1577-1580). Drake passed through the Strait of Magellan and 
skirted the west coast of the continent to a point a little way 
.north of San Francisco Bay. He returned to England by way 

1 The captain of the surviving ship secured a royal coat of arms bearing a globe 
upon which was inscribed the legend, "Primus circumdedisti me (thou first cir- 
cumscribedst me)." 



of the Molucca Islands. Martin Frobisher (1576-1578), John 
Davis (1585-1587), Henry Hudson (1607-1609), and William 
Baffin (1615) visited the coast along the northeast in search of a 
route to Asia. It was more than two centuries after Magellan s 
voyage (1728) that the strait which separates America from Asia 
was discovered by Veit Bering. 

The Spaniards in North America. Many daring men, in the 
service of Spain, explored the coasts and inland region of North 

Vicente Pinzon and Juan Solis (1498) explored the South Atlan 
tic and Gulf coasts. 

Ponce de Leon, governor of Porto Eico (1513), discovered Florida 
while seeking the fountain of perpetual youth. 

Alvarez de Pineda (1519) explored the Gulf Coast and entered the 
river de Santo Espiritu probably Mobile Bay and River, pos 
sibly the Mississippi or Appalachicola. He reported much 
gold in the hands of the natives. 

Hernando Cortez (1519) entered upon the conquest of Mexico. 

Panfilo de Narvaez (1528) explored the region about the Gulf of 
Mexico. De Vaca continued the exploration to the Gulf of 

Fray Marcos (1539) searched the region about New Mexico for 
the Seven Cities of Cibola, in the country of the Zuni Indians. * 

Francisco Coronado (1540-1542) explored regions about the Rio 
Grande and the Colorado River. 

Hernando de Soto (1539-1541) explored the region embracing the 
South Atlantic states as far west as the Mississippi River. 

From the foregoing summary it is readily seen that the Span 
iards were very active in exploring the New World. Few of the 
explorations seem to have been looking toward the establishment 
of colonies ; practically all were made for the purpose of trade or 
else in search of gold. The conquest of Mexico by Cortez and the 
settlement of Cuba probably incited most of the other expeditions, 
and these were confined mainly to the region about the Gulf of 

Pineda s accounts of the gold held by the Indians were plaus 
ible because Cortez had actually obtained much gold treasure 
from Montezuma, the Aztec king in Mexico. In turn, Narvaez 


was led by the stories of Pineda to undertake the expedition that 
led to his death, by drowning, at the mouth of the Mississippi 
River. Some of his survivors, however, crossed the continent 
under the lead of Cabeza de Vaca. 

These men -brought back the report that far inland were seven 
great cities. The story, as it was told, had all the glamour of mar 
velous tales of the Arabian Nights, and the Spanish 
governor of Mexico sent Brother Mark (Fray Marcos), he 
a Franciscan friar, in search of the cities. Brother 
Mark was a man of great ability, and was therefore expected to 
accomplish by tact what his military predecessors had thought to 
win by force of arms. He found not seven great cities, but a 
number of Indian settlements, pueblos of the Zuni tribe. In spite 
of this disillusion, in the following year (1540) Coronado, with a 
force of more than one thousand men, proceeded against the seven 
cities. He apparently thought that the pueblos were not worth 
having, and so continued his march over the plains probably as 
far as the boundary of the present state of Nebraska. He looked 
for gold, but found none. The expedition then returned to Mexico. 

De Soto s expedition also was a result of that of Narvaez. De 
Soto had been appointed governor of Cuba, and was ordered to 
hold all the territory discovered by Narvaez. His Dg 
explorations were carried on mainly in the lower part 
of the Mississippi Valley, and he fell a victim to the pestilential 
fever that still lingers there. His body was silently buried in the 
river, and his followers made their way down the river and across 
the Gulf of Mexico to Cuba. 

Up to this time not a single permanent settlement had been 
founded within the main body of land that now constitutes the 
United States ; but immediately after the expedition Spanish 
of Coronado, Catholic missionaries seemed to be in missions; 
almost every place where an explorer s feet had trod, Santa Fe 
and missions were established through the southern part of the 
country. Of these missions that at Santa Fe was the most im 
portant. When first visited by "an exploring party (about 1541), 
Santa Fe was a thriving Indian pueblo having a population of 
fifteen thousand ; in 1582 it became a Spanish mission. 



According to Chinese legends, Alaska and perhaps the western part 
of North America were discovered about 500 A.D. 

About 1000 A.D Leif Ericson, with a company of Northmen, estab 
lished a lumber camp at Vinland, probably some point in New England. 
This settlement had no influence on the history of America. 

The blockade of the trade routes between Europe and the East led 
to the search for a route to India by sailing around Africa ; and this 
was finally discovered by Vasco da Gama. 

Columbus, endeavoring to reach the shores of India by a westward 
voyage in 1492, discovered land that proved to be a new continent un 
known to Europeans. 

The new continent was named America after Amerigo Vespucci, an 
explorer and chronicler. 

The Cabots explored portions of the northern coast of North Amer 
ica in 1497-1498, and their discovery was made the basis of England s 
claims to the mainland of the continent. 

The discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa, together with the voy 
age of Magellan s squadron around the world, practically showed that 
Columbus had not discovered the eastern shores of India. 

Most of the voyages and explorations, especially those of Spain, were 
a quest for gold. 


The Discovery of America Fiske. Chapter III. 

Ferdinand and Isabella Prescott. Chapters VIII, IX, XVIII. 

History of the United States Bancroft. Vol. I. Chapters I, II, III. 



The Origin of the Indians. The origin of the race to which the 
name Indians has been given is not with certainty known. Some 
have claimed that they are the descendants of peoples who, at 
some time in the remote past, crossed to America by way of 
Bering Strait. The student of history should remember that 
changes in the elevation of the land are constantly taking place, 
and that in times gone by Asia and America were joined at Bering 
Strait by a broad belt of land. At that time Asians might have 
crossed to the American continent. But although it is certain 
that people have in early times reached the American coast across 
Bering Strait, the statement that Asians peopled all America has 
not been proved. 

Beyond doubt the aboriginal peoples whom we call Indians 
must have been living in America many centuries before ever 
a European had reached its shores, for the heaps of 
discarded shells which they left scattered all over 
the continent from Maine to California must have 
required a very long time to accumulate. In the Mississippi 
Valley, especially in Ohio, there are many mounds of earth 
some of them wrought into fantastic shapes which were built 
by the peoples who followed the makers of the shell heaps. In 
the Colorado plateau one may still find the dismantled walls of 
more recently built pueblos, some made of roughly shaped stone, 
others of sun-dried brick ; these were built by the aborigines only 
a few centuries ago. 

In Mexico and South America the aborigines had reached a 
stage of advancement that savored of barbaric splendor. More 
over, they lived at a time which belongs to the period of written 




history. The Aztecs, whom Cortez found in Mexico, and the 
Peruvians, whose rulers Pizarro so cruelly exterminated, do not 
belong to the legendary period ; they were facts and factors in the 
real history of America. 

Indian Civilization. The romance of history is so fascinating 
that we are apt to magnify the greatness of these peoples. As 
a matter of fact, they had not reached civilization at all. In 
the struggle for existence some tribes had surpassed others in the 
ability to organize and to wield power with intelligence. There 


was very little of common interest between tribes ; indeed, 
they were almost always at war with one another. Commercial 
pursuits were practically unknown. 

The Indian warrior disdained every employment save the hunt 
and the warpath. In these pursuits he was most expert. He 
could track his prey along a trail so blind that a 
trained white woodsman would not suspect its exist 
ence. In acuteness his sight was much like the scent 
ing power of a hound. He could perfectly imitate the call of the 
wild animals, and could stalk his prey with the stealthy tread 
of a cat. His patience and endurance were marvelous ; half clad 

The Indian 



as he crept through the forest, he seemed to feel neither cold 
nor hunger. War was his chief delight, and in the pursuit of his 
foe he was revengeful and cruel. He 
took fiendish delight in torturing his 
captive foe, and his ingenuity in devis 
ing the most horrible way of putting a 
victim to death was extraordinary. In 
their general dealings with the white 
men, however, the Indians were fairly 
well disposed ; they were also about as 
honest in business transactions as were 
the white men. 

To the squaws fell the drudgery of 
domestic life. It was the squaw whose 
labor built the wigwam, or 
1 wickiup, planted the maize 
and beans, and stored them for winter 
use. With nothing better th&n a 
pointed stick of hard wood and a flat 
piece of pine, she could kindle a fire. 
With no tools but a knife and a 
hatchet of flint, she was as skillful in handicraft as her dusky 
husband. With such tools they felled birch trees and, from the 
bark, fashioned canoes, the seams of which were sewed with 
rawhide and made water-tight with the pitch of the spruce tree. 
Most of the Indians had reached that stage of advancement 
when they were ready to cast aside tools of flint for 
those of metal. The white man furnished them with 
the tools of metal. The knife and the hatchet which 

the Indian discarded were made 
by chipping pieces of flint into 
shape. The making of them re 
quired days and even weeks. The 
tomahawk had a pointed blade 
and a handle that was elaborately 
carved. It was used as a weapon of war, and an expert warrior 
could hurl it with faultless aim at the head of his foe. 


Tools and 




The bow and arrow, however, constituted the chief weapon. 
The head of the arrow was made usually of flint; the wooden 
shaft was scraped into shape with a sharp edge of rock and 
finished between two pieces of grooved rock. The shaft was 
feathered to give to it the whirling motion necessary to accurate 
aim. With the coming of the white man, the Indian at once 
began to discard flint for the more usable iron and steel, in mak 
ing his arrowheads and knives. He also quickly discerned the 
value of the flintlock musket, and to possess himself of such a 
weapon he would barter away about all the property he had. 

The Iroquois Confederacy. Of all the Indians with whom the 
Europeans came in contact, the Iroquoian tribes were the most 
powerful. Most of these tribes were settled 
in what is now New York State ; some pushed 
southward along the Susquehanna Valley ; 
and one tribe, the Tuscaroras, lived in the 
present state of North Carolina. From a 
strategic standpoint the location in New York 
was most wisely chosen. It was the most 
commanding position in the eastern part of 
the continent. Toward the northeast, the 
Iroquoians could easily descend the St. Law 
rence. On the east, there was the Mohawk 
Valley, a broad and level stretch that led to 
the Hudson Kiver and thence to the sea. To 
the south were the open valleys of the Sus 
quehanna and the Allegheny, both of which 
opened into the hunting grounds of the 
Algonquian tribe. In such a position as this 
the Iroquoians were bound to become great, 
and the wily old sachems 1 knew this only too well. Even to-day 
the advantage of this location is evident, for the great railway 
company whose tracks thread these gateways exercises such con 
trol that it practically regulates the rates of traffic between the 
Mississippi Valley and the Atlantic seaboard. 

About fifty years before the first voyage of Columbus, the five 
1 The sachem was the chief of a tribe. 



tribes of central New York formed the Iroquois Confederacy, 
calling themselves the Five Nations. All who refused to join 
them were set upon and exterminated, or were driven east across 
the Hudson River. Within a few years the tribes of 
the Iroquois Confederacy were masters everywhere h !- Flve 
from the Hudson to the Ohio. They were a scourge 
upon other Indian tribes, exterminating all those from whom they 
could not force an annual tribute, as they did from the Mohegans 
and some of the Algonquians to the south. About 1715 the Tus- 
caroras left their territory in North Carolina and joined the con 
federacy, thus forming the Six Nations. 

The great power of the Six Nations lay partly in their organi 
zation, 1 which was directed by sachems chosen for their ability in 
statecraft ; but they were aided materially by the firearms pro 
vided by the fur traders, who soon followed the explorers. 
These arms made them vastly superior to the tribes whose best 
weapon was the bow and arrow. When the Dutch settled New 
York, they provided the Iroquoian tribes with muskets and, at 
the same time, forbade the Indians in the lower Hudson Valley 
to have them; with such an advantage in their favor, the Six 
Nations had no effective opposition among the Indians. 


The origin of the American Indian is not known. By some it is 
thought that the aborigines came from Asia to America long before the 
period of written history. 

i The plan of government bore some resemblance to that of the United States. 
Each tribe was self-governing, but there was also a central government consisting 
of a Great Council. This body consisted of fifty sachems, elected by certain clans of 
the tribes. Once a year the Council met in the " Castle," or council house of the 
confederacy, not far from the present site of Syracuse. In their proceedings the 
Great Council adopted the "unit rule"; that is, each tribe had a single vote. 
There was no head sachem ; instead, the Council elected a military commander 
who also exercised certain civil powers. A vote of the Council pledged the 
action of the confederacy. The vote of the tribe, like that of a modern jury, 
was required to be unanimous in order to count. One tribe, therefore, might 
block the will of the Council. The sachems of one tribe might call an extra 
session of the Council. 


Some tribes progressed more rapidly than others and, when the 
Europeans came, were in the higher stages of barbarism, approaching 

The Iroquoian tribes were the most advanced and most powerful of 
all the Indians. 

The famous confederacy of the Five Nations was formed about fifty 
years before the voyage of Columbus. It afterward became the Six 
Nations, by the addition of the Tuscaroras. 


Discovery of A merica Fiske. Chapter I. 




Early Attempts at Settlement. The division of the New World 
between Spain and Portugal did not strike the other European 
nations agreeably. England, not being a Catholic country, would 
not recognize at ail the decree of Pope Alexander VI ; the Neth 
erlands and Sweden ignored it ; France ridiculed it, and French 
adventurers frequently cruised along the American coast. A 
party of Huguenots, 1 headed by Jean Ribault, attempted (1562) 
to establish a colony where Port Royal in South Carolina is, but 
they were ill-fitted for frontier life. Some of them were rescued 
by an English vessel ; others, including Ribault, went to Florida. 

Another party, under Laudonniere, built Fort Caroline, at the 
mouth of St. Johns River, in Florida. In order to head them oft , 
the king of Spain ordered troops (1565) to the place 
where St. Augustine now stands. Menendez, the tin e ugus ~ 
Spanish commander, assailed the Huguenots at Fort 
Caroline and massacred the whole garrison men, women, and 
children. Learning also that Ribault with some of his followers 
was near by, he sought them, murdered most of them, and made 
slaves of the rest. 

There was no excuse for this foul murder. In retaliation 
Dominique de Gourges, a Frenchman, sold his estates in France 
to raise the necessary funds, crossed the Atlantic with two hun 
dred men, captured Fort Caroline, and put every Spaniard of 
the garrison to death. Above the ruins of the fort he placed 
the inscription "Not as to Spaniards, but as to liars and mur- 

These Huguenots were Protestants who had fled from France. 



derers." Menendez himself was not at the fort, and therefore 
escaped the punishment. The garrison at St. Augustine was 
maintained by the Spaniards, and it was the first permanent 
settlement in the main body of what is now the United States. 


Sir Walter Raleigh s Colonies. 1585-1590. The English did 
not avail themselves of Cabot s discovery for nearly a century. 
In 1578 -Sir Humphrey Gilbert received a charter from Queen 

Elizabeth to settle Newfoundland, 
but the colony which he started was 
abandoned on his death in 1583. 
Walter Raleigh, a half-brother of 
Gilbert, then obtained permission to 
establish a colony in America, pro 
vided it could be done without tres 
passing on the claims of any other 
European power. In 1585 Raleigh 
made a settlement at Roanoke 
Island, off the coast of the present 
state of North Carolina ; the country 
was named Virginia in honor of the 
virgin queen. The people com 
posing the first lot of settlers were 
wholly unfit for pioneer life, and, 
when almost starved, were rescued 
by Sir Francis Drake and carried 
back to England. About the only result of this attempt to colo 
nize was the discovery of the potato and tobacco plants, both of 
which quickly found favor in Europe. In time the commercial 
profits from these articles helped greatly to interest merchants 
in the settlements of the New World. 

Raleigh s second attempt (1587) also resulted disastrously. A 
number of families under John White landed at Roanoke Island, 
intending to establish a colony there. Soon after they reached 
Roanoke a child was born to Eleanor Dare, the daughter of Gov- 


ernor White ; this child, who was christened Virginia Dare, was 
probably the first child born of English parents in the New 
World. White was compelled to return to England almost im 
mediately. He found that the war with Spain had drawn into 
service nearly every available vessel, and it was three Disappear- 
years before he could charter one in which to return ance of the 
to his colony. When he arrived, in 1590, not a sign colon y 
of the colonists was to be found ; not one of them was ever seen 
again. 1 Raleigh, sick at heart, disposed of his charter, and no 
other attempt at colonization was made during the sixteenth 

The London and Plymouth Companies. 1606. Early in the fol 
lowing century the work of exploration and settlement was facili 
tated by the discovery of a route that shortened the 
sailing distance between Europe and America nearly A " w 
one half. This discovery was made by Bartholomew 
Gosnold, an English navigator. Instead of going first to the 
West Indies and then to the American coast, as had been the 
custom, Gosnold simply laid the route straight across the ocean, 
landing at Cape Cod. 

The importance of this route was at once apparent to the 
thrifty merchants of England, and as a result King James I 
in 1606 chartered two companies, the London and the Plymouth, 
directing them to establish colonies in Virginia. According to 
the charter, Virginia embraced all the Atlantic coast from Maine 
to the Spanish boundary in Florida. The London company 
might occupy the coast between the thirty-fourth and thirty- 
eighth parallels, which was the area from Cape Fear to the 

1 It had been agreed that if the colonists should leave the island, the name 
of the place whither they went should be carved on a certain tree. When White 
reached Roanoke Island, the settlement was deserted. The word " Croatan," the 
name of a near-by island, was carved on the tree, but there was no cross to indi 
cate that they had left the island in distress, as had been agreed. White tried 
to reach Croatan Island, but foul weather prevented; the captain of the ship 
headed for England, giving White the choice of going with him or remaining 
alone on the deserted island. Recent researches seem to indicate that some of 
the lost colonists were killed by Indians, others perished, and those remaining 
were taken into the Croatan tribe. No positive facts about the matter have ever 
been brought to light. 



Potomac River; the Plymouth company might settle between 
the forty-first and forty-fifth parallels, from the Hudson River 
to the Bay of Fundy. The intermediate territory should be 
a neutral zone which could be occupied by each company to a 
point not nearer than one hundred miles of the other. By a 
subsequent charter each grant extended westward to the " South 





Sea," or Pacific Ocean. The colonists were to have the rights 
and privileges of English subjects. 1 

The Plymouth company, in 1606, attempted to establish a 
colony near the mouth of the Kennebec River, but the attempt 
failed and the colonists returned to England. 

1 All the land and the products of lahor were to be held in common for five 
years. This community plan was afterward abolished. 


The London company got ready three ships, and in 1607 sent 
out a party which made a settlement on a river flowing into 
Chesapeake Bay. The river was named the James The f 
and the settlement Jamestown in honor of the king, ing of 
In the main the colonists consisted of " gentlemen," l J ame stown. 
who had no thought of working, but expected to grow rich from 
rinding gold and from trade with the Indians. Half of the colo 
nists died before the summer was over, but in the fall about five 
hundred more men arrived. 

Smith s Leadership ; the Starving Time. Practically the only 
leader among the Jamestown colonists was Captain John Smith. 
Smith kept a wholesome discipline 
among the motley crowd, and prevented 
any hostile outbreak between the colo 
nists and the Indians. At various 
times, when starvation threatened the 
colonists, he secured supplies of corn 
from the Indians. Although the burden 
of support thus rested on Smith, he 
found time to do considerable explora 
tion, which enabled him to make an 
excellent sailing chart of the Virginia 
coast, the Chesapeake Bay, and its 
tributaries. On one of his trips he 

was captured by Indians and sentenced to be killed, but his life 
was saved by the intercession of Pocahontas, the daughter of 

1 In England the terms "gentlemen" and "gentry" apply to men who are 
descended from titled families but are themselves without any title of nobility. 
In former years it was considered disgraceful for a gentleman to engage in the 
ordinary occupations of life. Those who did not care to become clergymen or 
soldiers often became adventurers. 

2 This portrait is copied from one in John Smith s Generall Historie of Vir 
ginia, published in 1624. Accompanying it are the following lines : 

These are the Lines that shew thy Face ; but those 

That Shew thy Grace and Glory, brighter bee ; 

Thy Faire-Discoueries and Fowle-Overthrowes 

Of Salvages, much civilliz d by thee 

Best shew thy Spirit ; and to it Glory Wyn 

So, thou art Brasse without, but Golde within. 


Chief Powhatan. 1 Had it not been for the leadership of Smith, 
the colony would have perished. 

In 1609 Smith was injured by the explosion of some gun 
powder and was obliged to return to England. After that mat 
ters went from bad to worse. Of the number who 
nac ^ come to ^ e c l n y> nearly seven hundred in all, 
only sixty were alive by the summer of 1610 ; the 
others had perished from fever and starvation, or had been killed 
by the Indians. The survivors, ill in mind and body, determined 
to abandon the settlement. They took ship, and were on their 
way down the Chesapeake Bay when they met Lord Delaware 
with three vessels laden with men and provisions. The starving 
time, as it was called, was at an end. 

The Beginning of Prosperity. Lord Delaware had come out as 
governor of the colony, and his arrival marked the real beginning 
of the history of Virginia. Under the leadership of Lord Dela 
ware and his deputy, Sir Thomas Dale, all able-bodied men were set 
to work ; 2 the idlers had the choice of working or being flogged ; a 
few were banished. As a result, in a very few years the colony had 
a population of four thousand people, grouped in eleven settlements. 
The House of Burgesses. 1619. In 1619 the London com 
pany determined to make the colony of Virginia self-governing. 
The plan was put into operation by Sir George Yeardley, the 
deputy governor. Yeardley began his governorship by establish 
ing a general assembly that should give the colonists the right 
to make their laws and to govern themselves. In 1619 this as 
sembly met at Jamestown. It was composed of twenty-two mem 
bers, two elected from each of the eleven settlements, and was 
styled the House of Burgesses. Since there was no capitol build- 

1 The story, divested of its romantic elements, is probably true. According 
to the Indian custom, a captive under sentence might be reprieved at the demand 
of a chief or any prominent member of the tribe, and this was frequently done. 
Pocahontas, then a child, always had a deep affection for Smith, whom she 
addressed as "father." At the age of seventeen she married an Englishman 
named Rolfe and was received in England as a princess of royal blood. She died 
at Gravesend, England, a few years later. Several distinguished families, among 
them that of John Randolph, are descended from her. 

2 Dale gave each laborer the privilege of cultivating three acres of land for 
himself. This stimulated industry more than did the flogging. 


ing, the sessions were held in the church. The governor was the 
presiding officer. The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first 
legislative assembly of white men in America. 

Tobacco Cultivation. Yeardley was not only a good governor, 
but he was also an excellent business man. He recognized that 
the success of the colony depended upon a staple export crop ; and 
his business training led him to determine that this crop would be 
tobacco. As a result of his advice, large crops of tobacco were 
planted, and the venture proved successful beyond expectation. 

The tobacco plant had already become known in England, and 
in spite of the efforts of King James to prevent its use, 1 tobacco 
had become very popular. The growing of this plant was a great 
boon to the colonists, for it paid large profits and, in time, made 
Virginia the richest of the colonies. The tobacco itself sold so 
readily that for many years prices were reckoned in pounds of 
tobacco instead of in money. 

The social effects of this industry were marked. Not all land 
was fit for tobacco cultivation, and the tobacco planter sought the 
locality that would produce "the best crops. This had the effect 
of scattering the population instead of concentrating it in towns 
and villages. Since there were few towns, Virginia came to be 
organized by counties. 

The Redemptioners ; Slavery. The labor problem was a difficult 
one, and various methods were adopted to secure servants and 
workmen for the plantations. The importation of convicts from 
England was a common thing, and not infrequently organized 
bodies in the larger cities of England, known as press gangs, would 
kidnap young men and put them aboard outgoing ships. A more 
common way of securing servants was to induce unemployed men 
and women, by the payment of their passage money, to go to the 
colony. On their arrival they were bound to the planters for a 
term of two or three years, or until their passage money had been 
earned. Many held responsible positions of trust, and there was 
no loss of social standing on the part of the indentured 2 servants. 

1 The cultivation of tobacco in England is forbidden to this day. 

2 So called because their conditions of service were written out on papers 
called indentures. 


Because they could redeem themselves from servitude, they were 
commonly known as redemptioners. 

To get good field laborers was also a difficult matter, because 
few white laborers could endure the sultry heat of the fields. 
Late in the summer of 1619 a Dutch ship called at Jamestown 
and sold into slavery twenty negroes brought from Africa. Inas 
much as the negroes were native to a tropical region, they were 
not troubled by the summer heat. The venture proved satisfac 
tory. For a few years not many slaves were imported, but in the 
course of the next fifty years more than two thousand slaves, 
purchased from Arab traders on the Guinea coast of Africa, were 
brought to Virginia. They were sold at values varying from $25 
to $125. 

Virginia becomes a Royal Colony. 1624. By this time the 
growing spirit of independence in Virginia began to alarm the 
king, and he endeavored to find some way or other by which he 


could annul the charter. His judges decided that the affairs of 
the colony had been mismanaged ; so in 1624 the charter was 
annulled. After that the London company had no hand in the 
management of the colony, and it became a royal province 
governed by the king. 1 From this time to the Revolution the 
governors of Virginia were appointed by the king. Notable among 
them was Sir William Berkeley. Berkeley was an upright man, 
but he had little sympathy with the colony and its industries. 

1 The records of the colony fell into the possession of the king s advisers and 
were destroyed. Anticipating this, Nicholas Ferrar, the London company s 
treasurer, made a copy of the records, and, in time, they were obtained by 
Thomas Jefferson. They are now in the Library of Congress, and they contain 
about all that is known of this early period of the colony. 



His chief desire was to look after the interests of the king. He 
did not abolish the House of Burgesses, but he was very careful 
that every burgess should be willing to do his bidding. 

The Coming of the Cavaliers. In the meanwhile a civil war was 
brewing in England. The two parties in the war were the Puri 
tans and the Cavaliers. The former were 
opposed to the king and the Church of Eng 
land ; the latter were loyal to both. In the 
struggle the Cavaliers were defeated, King 
Charles I was beheaded, and Oliver Cromwell 
made himself ruler of England. The war 
had the effect of driving a large number of 
Cavaliers with their families to Virginia; and 
inasmuch as these included some of the best 
blood of England, the colony was a great 
gainer. Even to this day the strain of Cava 
lier blood is a dominating element in many 
parts of the South. 

Navigation Laws. 1660. While Cromwell 
was in power, Berkeley was displaced as 
governor; but when Charles II ascended the 
throne, Berkeley was again appointed royal governor. Almost 
immediately there began a series of troubles which in the course 
of a hundred years was to change Virginia from a most loyal 
colony to one that was decidedly rebellious. 

During the early years of the colony few restrictions were 
placed upon the trade of the Virginians, .but beginning with the 
time of Cromwell enactments known as the navigation laws were 
made. These laws, made in the interests of London merchants, 
forbade the colonists selling their tobacco anywhere except in 
England, or shipping their goods in any but English vessels. 1 
The object of the laws was to prevent the competition of the 
Dutch, who were then becoming very active in the tobacco trade. 
The navigation laws did not prevent the competition of the Dutch, 
but the enforcement of them hurt the colonists most seriously. 
The planters were compelled to sell their tobacco at whatever price 
1 These navigation laws applied to all the colonies. 




the English merchants might choose to fix, and the tobacco- 
growing industry well-nigh failed. Financially the Virginians 
were almost ruined. 

Bacon s Rebellion. 1676. An Indian outbreak and massacre 
brought to a crisis the troubles in Virginia. Governor Berkeley 
promised to protect the settlers, but he failed to keep his word. 
In the meantime, the massacres at outlying settlements continued. 

A man with the quality of 
leadership was needed, and he 
came to the front. The man 
was Nathaniel Bacon. Bacon 
asked for an officer s commis 
sion empowering him to raise 
troops with which to fight the 
Indians, but Governor Berke 
ley refused to give it. Dur 
ing the quarrel over this 
matter, in which both men 
did various things which were 
not strictly lawful, Bacon 
managed to have himself elect 
ed to the House of Burgesses. 
For a time the quarrel was 
patched up, and Berkeley gave 
Bacon a commission as com 
mander of the militia. Bacon 
raised a force of about one 
thousand men and started for 
the scene of the Indian trou 
bles. As soon as he was fairly 
out of sight, Governor Berkeley proclaimed him a rebel and 
collected a force of twelve hundred men, who were ordered to 
capture him. When Bacon learned of this, he started back with 
his troops. At this the governor was deserted by his force. 
Bacon brought his company back to Jamestown, and as a show 
of resistance was made, he captured and burned the town. 
Very shortly after this Bacon was overcome by severe illness 

From the painting by Kelly. 



and died. Berkeley quickly returned to Jamestown, seized the 
government, and hanged about twenty of Bacon s followers. On 
account of his conduct he was recalled to England. 1 

The Progress of Virginia. Virginia remained the wealthiest of 
the American colonies up to the time of the War of the Revolu 
tion. That her progress was not so rapid as that of New York or 
Pennsylvania was due in part to the absence of good roads and 
commercial centers ; it was also due to the conservative character 
of the people, who, being very prosperous, were content to let 
well enough alone. Governor Berkeley, in his time, wrote, " I 
thank God there are no free schools and no printing;" but after 
this period a broad and liberal spirit was manifested toward 
educational affairs. Through the energy of James Blair, William 
and Mary College was established in 1693 at a place to which the 
name of Williamsburg was given. 


The Maryland Charter. 1632. The early history of Maryland 
is closely connected with that of Virginia, because the colony was 
established on a part of the original Virginia territory. George 
Calvert, better known as Lord Baltimore, was a warm friend of 
Charles I, who used his royal power to cut a large slice out of 
Virginia for a land grant to Lord Baltimore. The territory was 
named Maryland in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria. Calvert 
had previously attempted to establish a settlement in New 
foundland, but it was abandoned on account of the severe climate. 
The Maryland charter to Lord Baltimore gave him considerable 
authority. He could grant titles of nobility, establish courts, and 
pardon criminals ; he could make the laws with the assent of the 
freeholders, although he could not levy taxes without their con 
sent ; in fact, the form of government was in theory as much a 
monarchy as England herself. 2 Lord Baltimore died before the 

1 Charles II said of him, " That old fool has put to death in that naked country 
more people than I did here for the death of my father." Only six of the fifty- 
nine judges who sentenced Charles I suffered the death penalty. 

2 It was a form of government closely resembling the "palatinates" of 



plans for the colony were completed, but the same privileges were 
immediately conferred on his son, Cecil Calvert, who became the 
second Lord Baltimore. It was fortunate for the colony that 
both father and son were men of broad and lofty character. 

Establishing the Colony. 1634-1649. The Cal verts were Catho 
lics, and they wished to establish the colony especially for Catho- 


This shows the two sides of a very rare silver medal given Lord Baltimore by 
Charles I, in the year of the Maryland grant. 

lies, who were then bitterly persecuted in England. 1 But inasmuch 
as England was under a Protestant sovereign at that time, it was 
deemed wise to establish a colony in which all Christian denomi 
nations should have religious freedom. The " Toleration Act, 7 
passed in 1649, guaranteed this freedom. 

The first settlement in the Maryland colony was made in 1634, 
at the site of an Indian village overlooking a beautiful estuary. 2 
Both the settlement and the river were named St. Marys. About 

1 At that time a Catholic in England was not permitted to educate his children 
in a foreign country ; he was forbidden to employ a Catholic teacher in his 
family ; he was not allowed to have books that in any way set forth the Catholic 
faith. He was required to attend the services of the Church of England under 
penalty of a fine of twenty pounds per month. Lest he might become a danger 
ous rebel, he could not own a weapon of any kind, nor could he sit in the Parlia 
ment, where he might utter his views freely. 

2 From the Indians the preparation of two articles of food was learned, and 
these in time became dishes of national reputation, namely, corn-pone and 



fifteen years later (1649) a Puritan settlement was made at the 
present site of Annapolis. In both settlements tobacco growing 
quickly became the chief industry, and commerce in tobacco was 
the financial foundation of the colony. An assembly to which 
the colonists sent representatives was established in 1638. There 
was the usual amount of friction in the administration of the 
colony s affairs, but, owing to the wisdom and fairness of Lord 
Baltimore, there was practically no trouble with the Indians. 

Trouble with Virginia. The Virginians were not willing to 
see a slice cut out of their territory and given to their competi 
tors. The ill feeling was intensified when, in 1635, 
William Claiborne of Virginia, a fur trader, was 
ordered off Kent Island in the Chesapeake Bay, where 
his trading post had been established. Claiborne refused to 
recognize the authority of Lord Baltimore, and tried to hold the 
island by force of arms. A clash between the authorities of the 
two colonies resulted, and Claiborne was put off the island. For 
several years afterward, however, he was busy fomenting trouble. 

The Overthrow of the Catholics. After the beheading of Charles 
I, the political revolution which placed the Puritans in power in 
England extended to Maryland. Commissioners sent by Crorn- 

In use from 1658 to 1776. 

well demanded that the people should swear loyalty to the new 
Commonwealth ; Lord Baltimore insisted that they should give 
their allegiance to him. Governor Stone, a most able officer and 
a Protestant, agreed to acknowledge loyalty to the Commonwealth 


of England, but refused to forswear his allegiance to Lord Balti 
more. In consequence he was forced out of office. 

The commissioners then ordered the election of a general 
assembly (1654). They also directed that no Catholic should be 
elected to it. The assembly at its meeting declared that Lord 
Baltimore no longer had any proprietary rights in the colony, 
repealed the Toleration Act, and forbade Catholics to worship 
in the colony. This state of affairs continued for several years. 
In 1658, however, a new Parliament restored to Lord Baltimore 
his rights in the colony. When William and Mary came to the 
throne of England, in 1689, Maryland was made a royal province 
under the pretense that the Catholics were conspiring with the 
Indians to massacre all Puritans. In 1715 the colony was 
restored to the third Lord Baltimore, who was a Protestant, at 
the almost unanimous desire of the people in the colony, without 
respect to creed. The colony remained in the hands of the Balti 
more family until the Revolution. 

Mason and Dixon s Line. At times bloody disputes occurred 
over the boundary line between Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
Finally (1760) two English surveyors, Charles Mason and Jere 
miah Dixon, were employed to locate the line. Stone posts were 
placed along the line at intervals of one mile, every fifth column 
being marked with the coat of arms of the proprietors. The 
latitude of the boundary thus located is 39 43 26.3". It be 
came known as " Mason and Dixon s line." 


Early Settlements. 1653-1670. Ne.arly a century after Ribault s 
attempt to found a colony where Port Royal now is, 1 some Vir 
ginians (1653) settled on Chowan River, near Albemarle Sound. 
Ten years later settlements were made by English planters from 
Barbadoes, forming the Carteret colony on Cape Fear River. 

At this time Charles II granted the region between the parallels 
The Carolina of 30 and 36 30 to an English company. The coast 
grant frontage of the grant embraced practically the present 



Carolinas, Georgia, and a part of Florida. In recognition of 
this gift from the king, the name Carolina 1 was given to the 
territory. Within a few years the peninsula between Ashley 
and Cooper rivers was settled, and at its point Charles s Town, 
or Charleston, was built (1670). lleligious liberty was guaran- 

/ ^hiladelphia 

{MA^_D,XOVS UN L ^ \ _.^ 



teed to all settlers, and many Huguenots went there. Most 
of them were wealthy and educated, and they made the best of 
citizens. 2 

1 Carolus is the Latin form for Charles. 

2 Among their descendants were Henry Laurens, who signed the Treaty of 
Peace at the close of the Revolutionary War, and General Marion, a famous 
soldier of the Revolution. 


The Grand Model. 1669. Lord Shaf tsbury and the philosopher 
John Locke drew up a scheme for the government of the colony, 
which was proclaimed the "Grand Model" and asserted to be 
"the most perfect plan ever designed. 7 Unfortunately, the 
scheme did not give any rights of citizenship to the men who 
had built up the colony ; they had the right neither to vote nor 
to own the land which they had made productive. In a very 
short time the Grand Model proved to be a grand farce, and was 
unceremoniously dropped out of sight. 

The Division into Two Colonies. The northern and southern 
settlements were remote from each other and therefore had but 
little intercommunication. They were under separate governors 
most of the time, though forming a single colony. In 1712 the 
colony was divided formally into North Carolina and South Caro 
lina. In 1729 the proprietors sold their rights to the king, and 
each colony became a royal province. 

Some Unique Industries. In North Carolina the manufacture 
of naval stores that is, tar and pitch for a time was the chief 
industry. The enterprise was made possible by the abundant 
growth of the pitch pine there. The materials were in demand 
by shipbuilders, and North Carolina furnished the world s chief 
supply. It was discovered that the coast lowlands of South 
Carolina would produce an excellent quality of rice, and rice 
growing became the most important industry of that colony. 
Through the efforts of the daughter of Governor Lucas, the culti 
vation of the indigo plant was undertaken, and for many years 
South Carolina had a rich income from the sales of this substance. 

The Tendency to Self -Government. The enforcement of the 
navigation laws l crippled the Carolinas quite as much as it did 
Virginia. As in the other colonies, too, the people grew into the 
habit of resisting any interference with self-government ; they 
knew better than the mother country what sort of government 
was best adapted to their needs. At one time (1678) John Cul- 
peper, at the head of a force of men, deposed the officers of 
the Albemarle settlement and organized a new government. He 
was tried for treason and acquitted. 

i See page 33. 




The Objects in Founding the Colony. Georgia, the last to be es 
tablished of the colonies that became a part of the United States, 
was not organized until 1732, about a century and a 
quarter after Virginia had been settled. The founder O giethorpe 
of the colony was General James Ogiethorpe, a far- 
sighted and benevolent Englishman. One of Oglethorpe s objects 
was to establish a "buffer 7 territory between the English and 
Spanish frontiers. At that time this step had become necessary 
from the fact that several col 
lisions had occurred between 
the English and the Spanish 
colonies. Such a territory, 
therefore, would make an excel 
lent base for military defense. 

The other object was philan- 
thropiCo At that time imprison 
ment was a lawful punishment 
for debt in England. A man 
owing so small a sum as a shil 
ling might be cast into prison 
and kept there until his friends 
paid the debt ; and many a poor 
wretch spent the greater part 
of his years behind the bars of 
a debtor s prison. Moreover, by < 
a system of fees and charges, a 
debt of a few shillings quickly grew to one of many pounds ; and 
death by starvation was no uncommon end of an unfortunate whose 
only crime was a debt that he could not discharge. Ogiethorpe 
planned to settle the debts of deserving people, send them to his 
new colony, and after putting them on their feet, give them an 
opportunity to live comfortably, as they could not in England. 

Establishing the Colony. 1733. The charter for a colony 
between the Savannah and the Altamaha rivers was granted by 
King George II in 1732 to Ogiethorpe and his associates, who 


were made trustees of the colony. Emigrants sent out with 
Oglethorpe founded Savannah in 1733. Other settlements were 
made soon by the Scotch-Irish and Moravians, a sect of German 
Protestants, who came in considerable numbers. 

After twenty years the trustees gave up their charter, and 
Georgia became a royal province (1752) under the direct control 
of the king. 

Trade and Political Restrictions. For some years the progress 
of the colony was retarded by restrictions, some of which were 
unwise. During the first twenty-one years the right to make 
the laws of the colony was vested in an association of trustees 
in whose appointment the people had no voice. The people 
did not have any part in the government, and therefore had no 
training in citizenship. Another article in the law prohibited 
women and Catholics from holding or owning land. Still 
another forbade slavery, and this restriction crippled the agri 
culture and the commerce of the colony to such an extent that 
competition with other colonies in tobacco growing was out of 
the question. 1 The importation of liquor was also forbidden ; 
this restriction prevented the sale of Georgia pine in the West 
Indies, owing to the fact that rum was the chief article offered 
by the islands in exchange for importations. One benefit arising 
from the trade restrictions, however, was the introduction of 
silk culture, which for a time was an important industry. These 
restrictions were removed, for the greater part, in 1755. 

Border Warfare with the Spaniards. 1742. The establishment 
of the Georgia colony proved to be a most wise measure. In 
1742 the Spaniards at St. Augustine determined to drive the 
English out of Georgia. They landed three thousand men and 
began the task of invasion. General Oglethorpe retreated from 
the coast, and when the Spanish force was drawn into a position 
suitable for attack, he let loose his Scotch-Irish militia. In 
about an hour all the fight was thrashed out of the Spaniards. 

1 It was largely through the efforts of George Whitefield, the celebrated 
preacher, that slavery was finally permitted in the colony. John and Charles 
Wesley, the founders of the Methodist Episcopal Church, were members of the 


Those not killed or captured got back to their ships and sailed 
for St. Augustine. A few years later the present southern 
boundary of Georgia was fixed. 


Between 1585 and 1590 Sir Walter Raleigh made two unsuccessful 
efforts to establish a colony on Roanoke Island. 

The discovery of the " short route " to America by Bartholomew Gos- 
nold encouraged exploration, and the Plymouth and London companies 
were formed. 

Virginia was settled by the London company at Jamestown in 

In the early days John Smith saved the colony from destruction. 
With tobacco growing came prosperity, followed by the coming of 
many Englishmen and the introduction of slavery. 

The House of Burgesses in Virginia, established in 1619, was the first 
elective legislative assembly in America. 

The charter was annulled in 1624, and the colony was made a royal 
province, directly dependent on the Crown. 

Maryland, designed as a colony for persecuted Catholics, was founded 
by Lord Baltimore as proprietor in 1634. 

All Christian denominations enjoyed religious toleration. 

Under the rule of Oliver Cromwell in England, the Puritans in Mary 
land came into power. They not only denied the title of Lord Balti 
more to the colony, but forbade to the Catholics the exercise of political 
rights. After a few years his rights were restored to Lord Baltimore. 

For twenty-six years Maryland was a royal province, but in 1715 it 
was given again to the third Lord Baltimore. 

Tobacco planting was the chief industry of the colony. 

In order to establish a boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
the Mason and Dixon line was surveyed. 

The Carolinas were settled by Virginians at Chowan River, and by 
Barbadoes planters on Cape Fear River. These settlements grew into 
the colony of North Carolina. 

A settlement was made at Charleston, where many French Huguenots 
came. This came to be South Carolina. 

The manufacture of naval stores was the chief industry in North Caro 


Una, ; the cultivation of rice and indigo was the chief employment in 
South Carolina. 

For much of the time the two Carolinas were under separate govern 
ors, although they were one colony. They were made distinct royal 
provinces in 1729. 

Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe as a colony for men res 
cued from English debtors prisons. It was also regarded as a " buffer " 
frontier against the Spaniards. 

Savannah was settled in 1733. 

Political and trade restrictions retarded the growth of the colony. 

The Spaniards attempted an invasion, but were defeated by General 


Old Virginia and Tier Neighbors Fiske. Read the following topics: 
Drake s voyage, Vol. I, 25 ; Captain John Smith, VoL I, 80 ; starving 
time, Vol. I, 119 ; the Kingdom of Virginia, Vol. I, 223 ; piracy, Vol. II, 
338; tobacco culture in the Southern colonies, Vol. II 5 174; Maryland 
after the death of Cromwell, Vol. II, 131 ; the northern boundary, Vol. 
II, 145 ; Locke s perfect plan, Vol. II, 272 ; the beginning of Georgia, 
Vol. II, 335. 

These topics may be read also in Bancroft s History of the United 

Stories of Pennsylvania Brumbaugh and Walton. 

For biographical sketches read Chandler s Makers of Virginia History, 
and ChappelPs Georgia History Stories. 



Verrazano visits New York Bay. 1524. Among the people 
interested in the trade with India in the early years of the six 
teenth century were certain merchants of Dieppe, in France. At 
that time the belief was general that the newly found continent 
was a very narrow body of land. Balboa had crossed it at the 



Copied from a chart made by Verrazano s brother, showing the isthmus supposed 
to separate the Atlantic and Indian oceans. 

Isthmus of Panama, where it is less than thirty miles wide, and 
Magellan had sailed through the short strait that now bears his 
name. Hence there were pretty good reasons for such a belief. 
Full of the idea that a passage-way through the new land must 



exist, a company of these merchants of Dieppe employed Giovanni 
da Verrazano to search the coast for such a passage. 

In January, 1524, Verrazano reached the coast of North Caro 
lina, which he described as "a new land, never before seen by 
men." Keeping along the coast to the northeast he 
the Pacific en tered nearly every bay or estuary which he sighted, 
hoping that it might be a strait leading to the Pacific. 
That he thought he had seen the Pacific Ocean seems probable 
from a map made by his brother. On this map North America 
is shaped much like an hourglass, being about ten miles wide 
at a point which may be either the eastern shore of Virginia 
or the spit that incloses Pamlico Sound (North Carolina). 

It is fairly certain that Verrazano visited New York Bay. 
His description fits this bay so accurately as to leave little room 
for doubt ; moreover, French fur traders were very shortly after 
ward doing a lucrative business there with the Indians. They 
built a stockade and trading post on an island in the Hudson not 
far from the place where Albany now stands. No permanent 
settlement, however, was made in the region for nearly a 
century, nor did the French make an effort to establish any 
claim to the land. 

Henry Hudson explores New York Bay. 1609. Early in the 
seventeenth century there was a well-to-do family in London who, 
as merchants and traders, held a high position in commercial 
circles. One member of this family, Henry Hudson, had been 
employed by an English trading company to seek a short route to 
India by way of the north polar regions. Hudson did not find 
the passage he sought, but he nevertheless made himself famous 
as a sailor and active explorer. In the service of a Dutch corn- 
Search for a P an 7 i n April, 1609, he sailed out of the Zuyder Zee 
northern in the Half Moon, a vessel about the size of a pleasure 
passage yacht, in search of a northeast route to India. After 
finding his way blocked by the ice that had gathered about the 
island of Nova Zembla, he decided to turn back. 

Hudson had in his possession two things which influenced torn 
to disobey the order to return home in case he was obstructed by 
ice. One was the map of Verrazano, showing the narrow waist 


of land with Verrazano Sea (the Pacific Ocean) beyond it; the 
other was a letter from Captain John Smith telling him that, 
although there was no pas 
sage through to the Pacific 
in the neighborhood of the 
Chesapeake Bay, there might 
be one farther north. Within 
a few weeks from the time 
that Hudson turned away 
from the polar regions, the 
Half Moon entered Delaware 
Bay. Finding no prospect 
of a passage there, Hudson 
sailed northward into New 
York Bay. He spent about 
the whole of September ex 
ploring the bay and the river 
that flows into it, ascend 
ing the river as far as the HENRY HUDSON. 
present site of Albany. Not finding any passage to the ocean, 
he returned to New York Bay. 1 

The Dutch occupy New Netherland. 1613. The merchants of 
Amsterdam quickly saw the great possibilities of New York Bay. 
The harbor was not surpassed by any in Europe ; the The 
country around was peopled with Indians. The har- West India 
bor was most advantageous for a trading post, and the Company 
Indians could procure an abundance of pelts and furs. So a cor- 
poratiqn, the West India Company, was formed for the purpose 
of developing trade, and a trading post was established on Man 
hattan Island. 2 

1 On his return to Europe he was ordered to England and put in charge of 
another arctic expedition under the English flag. While in arctic waters, his 
crew became mutinous and set Hudson, his young son, and seven sailors in a boat, 
out in the open sea. They were never heard of afterward. 

2 About the same time a master mariner and trader, Hendrick Christianson, 
rebuilt an old trading post, Fort Nassau, on an island in the Hudson River, not 
far from the site of Albany. It had been occupied formerly by French traders, 
but at that time (1614) had been abandoned. On account of floods the post 



As early as 1613 a "strong house," or fort, of considerable pre 
tensions and a number of houses were in existence, some of the 
latter being constructed of brick brought from Holland. The 
settlement was called New Amsterdam, and New Netherland was 
the name given to the country around Manhattan Island. The 
colony, composed mainly of traders, did not increase very 
rapidly ; nevertheless in 1634 there were settlements on Man 
hattan Island, on Long Island, at Breucklen (Brooklyn), and on 
the peninsula between New York and Newark bays. 1 


Manhattan Island was purchased of the Indians (1626) by 
the first resident governor, Peter Minuit, for sixty guilders, a 
Purchase of sum about equal to twenty -four dollars. The payment 
Manhattan was made in commodities needed by the Indians. 
Perhaps the transaction might not stand a very strict 
examination, yet on the whole the West India Company was 

was afterward moved to the mainland and named Fort Orange. This fort was 
the beginning of Albany. 

1 This strip of land was named Pavonia, a Latinized form of the patroon s 
name, one De Pauw. The name Bayonne, now applied to the town embracing the 
peninsula, is evidently a modern derivation. 


accustomed to deal fairly with the Indians, because the success of 
the fur trade depended on friendly relations with them. 

The Patroons. In order to encourage permanent settlement in 
New Netherland, the West India Company in 1629 offered a 
large tract of land to each of its members who should bring to the 
colony fifty able-bodied settlers. This grant constituted a manor, 
and the member to whom the grant was made was styled a 
patroon. The patroon was required to pay the emigrant s 
passage money and to furnish him house, stock, and farming 
utensils. 1 It was customary also to provide a clergyman and a 
school teacher. The tenant, for his part, was required to pay a 
nominal rental, but this was not always exacted. He was 
required also to give the patroon the first chance to buy his 
crops. He was not permitted to engage in the manufacture 
of anything that was made in Holland, nor could he traffic in 
furs and pelts. 

The patroon who located his estates on one side of a navigable 
river could have sixteen miles of water front ; if he located on 
both sides, he had eight miles on the river. The West India 
Company s grant, or patent, did not give the patroon a full title 
to the lands ; the latter must be purchased of the Indians, and 
this, as a rule, was scrupulously done. On his manor the patroon 
had absolute authority, being lawmaker, ruler, and judge. Even 
at the present time some of the old manor buildings still exist, 
and the patroon names are common along the Hudson. 

Dutch Governors. 1626-1664. The affairs of the West India 
Company were at no time very prosperous, although the traders 
and patroons got along very well. Minuit s successor, Governor 
Wouter Van Twiller, lacked administrative ability, and the wasp 
ish temper of Governor Kieft plunged the colony into troubles 
with the Indians which resulted in a terrible Indian war. 2 

1 In some instances African slaves were also furnished. These were owned by 
the patroon, but were fed and lodged by the tenant. 

2 The Indians about New Amsterdam were Delawares, who belonged to the 
Algonquian family ; those about the Mohawk Valley were Iroquoians and the 
mortal enemies of the Delawares. Kieft forbade the Delawares to possess fire 
arms, while he supplied them to the Mohawks, in order to facilitate the fur and 
pelt trade. See page 88 for an account of this war. 


Peter Stuyvesant, the last and most capable governor during 
the period of Dutch occupation, put the company s affairs in 
good shape. He permitted the election of an advi- 
SOI T council to look after some of the details of 

government, and induced the company to make more 
liberal provisions for education. He was an honest and efficient 
ruler, although decidedly arbitrary and tyrannical. He brooked 
no interference with his administration, and the settlement was 
probably the better for it. 

Conflict over English Claims. New Netherland was situated 
in the neutral zone between the grants of the London company 
and the Plymouth company. 1 The English therefore regarded 
the presence of the Dutch in Manhattan and the Hudson Valley 
as an intrusion. There were English settlers in considerable 
numbers on Long Island and in the western part of what is now 
Connecticut. They had settled, moreover, upon lands claimed 
by the West India Company, under the charter of New Nether- 
land. Governor Stuyvesant wisely refrained from ^disturbing 
them, however, fearing that it would bring about a conflict-with 
England. 2 

English settlers kept encroaching on the lands of the West 
India Company and finally (1655) one Thomas Pell leisurely sur 

veyed a large tract within a dozen miles of Governor 

The case of gtuy vesant s farm, and proceeded to move his goods 
Colonel Pell J . & 

and chattels upon it. Stuyvesant ordered him off, 

but Pell paid no attention to the order, probably because he 
had been promised protection by Governor Winthrop of Connecti 
cut. The affair caused no little friction between the colonies, 
and, with other matters, was laid before the home governments. 

The Fall of New Netherland. 1664. By this time the English 
had begun to realize the fact that New York Bay was not only 

1 See page 28. 

2 In 1650 Stuyvesant renounced the Dutch claims to the eastern part of Long 
Island and Connecticut, and, by a treaty signed at Hartford, it was agreed that a 
line north from Greenwich Bay (at the present western boundary of Connecticut) 
should separate the two colonies on the mainland, while one drawn south from 
Oyster Bay should be the boundary on Long Island. The charter of Massachu 
setts ga. ve that colony sovereignty westward to the Pacific Ocean, 



the commercial key to the Atlantic coast of North America, but 
the most strategic point as well. England was at peace with 
Holland at this time. Nevertheless, King Charles II secretly 
gave the whole region about New York Bay, including Connecti 
cut, to his brother the Duke of York, who then dispatched four 
vessels with five hundred men to seize New Amsterdam. 

When Colonel Richard Nichols with this squadron reached New 
Amsterdam in 1664, 
to his surprise he 
found but little op 
position. Governor 
Stuyvesant stormed 
about and swore he 
would not surrender, 
but he finally sub 
mitted to the inevi 
table. The Dutch 
flag was hauled 
down and the Eng 
lish standard was 
raised. New Nether- 
land thereby became, 
an English province, 
and New Amster 
dam was christened 
New York. In 1673, 

during a war be- --^ 

tween England and 
Holland, New York 
was recaptured, but 
it was given back to 
the English in less 
than a year, in ex 
change for Surinam (Dutch Guiana) and an island of the Banda 
group, near the Moluccas. 

The fall of New Netherland could be regarded as a foregone 
conclusion from the first. Even were there no internal causes, 

From the painting by Powell. 



the geographical position of the colony was such that it must 
either absorb the two English colonies that surrounded it, or 
The rule else ^ absorbe(1 b ^ them. But the rule of the West 
of the India Company was of a military nature and it con- 

WesUndia stantly irritated the people. In the main, the settlers 
were certainly prosperous, but they were not nearly so 
well off as their English neighbors all around them. The latter 
paid no taxes except the small sums which they assessed upon 
themselves ; the Dutch, on the other hand, were heavily taxed. 
The English elected the officers to administer the laws they 
themselves made ; the Dutch had no voice in the plan by which 
they were ruled. They finally came to the conclusion that any 
rule was better than that of the West India Company. 

A Century of English Rule. New York remained a royal colony 
for more than a century. The English governors, one of whom 
was Edmund Andros, with few exceptions, rarely visited the 
colony ; they were content to draw their salaries and remain 
at home l a plan that was highly satisfactory to all concerned. 
The responsible executive was the lieutenant-governor, who was 
almost always a colonist. The real management of affairs was in 
the hands of the leading men of the colony. The colonial charter 
gave to the assembly, which was elected by the people, control 
of the public funds, and without funds the governor could accom 
plish nothing; he certainly was powerless to do any mischief. 
Thus, with an elective assembly controlling the public funds, 
even a royal province might enjoy a large amount of local self- 


The Settlement of New Jersey. During the Dutch period, the 
territory between the Hudson and Delaware rivers had remained 
almost unoccupied, except for the manors that had been established 

1 Governor Thomas Dongan was a notable exception. He was a statesman 
possessing great executive ability and a breadth of character not commonly found 
in the men of his time. In shaping the policy of the future state, he accomplished 
more than all the other colonial governors. 



along the rivers. 1 Governor Winthrop of Connecticut had been 
led to believe that this region would be given to Connecticut as a 
reward for his services in the overturning of New Netherland. 
Colonel Nichols, the governor of New York, had supposed it to be 
a part of that colony, and had issued to purchasers several patents 


for tracts of considerable size. To the surprise of all, however, 
they discovered that the Duke of York had already given away 
the whole region to Sir George Carte ret and Lord John Berkeley 
(1664). These proprietors named it New Jersey. 

1 There were the villages of Hoboken, Pavonia, and Bergen. A few families 
from Long Island had takeu farms on the shore of Newark Bay. 


Carteret and Berkeley did not find the task of colony making 
an easy one. In spite of the fact that the people had about all 
the political privileges they asked for, there was constant turmoil. 
Lord Berkeley finally wearied of his purchase and sold it (1673) 
to a company of Friends, who founded the town of Burlington. 
At this time the region was divided into East Jersey and West 
Jersey. William Perm, acting for another company of Friends, 
purchased West Jersey. In 1702 both colonies agreed to give up 
their charters, and they were united as the royal province of New 


The Society of Friends. Since the Church was managed by 
the State in most European countries at this period, a religious 
heretic was almost always a political heretic 
as well, no matter what might be his country 
or his fa.ith. Among the religious sects in 
England that became very prominent was the 
Society of Friends, or Quakers, 1 as they are 
commonly called. Now, although their belief 
was a pure and spiritual doctrine, yet some 
of the members of the society were very 
troublesome. In obedience to what they 
conceived to be their duty, they not only re 
fused to recognize the forms of church wor 
ship established bylaw, but they also refused 
to observe the ceremonies expected of citizens 
toward their chief magistrates. A Friend 
would not doff his hat to the king, nor 
would he kneel to the Pope ; he would not 
A QUAKER. permit him self to address any one by a title of 

honor. He would pay taxes neither for the support of an estab 
lished church nor for war. He would not even take an oath in court. 

* It is alleged that George Fox, the founder of the sect, when before Judge 
Bennet at Derby (1650), said to him, " T bid thee tremble before the word of th 
Lord " ; whereupon the judge was satirically called a " Quaker." 


As a result, the Friends were constantly in trouble. In England 
they were punished as violators of the law, and were mercilessly 
persecuted as well. This resulted, not in crushing them but, as 
is usually the case, in increasing their numbers and strengthening 
the cause they upheld. 

William Penn. William Penn, a son of Admiral Sir William 
Penn, was a Friend. He came from a noted fighting family, and 
his conversion to the principles of the sect seems to have devel 
oped in him the fighting characteristics of the family. He was 
expelled from Oxford University for obnoxious conduct in express 
ing his faith, and for the next ten or fifteen years he divided his 
time between a very strenuous "passive resistance" 1 and the 
prison to which he was sent as a punishment for disobedience. 
He had the friendship of Charles II before the latter became 
king; more than once Charles interceded for Penn and, on one 
occasion, got him out of prison. 2 

During the turmoil incident to restoring the monarchy after 
the rule of Cromwell, Charles II had become indebted to Admiral 
Penn to the amount of sixteen thousand pounds. The 
This claim against the king was inherited by William Pennsyi- 
Penn. When he decided to remove the Society of vania grant 
Friends from England, he offered the king a receipt in full for 
the debt, provided he should have a deed to the unoccupied lands 
remaining in the neutral zone between the grants of the London 
and the Plymouth companies. This territory, in all about forty 
thousand square miles, was granted to Penn in 1681. At the 
same time Penn purchased the land now forming the state of 
Delaware, in order to have a seaboard for his colony. 

The Colony of Pennsylvania. During 1681 a number of Quaker 
families settled at Chester on the Delaware, a town which had 

1 Passive resistance, as distinguished from active, forcible resistance, marked 
the conduct and the policy of the society. 

2 Admiral Penn was a strong supporter of the Stuarts, then the reigning 
family of England, and had helped in restoring the House of Stuart to the throne. 
William Penn, the son, was absolutely fearless in doing what he believed to be 
right and just. His fighting proclivities were mellowed by the ripeness of age, 
and even his bitterest opponents bore testimony to the sturdy quality of his 



been settled by the Swedes. The following year (1682) Penn him 
self, in company with about one hundred people, set sail for 
America, in order to establish what he termed the "Holy Experi 
ment." That same year he founded the city of Philadelphia, 1 the 
plan of which remains practically unchanged to this day. 2 The 
first house was built in 1683, and in three years following the 
city gained more in population than New York City had gained 
in forty years. 

Penn was determined that the government should be very 
liberal. He himself appointed the governor ; an advisory council 

and an assembly were elected by 
the people. The Indians were 
paid for all lands taken, and the 
treaty made between them arid 
the colony was kept so long as 
the Friends controlled the colony. 
Full religious liberty was guar 
anteed ; all taxpayers could vote ; 
any member of a Christian church 
might hold office ; and every child 
was to be taught a useful trade. 
The liberality in religious mat 
ters, together with the excellent 
government, attracted many set 
tlers, and these were of the very 
best. At the middle of the 
eighteenth century Philadelphia 
had a population of thirty thousand ; Lancaster, York, and New 
castle were thriving towns. 3 Next to Virginia, Pennsylvania was 
the richest colony. Wheat, lumber, ale, glass, and pig iron 

1 The name Philadelphia means " brotherly love." The name of the colony, 
Pennsylvania, signifies "Penn s woods." 

2 That is, the part of the city situated between the Delaware and the Schuyl- 
kill rivers. It included the Swedish village of Wiccaco, founded in 1636 by Queen 
Christina of Sweden. It also included a prosperous Indian village. Old Swede s 
Church, yet standing, was built (1700) on the site of a log church and blockhouse 
built in 1677 by the Swedes. 

3 The lands known as the New Purchase were bought of the Six Nations in 


were exported to England ; the foreign commerce required five 
hundred ships. 

Perm s sons succeeded him as proprietors of the colony. 


Swedish Settlements. 1630-1655. The Swedes shared the gen 
eral desire to acquire territory in America. Some time about 
1630 they made settlements along the banks of the lower Dela 
ware River, one on Tinicum Island near Philadelphia, and another 
on the site of that city. In 1637 they occupied the lands of a 
Dutch colony near the present town of Lewes, Delaware, the 
Dutch having been driven away by Indians. The Swedes pur 
chased from the natives the bay and river front from Cape Hen- 
lopen to the present site of Wilmington. The Dutch, however, 
never gave up their claim to this region; Governor Stuyvesant 
captured it in 1655, making it a part of New Netherland, and 
expelled all who would not swear allegiance to Holland. 

The Colony changes Hands. When the Duke of York seized 
New Netherland in 1664, Delaware became an English posses 
sion. York sold it, in 1681, to William Penn, and for a time it 
was considered a part of Pennsylvania, although under a separate 
charter. At the time of its sale it was known as The Terri 
tories. At the beginning of the War of the Revolution the 
people declared themselves independent, and Delaware was the 
name given to the state. 


New York Bay was probably first entered by Yerrazano in 1524, but 
Hudson s discovery of it in 1609 led to the first settlement. 

The Dutch West India Company established a trading post on Man 
hattan Island in 1613. 

1768. This tract added the counties now included in the northwestern part of 
the state, and a very large immigration was attracted into the valleys of the 
Susquehanna and Allegheny rivers. Just after the beginning of the War of the 
Revolution (1778), the Congress purchased the unsold lands for the sum of one 
hundred and thirty thousand pounds. 


The colony was built up by the method of giving land grants called 
manors to any member of the company who might bring to the colony 
fifty able-bodied settlers. 

The English captured New Amsterdam in 1664, made it a province of 
England, and named it New York. 

The Duke of York granted New Jersey to Carteret and Berkeley in 
1664. . They sold East Jersey to a company of Friends, who settled at 
Burlington, and West Jersey to William Perm. The two colonies were 
united and became a royal province in 1702. 

Pennsylvania was settled by Friends from England under the leader 
ship of William Penn, to whom the lands were given. 

In 1682 Penn, with about one hundred followers, founded the city of 

The government was liberal, and full religious freedom was allowed. 

Swedish emigrants formed several settlements along the lower Dela 
ware River from 1630 to 1640. In 1655 Governor Stuyvesant of New 
Amsterdam took possession. 

Delaware became an English possession in 1664, and in 1681 was pur 
chased by William Penn to be included as a part of Pennsylvania. 

Delaware became a separate state at the beginning of the War of the 


Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America Fiske. Henry Hudson, 
Vol. I, 82; the patroons, Vol. I, 133; wampum, Vol. 1, 174; Peter Stuy 
vesant, Vol. 1, 198 ; Dutch and English, Vol. I, 274 ; Sir Edmund Andros, 
Vol. II, 37; William Penn, Vol. II, 114; Penn, Andros, and West Jersey, 
Vol. H, 141; the Quaker exodus, Vol. II, 155; New York annexed to 
New England, Vol. II, 177; Leisler, Vol. II, 188 ; Captain Kidd, Vol. II, 
232; the Pennsylvania Commonwealth, Vol. II, 294; Knickerbocker 
Society, Vol. II, 258. 

The Making of the Empire State Redway. 



The Puritans and the Separatists. The invention of the art of 
printing from movable type marked the beginning of a period of 
religious unrest, and the relation of the two is not The inven- 
difficult to understand. Before the art of printing tion of 
was discovered, books were copied letter for letter and P nntm s 
word for word by scribes trained for the work. Only the churches, 
the schools, and the wealthy people could afford to possess copies 
of the Bible. The greater number of these were in the Trreek or 
the Latin language, and therefore could not be understood by 
the masses of people. About the first book to be printed was the 
Bible. In England and Scotland several translations were made, 
and within a few years after the invention of printing a Bible 
could be found in the home of the humblest family. 

Now it is not an easy matter for untrained minds to compre 
hend the Bible, and as a result different people interpreted its 
sayings in different ways. In England a great many became 
dissatisfied with the creed of the Established Church. As early 
as 1580 there were dissenters from it who declared their right 
to worship as they pleased. Those who actually withdrew from 
the Established Church were called Separatists because they had 
separated from it. But many remained in the Church of Eng 
land and tried to purify it. They were therefore commonly 
known as Puritans. 

Religious Persecution results in Emigration. Both in England 
and on the continent the affairs of the Church and the State 
were so closely entangled that, in many cases, to refuse the doc- 



trines of the Church was also to disobey the State. Dissenters 
from the Church were therefore very apt to be offenders against 
the laws of the land. No one seemed to realize that to punish 
people for obedience to their conscience is the surest way to 
strengthen them in their belief. The punishment of dissenters 
became so severe that it grew into persecution. 

In England, during the first years of the seventeenth century, 
religious persecution was at its height. At this time the law 


It was the usual practice in olden times, when books were rare and precious, to 
chain them to the shelves so that they could not be stolen. 

compelled every one to attend the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
which was the Established Church of England, and also to pay 
taxes for its support. This was a great injustice to the Catholics, 
who were thereby compelled not only to pay toward the support of 
a church in whose doctrines they did not believe, but also to accept 
these doctrines. The Puritans and the Separatists were likewise 
objects of persecution, and so there began an exodus of Catholics, 
Puritans, and Separatists who found life in England intolerable. 



The Pilgrims sail for America. 1620. In 1607 1 a congregation 
of Separatists living in Scrooby emigrated to Holland, where they 
could enjoy religions freedom without being "hunted The Pil _ 
like wild beasts " and " clapt up in prison." There grims in 
they lived peacefully at Leyden for eleven years, and Holland 
by the end of that time the company had grown to about one 
thousand. Many objected to remaining longer in Holland, because 
they discovered that their children were growing up to be Dutch 
in character and customs, instead of English ; they also feared a 
religious war between Spain and Holland. So they resolved to 
establish a community which, while thoroughly English, would 
afford them the religious liberty they sought. 

This, they thought, could be found only in America. So William 
Brewster and John Robinson, the leaders of the congregation, 
secured from the Lon 
don company a grant 
of land to be located 
"somewhere near 
Hudson s River, with 
in the limits of Vir 
ginia. 7 2 In company 
with Captain Miles 
Standish, Brewster 
and about one hun 
dred and twenty Sepa 
ratists left Holland 
in the ship SpeedweU, 
bound for Southamp 
ton, England ; there 

they were joined by the Mayflower. King James refused royal 
permission to the undertaking of the congregation, but he also 
declined to notice their presence in an English port, believing that 

1 The date 1608 is given by some authorities. 

2 The company of " Merchant Adventurers " of London agreed to furnish the 
money for the enterprise on the following terms: the members were to labor 
without any days of rest except Sunday for a term of seven years, and the prop 
erty and accumulations were to be equally divided, at the end of that time, 
between the company and the congregation. 




they would be less troublesome in America than in Europe. The 
two vessels left Southampton but, the Speedwell proving unsea- 
worthy, both ships turned back to Plymouth. The Mayflower 
thereupon took all who could be carried, one hundred and two 
people in all, 1 and sailed from Plymouth, September 6, 1620, 
bound for the Virginia coast. Thereafter the congregation 
called themselves Pilgrims. 2 

After nine weeks of heavy weather, the Mayflower sighted Cape 
Cod. This was much farther north than they had intended to 
land, and also beyond the northern limit of the Virginia grant. 
Several days were spent in attempting to pass the ship around 
the cape to the southward, but the strong head winds prevented. 
So a landing was made at the harbor now called Provincetown. 

The Compact a Forerunner of Constitutional Government. By 
this time, owing to the great suffering, there was much discord 
among the members of the congregation. Many were opposed to 
going farther. In this state of affairs, the counsels of Standish 
and others prevailed. They held a meeting in the cabin of the 
Mayflower and signed an agreement in which they declared two 
things which, years afterward, became important factors in Ameri 
can history. The two declarations were that 

They were loyal subjects of the king. 

They themselves would make whatever laws were necessary for 
the welfare of the colony, all promising to obey these laws. 

The latter declaration is regarded as the foundation of constitu 
tional government. The colony declared itself a commonwealth 
and elected John Carver its governor. 

The Beginning of New England. 3 The Mayflower remained at 
the Provincetown landing until Captain Standish, after several 
The land- weeks of exploration, selected a harbor which John 
ing at Smith had charted a few years before and had named 

Plymouth pi ymout h. Into this harbor the Mayflower sailed and 
landed her freight the colony of Pilgrims that became one of 

1 Exactly one hundred, according to some authorities. 

2 See Hebrews xi. 13. 

3 John Smith was the first to use the name New England in 1614, when he 
explored the coast from Penobscot Bay to Cape Cod. 


the chief foundation stones of a great nation. Tradition has 
it that, one by one as the Pilgrims landed, they stepped first on 
a half-covered granite bowlder and thence upon the low sandy 
shore. This landing was made December 21, 1620. During the 
cruel winter, against which few preparations could be made, 
just half the colony perished. Nevertheless, when the Mayflower 
started on her return voyage, not one of the survivors went with 

The locality where the Pilgrims settled was within the domain 
of the Plymouth and not the London company. Therefore the 
contract made with the London company did not take effect. 

From the painting by Bayes. 


The colonists decided to purchase the land, and their proposition 
was accepted by the Plymouth company. 

During the first year Governor Carver died, and William Brad 
ford was chosen to fill his office. So wisely did Bradford adminis 
ter affairs that he was continued in office about thirty 
years. In November the ship Fortune brought fifty 
more members of the Leydeii congregation. On her 
return she carried beaver skins and cabinet woods to the value of 
five hundred pounds, to be used in payment of the debt of the 
colony, which was about seven thousand pounds. Unfortunately 
the cargo was captured by a French cruiser. The relations of 



the colony to the debtors in England were not pleasant, so the 
colonists themselves undertook to clear the debt, and in a few 
years paid the whole amount, principal and interest. 1 They 
found to their satisfaction that the fur trade and the fisheries 
yielded good profits, and that the few acres of land which had 
been cleared produced an abundance of foodstuffs. At first the 
land was cultivated in common, but this unwise plan was soon 
followed by the better one of allotting a tract to each family. 

Early in the history of the colony Captain Standish made 
friends with Massasoit, the chief of the Wampanoag Indians, 

and a short time afterward one of the colonists nursed 
friendship the chief through an illness that nearly proved fatal. 

and hos- AS a token of friendship Massasoit made a treaty with 
the colony which was kept for half a century. Can- 
onicus, the chief of the warlike Narragansetts, however, sent his 
messenger to Plymouth with a bundle of arrows wrapped in a 
snake skin. This was a challenge to war. Governor Bradford 
well knew that any show of timidity would probably invite an 
attack ; so the colonists stuffed the snake skin with powder and 
bullets and sent it back to Canonicus, signifying that if he wanted 
war they would give him enough of it. This reply was little bet 
ter than a bluff, however, for the fifty men of the colony, even 
with their muskets, were no match for the two thousand Narra- 
gansett warriors. Nevertheless, it was effectual. 

The Town Meeting. One feature of no little importance came 
immediately into the life of the colony, namely, the town meet 
ing. In this assembly all men met on equal terms and discussed 
public affairs and made the laws that governed the community. 
The town meeting was at once recognized in New England as 
a necessity imposed by the surroundings. Unlike the settlers 
in Virginia, the people of Plymouth were living in very close 
association ; in Virginia the tobacco plantations were isolated 
and each was a little colony by itself. In the future of the 
American republic, the town meeting was to become a fundamental 

1 They borrowed the money for the payment in London, paying interest at the 
rate of more than thirty per cent. 


The Passing of the Colony. 1691. Although most of the indi 
vidual members of the Pilgrim congregation prospered, yet the 
colony as a whole did not. The organization was that of a busi 
ness firm with practically no power to do business. Even when 
the colony was small, the difficulty was great ; when the number 
had reached three thousand, it was well-nigh impossible to accom 
plish the legislation that was necessary for the raising and expen 
diture of money. 1 

There was a more potent factor, namely, competition. When 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded, it quickly outstripped 
its older sister at Plymouth. Its rapid growth was due to its 
geographic location. Plymouth Harbor had not the advantages 
of accessibility and commanding position that its more fortunate 
rival, Boston Bay, possessed. Few vessels cared to go to Plym 
outh when Boston was so much nearer. So in 1691, under a 
charter granted by William and Mary, the colony of Massachu 
setts Bay absorbed Plymouth, with several other colonies. 


Land Grants in New England. In the twenty years following the 
settlement at Plymouth two factors in England were operating to 
strengthen the settlements in America. The attention of adventur 
ous merchants was attracted to the fur trade and the fisheries ; 
the persecution of the Puritans was carried on as vigorously by 
Charles I as it had been by his father, James I. The result was 
an extensive emigration to America. The king was bestowing 
charters and land grants ; and he was sometimes careless about 
the provisions of the former and the boundaries of the latter. A 
number of trading posts had been established on or near the coast 
by different companies in consequence of the land grants, 2 and 
much trouble resulted in after years. 

1 The Plymouth colony had acquired territory at Cape Ann, an extensive pos 
session on the Keanettec, and a trading post on the Connecticut, but it could not 
make the enterprises profitable. 

2 Among these were Noddles Island (now East Boston), made by Samuel 
Maverick : one near Cape Ann, established by John White and others ; Shawmut 



One of these land grants made to Ferdinando Gorges and John 
Mason (1622) embraced all the territory between the Kennebec 
and Merrimac rivers. Another grant, given (1628) to a stern 
Puritan, John Endicott, extended from a line three miles south 



of Charles River to one three miles north of the Merrimac. 
each case the grants extended from ocean to ocean. 

The Massachusetts Bay Company. 1629. Endicott knew that 

a son of Ferdinando Gorges had obtained a grant oi 
settlement ^ nree hundred square miles within that of his own 

company, and that a settlement had been established 
upon it ; he also realized that " possession is nine points of the 

Peninsula (now Boston), settled by William Blackstone. A settlement on the 
present site of Quincy was characterized as a " schoole of athisme " by Gov 
ernor Bradford, and Captain Standish was ordered to break it up, which he did. 
The chief cause of offense seems to have been that the settlers there celebrated 
May Day and that they used the Book of Common Prayer of the Episcopal Church. 


law." In 1628 lie started for his newly acquired territory 
with a party of sixty Puritans. He dispossessed the settlers 
under the Gorges patent and established a new settlement, to 
which he gave the name of Salem, a Hebrew word meaning 
" peace." 

The English managers of the colony recognized the value of 
good business organization, and so. in 1629, a royal charter was 
obtained and the Massachusetts Bay Company was formed. 
Immediately afterward more than four hundred people, including 
clergymen, professional men, artisans, and servants, left England 
to make their homes in the new colony. Endicott was made 
governor. The colony was for Puritans only; there was to be 
no toleration of any other religious belief. 

Although Charles I was a great stickler for the rights of a 
sovereign over his people, yet he gave the corporation 
a liberal charter. The colonists elected their own 
officers, including a council, or General Court, chosen for the 
purpose of making the laws. These provisions seemed very 
liberal, but it soon became apparent that under them there could 
exist a tyranny more powerful than had existed under either 
James or Charles. 

The Settlement of Boston. 1630. The year 1630 was marked 
by a great emigration to America. In England persecution of the 
Puritans was carried on more severely than before. For the 
wealthier of this sect there was safety neither of person nor of 
property. The agents of the king would force them to loan 
money ; if they refused to be robbed, they were pressed into the 
army or the navy, or else cast into prison. There was nothing for 
them but to get away from England. Moreover, business was 
poor in the various industries in England, and many thousands 
were out of work. 

So when John Winthrop, a wealthy Puritan and a prominent 
member of the Massachusetts Bay Company, decided to go to 
America, there was no difficulty in finding plenty of people to go 
with him; and more than seven hundred persons with their horses, 
cattle, and household goods followed him there. They had intended 
to go to Salem, but they found Shawmut Peninsula more to their 




liking, and settled there. The harbor was excellent ; good farm 
ing land and growing timber were near by ; the place could be 

easily fortified in case of neces 
sity. Indeed, a better location 
could not have been found north 
of New York Bay. The settle 
ment at first was named Tri- 
mountain, but a year later it was 
changed to Boston, which was the 
name of the town in England 
whence many of the people had 
come. 1 Winthrop was made gov 

Within ten years, upward of 
twenty-five thousand had come to 
the territory of the Mas 
sachusetts Bay Com 
pany. They included 
clergymen and scholars of renown ; 
what was even better, the great majority were intelligent and 
thinking men and women who were not afraid of work. A 
few went to Salem, a larger number to Boston, Dorchester, 
Roxbury, Charlestown, Watertown, Cambridge, and other village 
settlements were established. The immigration did not fall off 
materially until the persecution of the Puritans had ceased in 
England, and this occurred, not because the king had grown more 
indulgent, but because of the beginning of the uprising that was 
to cost him his head. From that time until the corporation be 
came a royal province, the growth of New England did not keep 
pace with that of the other colonies. 

Social Features. In the Massachusetts Bay colony every 
freeman and his family had the right to move wherever he 
pleased. He was thus free from a restriction which exists in 

1 The name Boston is a corruption of St. Botolphstown ; Trimountain became 
" Tremont " ; both names survive as names of streets of the present city. The 
Beacon Hill, near the place where the first settler Blackstone lived, gave the 
name to Beacon Street. 


some parts of Europe to-day. A man was not permitted to beat 
or chastise his wife, and lie was required to provide for his family 
under pain of severe punishment. For certain offenses he could 
be whipped or put into the pillory * by a sentence of the law. a 
A woman convicted of being a common scold might be publicly 
ducked ; the offender was made secure in a chair called a ducking 
stool, which was lowered into the water. Sabbath breaking was 
punished by fine or imprisonment. It was enacted that " there 
shall never be any bond slaverie, villinage, or captivitie among 
us, unless it be lawfull captives taken in just warres, and such 
strangers as willinglie selle themselves or are sold to us." This 
was a provision with rather wide loopholes ; nevertheless, there 
was not much slavery in Massachusetts. 

Public Schools Established. Education was fostered from the 
very first. In 1635 a public school was established in Boston, 
and twelve years afterward provision was made for the instruc 
tion of all white children. In 1636 the General Court voted 
four hundred pounds, 3 about one year s tax of the colony, for the 
founding of a college at Cambridge. 4 A few years later John Har 
vard, a wealthy clergyman, left his library of several hundred 
volumes and a money bequest of seven hundred and fifty pounds 
to the college. It was the first college established in America, 
and the General Court named the institution after its generous 

The Rise of the Puritan Theocracy. 5 The dominant people in 
Massachusetts were the clergymen. In social standing they out 
ranked the gentry. They were not only the spiritual but the 
political leaders as well. Their position was exalted, and they 
were not slow to recognize the fact. The commonwealth was for 
Puritans only. At first it was brought about by public senti 
ment that none but Puritans should vote or exercise authority. 

1 The offender was stood up in a public place with his head and arms stuck 
through the holes in a wooden frame which constituted the pillory. 

2 It is the law in Delaware to this day. 

8 Now about the equivalent of ten thousand dollars. 
4 Then called Newtown. 

A theocracy is a form of government in which God is regarded as the supreme 
ruler of the state and the laws are based on the Bible. 


Then it was enacted that none but church members in good stand 
ing should vote. 

Willful absence from church services was punished by repri 
mand, fine, or imprisonment, the fine being five shillings (about 
$1.20) for each absence. For a time the daily services at churches 
consumed the larger part of the day. This proved a great hard 
ship, and so it was ordered that they should not begin until one 
o clock. This was still burdensome, and they were cut down 
to two days a week, the services often continuing till long after 
dark. 1 The General Court then attempted to regulate the matter, 
but the ministers would not tolerate further interference. 

The Persecution of Non-Puritans. It was enacted that any one 
who reproached a minister, his sermon, or his doctrine should be 
reprimanded for the first offense and fined five pounds for the 
second. 2 In addition the culprit was to stand in the pillory and 
wear a placard reading "a wanton Gospeller," written in large 
letters. Baptists, Friends, and Catholics were punished by fine, 
imprisonment, flogging, banishment, or hanging. 

Among the many people who were persecuted was Mrs. Anne 
Hutchinson, a noted teacher and lecturer of great power. She 
was bold enough to reproach the leading ministers with too much 
form and too little faith. In consequence she was banished. 
Roger Williams, who was also considered dangerous, was ordered 
to England, but he escaped to the Indians instead. Nearly a 
hundred colonists, mainly of the gentry, were fined or banished 
for too freely criticising clerical management; others were de 
prived of the right to vote. The fine often amounted prac- 

1 A service in London is thus described : " After Dr. Twisse had begun with a 
brief prayer, Mr. Marshall prayed large for two hours, most divinely confessing 
the sins of the members of the assembly, in a wonderful, pathetic, and prudent 
way. After, Mr. Arrowsmith preached an hour, then a psalm ; thereafter, Mr. 
Vines prayed near two hours, and Mr. Palmer preached an hour; after, Mr. 
Henderson brought them to a sweet confession of faults to be reminded, and the 
conveniency to preach against all sects, especially the Anabaptists and Antinomi- 
ans. Dr. Twisse closed with prayer." 

2 For saying she " had as lief hear a cat mew, as Mr. Shepard preach," Ursula 
Cole was fined " five pounds or be whipped." She was very poor; the whipping 
was made a part of the sentence in order to insure payment of the fine. It was, 
of course, a heavy punishment. 



tically to taking all the victim s property. Those banished were 
forced to go forth with their wives and children into a wilderness 
among savages. 

The Witchcraft at Salem. 1691. The belief in witchcraft is 
about as old as the human family, and wherever we read history 
we shall find the existence of human faith in an unseen, evil 
power. In the last half of the seventeenth century more than 
eight thousand men, women, and children were burnt at the 
stake in various parts of Europe, accused of the practice of witch- 

The oldest meeting house in present use in New England. Built in 1680. 

craft, that is, of dealing with the devil. 1 There were several cases 
in Massachusetts as early as 1648, but the most serious outbreak 
occurred in Salem village in 1691. An ignorant negro woman 
in the family of Kev. Samuel Parris secretly practiced magic 
and incantations with some young women of the town. The 
experiences of these clandestine meetings wrought the girls to 
a high -state of nervousness. When discovered, they went into 
hysterical fits and convulsions, and the physicians and ministers 

i Within the twentieth century at least two charges of the practice of witch 
craft have been made before justices courts in the United States, testimpiiy 
being taken in each case. 



who were called to them pronounced them bewitched. The negro 
servant was at once accused of witchcraft; several other women 
of the village were suspected, and all were promptly lodged in jail. 
The trials were little better than a farce. If the accused con 
fessed to being witches, and some did this either to save their 
lives or to avoid torture, their punishment was not very severe. 
On the other hand, to deny it was almost certain to bring about 
conviction, and conviction meant almost equally certain death. 1 
By the time nineteen had been put to death, public sentiment 
was raised to a white heat. Even the magistrates who had sent 
so many to the gallows were appalled. The feeling of revulsion 
and horror that had so long been growing reached its effect, and 
all those in jail under charges or conviction were set free. There 
were no more trials. Cotton Mather and his father, Increase 
Mather, two of the most prominent ministers of Boston, had 
opposed the high-handed way in which innocent people were sent 
to the gallows, yet both were believers in witchcraft. 

The Fall of the Theocracy. For some time Charles II had 
watched the proceedings of the colony with great displeasure, if 

not with alarm. In 1643, when 
the colonies formed the famous 
New England Confederacy, 2 they 
began to recognize their power 
and comparative independence, 
and they were not slow to take 
every possible advantage of it. 
The clerical party, almost absolute 
in its power, had shown contempt for the Church of England and 
for the king s envoys as well. The General Court had omitted 

1 Rev. Samuel Willard, pastor of the Old South Church in Boston, was 
accused of witchcraft, and about the same time charges were made also against 
Lady Phipps, wife of the governor, and Mrs. Hale, the saintly wife of the 
pastor at Beverly. 

2 See page 81. 

3 A mint at Boston, in 1652, issued coins bearing the device of an American 
pine tree. The king was angry at this action, but was appeased by the assurance 
of one of his advisers that the tree represented the Koyal Oak and symbolized 
the loyalty of Massachusetts. 



the king s name from official documents, and had ignored the 
king s command granting jury trials to persons accused of capital 
offenses. Two of the judges who had sentenced Charles 1 to 
death had been protected in America. The merchants of Boston 
had openly evaded the navigation laws, and the authorities of 
the colony had coined money without right. In the colony itself 
religious intolerance had raised a host of enemies. 

So, at the demand of influential people both in England and in 
Massachusetts, the charter was annulled in 1G84, on the charge 
that royal powers had been usurped. The clerical 
party used every possible effort to prevent this action ; 
the merchants, who saw an end to their evasion of the 
navigation laws, also opposed it. To the great mass of people, 
however, it was a decided relief, for it restored the right to vote 
to many who had been disfranchised. 

Sir Edmund Andros, the first royal governor, was an ar 
bitrary man, who brought his military notions into civil life. 
That he was tyrannical cannot be questioned, but it is 
not unlikely that a pretty firm hand was required to 
straighten things out. When James II was forced to 
leave the throne of England (1689), it did not take long for the 
people of New England to clap Andros into prison and take the 
government into their own hands. A few years later (1692), how 
ever, William III, the successor of King James, united Massa 
chusetts, Plymouth, and Maine 1 into a single royal province, 
giving it a very liberal charter, although the king appointed the 
governor. Church membership was no longer a qualification for 
voting, and all denominations except the Catholics were tolerated. 
From the time the new charter went into operation until the War 
of the Revolution the colony prospered. 


The Heresy of Roger Williams. The harsh clerical rule in 
Massachusetts had one effect that was not intended; it was de 
signed to strengthen Puritan power, but it really weakened it. 
1 Maine then iucluded Nova Scotia. 


Those who had the courage openly to resist the clerical rule 
were driven away. Those who opposed it secretly used their 
influence to bring the affairs of the colony into disrepute. 

Among the former was a bright young clergyman, Roger 
Williams. Williams was an aggressive man much given to argu 
ment; at the same time he was kind and generous to a fault. 1 
He was forced to leave England on account of his liberal religious 
views, and he settled in Plymouth ; a year or two later he was 
called to a church in Salem, where his love for argument quickly 

From the painting by Wray. 


got him into trouble. His first heresy was preaching that there 
should be a separation of the church from the government, that 
all laws requiring attendance at church should be repealed, and 
that all forms of religious worship should be allowed. 

While the elders of Salem and Boston were still aghast at 
his revolutionary teachings, Williams wrote a pamphlet in which 
he claimed that the colonists had no right to the land held by the 
company unless they purchased it from the Indians. This, it was 
feared, might open a question already discussed in private, and 
there could be but one result to such imprudence the General 

l He had been a protege of the celebrated English lawyer, Edward Coke. 


Court ordered Williams to take passage on the first ship that 
sailed for England. Instead of doing this, however, he escaped 
and made his way to Massasoit, the chief of the Wampanoag 
Indians. With these Indians he spent the winter. 

The Founding of New Settlements. 1636-1638. In the follow 
ing spring Roger Williams was joined by several friends. They 
went to Narragansett Bay, where (1636) they established the set 
tlement of Providence. 1 Williams had intended only to build a 
mission school and church for the conversion of the Indians ; but 
so many joined him that in less than three years Providence had 
a considerable population. For several years it was a " do-as-you- 
please " settlement. It was quickly made known that no restric 
tions as to religious belief were to be imposed. Catholic or 
Protestant, Jew or Gentile each and all were welcome. A 
Baptist church, the first in America, was established there in 1639. 

In 1638 William Coddington and Anne Hutchinson purchased 
the island of Aquidneck (Rhode Island), which the Dutch ex 
plorer Adrian Block had described as a " roodt eylandt " or 
red island, on account of the bright color reflected from its cliffs. 
Settlements were made on this island at Portsmouth and, shortly 
afterward, at Newport, where a better harbor was found. 

A Model Democracy. From the fact that these settlements 
were established by eccentric people, more or less trouble was 
to be expected. There were many settlers possessed of good 
judgment, however, and they were not slow to see that the 
business interests of the settlements were suffering for want of 
a stable government. Williams therefore went to England (1644) 
and procured a charter which united the settlements into a single 

Rhode Island never became a royal province. When Andros 
was governor of New England, he tried to get the charter, but 
the people would not give it up, and Rhode Island remained a char 
ter colony until it became one of the United States. It was the 

1 Their first abiding place was at the mouth of Seekonk River, a tributary of 
the Providence River; but this being on land covered by a prior grant, Governor 
Winthrop notified them that if they chose to establish themselves on the opposite 
side of the Providence River, they would not be molested. 


smallest of the colonies, but it stood for the broadest principles 
of democracy. Its principle of religious liberty for all has become 
the law of the land ; l the Constitution of the United States de 
clares that religious tests shall not be required as a qualification 
to hold public office, and also that the Congress shall make no 
law respecting the establishment of religion or forbidding the 
free exercise of it. 2 


The First Occupation of Connecticut. 1634. The territory com 
prising the state of Connecticut, in spite of its rugged and timber- 
covered surface, was not an unknown region at the time when 
the first settlements were made there. 3 It had been the home 
of the Mohegan Indians, who were slowly being crushed between 
the Pequots and the Mohawks. It was important from the fact 
that it was a sort of "buffer" territory between New Netherland 
and Massachusetts, being claimed by both. As early as 1634 
William Holmes, one of the settlers of Plymouth, sailed up the 
Connecticut River. He found a Dutch fort at Hartford, so he 
built another at the present site of Windsor, and established 
there a fur-trading post. A small settlement resulted. 

The Fort at Saybrook. 1635. The doughty and rotund Gov 
ernor Van T wilier of New Netherland sent a company to break 
up the settlement several months afterward, but the settlers 
refused to leave. In the meantime Lord Say-and-Sele and Lord 
I>rooke had obtained a patent for the greater part of the land on 
both sides of Long Island Sound. On the west bank of the 
Connecticut they built a fort, which in after years became the 
village of Saybrook. 

The Connecticut River Settlements and the Constitution. 1635- 
1639. The emigration into Connecticut, however, was largely 
due to the teachings of Roger Williams. People in Massachu- 

1 Constitution of the United States, Article VI. 

2 Ibid., Article I, Amendment I. 

8 The region between the Connecticut and Hudson rivers even to-day is 
sparsely peopled in comparison with the territory surrounding it. 



setts who believed that the right to vote and hold office should 
not be restricted to church members learned that it was better 
not to discuss the matter publicly ; many of them, therefore, left 
the colony. A number of people from Dorchester, Massachusetts, 
went to Windsor in 1635 ; and another party built the village 
of Weathersfield in Connecticut. In the following year Pastor 
Hooker of Cambridge, Massachusetts, led more than one hundred 
of his church people to the present site of Hartford, walking 
overland through field and forest. The tide of emigration set 
in strong, and within a few months nearly one thousand people 
had come to the settlements on the Connecticut River. In 1639 
the freemen of these settlements adopted a constitution for self- 
government. 1 This Hartford constitution, as it is called, pre 
scribed a scheme of government and made no reference to king 
or Parliament. 

The New Haven Theocracy. 1638-1665. About this time 
Pastor John Davenport, a Puritan who had a large parish in 
London, incurred the 
hostility of the Estab 
lished Church, and was 
forced to leave Eng 
land. His parish con 
tained many wealthy 
merchants, and a com 
pany of them went to 
America with him. 
Attracted by the good 
harbor, they formed a 
settlement (1638) at 
tne present site of New 
Haven. Many others 
joined them, and the towns of Milford, Guilford, and Stamford- 
were founded. 

The government was even more theocratic than that of Massa 
chusetts. The laws of the Old Testament were made the govern- 

Built in 1635. 

1 In this particular it was much more complete than the Mayflower com 


ing code. 1 Even trial by jury was not at first permitted, because 
authority for it could not be found in the Bible. Each town was 
governed by a board of seven church officers, known as " pillars 
of the church." They were accusers, judges, and executors. 

The Union of the Connecticut Colonies. 1665. Although the 
New Haven colony had drawn the wrath of Charles II by 
shielding two of the judges (" regicides, 7 they were called) who 
put his father to death, yet when a charter was asked for by the 
Connecticut settlers in 1665, the king readily granted it. It is 
thought that he did this in order to weaken the growing power 
of Massachusetts. At all events, he provided that the New 
Haven colony should be included in the charter, thereby putting 
an end to its independent, theocratic government. In disgust, 
Pastor Davenport returned to Boston, and a number of others 
from his colony went to New Jersey, where they founded the 
present city of Newark. James II tried to obtain possession 
of this charter (1687) through Governor Andros, but he failed. 2 
Connecticut remained a self-governing colony until the Revolution, 
when it became an independent state. 


New Hampshire. The territory granted to Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges and Captain Mason, in 1622, originally extended from the 
Merrimac to the Kennebee River, but it was enlarged 
until it was made to comprise roughly about all the 
area of the present states of Maine, New Hampshire, 
and Vermont. Moreover, the grant covered a part of the terri 
tory given to the Plymouth company. Troubles regarding the 

1 It is to this colony that the alleged " Blue Laws " of Connecticut were attrib 
uted. Among them was one that forbade a mother to caress her child on Sun 
day. These laws had no existence; they were the hysterical fabrications of one 
Samuel Peters, a minister who found it advisable to leave New England and 
return to London. His writings savor much of the exaggerations in the adven 
tures of Baron Munchausen. 

2 There is a story that just as the legislature was about to deliver the charter 
to Andros, the lights in the room were put out and the document was seized and 
hidden in the hollow of an oak tree. The tree stood at Charter Oak Place, Hart 
ford. It was blown down in 1856, but its place is marked by a tablet. 


boundary led Mason and Gorges to divide the grant. Captain 
Mason took the part west of the Piscataqua River, Gorges the 
portion to the east of the river. Mason s home was in county 
Hampshire, England, and for that reason he gave the name New 
Hampshire to his land. 

The lawsuits over the ownership of the lands of the New 
Hampshire grant were carried 011 for more than three-score 
years, but finally the heirs of Mason gave up their claim in 
despair. It would not be quite true to assert that they had 
been robbed of their rights by trickery, but such was not far 
from the case. The real fault lay with the English sovereign, 
who had carelessly given inexact boundaries to his various land 

Mason s venture was chiefly a commercial one. He had dis 
covered excellent fishing grounds off the coast, and he saw that 
the fur trade of the interior had great possibilities. 
A settlement made at Dover in 1626 was the first to 
be permanent. Another was made on the " Straw 
berry Bank " of the Piscataqua in 1631, which was the beginning 
of Portsmouth. Some of the followers of Anne Hutchinson estab 
lished the settlements which became Exeter and Hampton. 

These settlements had a certain influence on the government 
of Massachusetts. The people were few in number and could 
not well protect themselves against hostile Indians, union with 
and in 1641 they sought to be united with Massachu- Massachu 
setts. Many of the New Hampshire settlers were not J 
of the same church as the Massachusetts Puritans, and they 
feared that, for this reason, they would have no political rights if 
united with Massachusetts. They would not consent to the union 
unless they should have the right to vote and hold office. The 
clergymen and strict Puritan leaders of Massachusetts did not 
at all like this idea, but they did not dare oppose it, because 
of the opposition that had grown up against them in England. 
Consequently the petition for the union of New Hampshire with 
Massachusetts was granted in 1641. This proved an important 
step in bringing about much greater political and social freedom 
than had existed in Massachusetts before the union. In 1679 the 


king made New Hampshire a separate royal province. Nine 
years later it was reunited to Massachusetts, but in 1(591 it was 
again separated and became a royal province. 

One of the chief events in the history of New Hampshire 
was the settlement of Londonderry. In 1719 more than one 

hundred Scotch-Irish Presbyterian families came from 
industry 1 Londonderry, Ireland. They settled in various parts 

of New Hampshire, but most of them formed a settle 
ment in the Merrimac Valley, which they named Londonderry. 

From an engraving of 1783. 


They had been linen weavers in the old country, and they quickly 
began in America the practice of the art which, when cotton fiber 
took the place of linen, was to make the United States one of 
the world s centers of the textile industry. 

In 1715 New Hampshire had a population of a little more 
Growth of t nar > ten thousand people, of whom about two hun- 
the colony dred were negro slaves. The fisheries, fur trade, and 


lumber products had readied a value of about thirty thousand 
pounds a year. 

Maine. As early as 1607 Sir George Popham attempted to 
establish a colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River, but 
the extreme cold of the New England winter, together with 
the mismanagement of business affairs, was more than the colo 
nists could bear, and the settlement was abandoned. A settle 
ment was made at Pemaquid Point in 1625 ; Saco was founded in 
1630, and Biddeford two years later. 

The boundary between Maine and Massachusetts was in 
dispute, and the latter claimed all the habitable parts of 
the territory in spite of the patent held by Gorges. 1 When 
finally King Charles II sought to purchase the claim from the 
heirs of Gorges in order to settle the trouble, Massachusetts 
secretly bought the title and rights to the territory for 1250. 
The transaction, although strictly legal, was a piece of sharp 
practice, and the king never forgave Massachusetts for it. 

Maine remained a part of Massachusetts until after the War 
of the Revolution. It did not become a state until 1820. 


Union of the New England Colonies. 1643. Although the colo 
nies of New England had much in common, there was no bond of 
union among them. They were isolated from the mother country, 
and no one of them had any adequate means of protection. A 
person who had offended the law of one colony might find perfect 
safety in another ; of this there were many vexatious instances. 
A great deal of the trouble concerned runaway slaves, for there 
was no way by which a slave could be compelled to return to 
his owner if he could escape to another colony. 

1 According to the terms, the Massachusetts boundary lay three miles north of 
the Merrimac River. At that time it was thought that the line of the river 
extended ahout east and west, and so there was no dispute for several years. 
In its upper course, however, the line of the river is nearly north and south, and 
when this became known, the people of Massachusetts claimed all the territory 
as far north as the head of the river an area extending to the White Moun 
tains. Although this was not the intent, jt was the strict letter of the grant. 


There were also grave dangers from three sources. The 
Indians were becoming more troublesome than ever before ; the 
French were acquiring territory on both the north and the 
west; and the Dutch were threatening on the south. As a 
result, the colonies did what colonies have done ever since such 
institutions existed: they agreed to form a confederation. Each 
colony preserved its independence, but they were united for 
purposes of offense or defense. Ehode Island and Maine were 
not permitted to join the confederation, because the former 
permitted freedom of worship and the latter observed the 
ritual of the Church of England. The New England confed 
eracy was therefore restricted to Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, 
New Haven, and Connecticut. It ceased to exist about 1684. 


Dissenters from the Church of England went to Holland, and eleven 
years later, in 1620, they sailed for America in the Mayflower, and 
formed the Plymouth colony. 

They signed a written agreement by which to govern themselves. 
The town meeting was the assembly in which they made their laws. 

Puritans driven from England founded the Massachusetts Bay colony 
and established a theocratic form of government. Only church mem 
bers could vote and take part in the town meeting. Salem was founded 
in 1629 by John Endicott; Boston in 1630 by John Winthrop. 

Public schools were established almost from the first. 

The charter of the Massachusetts colonies was annulled by Charles II 
in 1684, on the charge of usurping royal powers. 

Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Maine were united in. a single royal 
province by the charter of 1692, which remained in force until the 

Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams, who was obliged to flee 
from Massachusetts because of his religious views. A settlement was 
founded in 1636 at Providence, which was open to all religious creeds. 

Williams procured a charter in 1644. Rhode Island never became a 
royal province. 

Connecticut was claimed by both the Dutch and the English. The 
English established military posts or forts at Windsor and at Saybrook, 


Several settlements were formed in the Connecticut Valley, and a Puritan 
colony was founded at New Haven in 1638. 

The Connecticut colonies were united by a charter given under 
Charles II. Connecticut did not become a royal province. 

The territory of New Hampshire and Maine was granted to Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges and Captain Mason, who divided the land. 

For a time the New Hampshire settlements were united to Massa 
chusetts. New Hampshire became a royal province in 1679. 

The authorities of Massachusetts bought the title to Maine from the 
heirs of Gorges, and it remained a part of Massachusetts until 1820. 

A confederation of the New England colonies, Rhode Island and 
Maine excepted, was formed in 1643 for the purpose of defense. 


Beginnings of New England Fiske. The Puritan Exodus, Chapter II ; 
the New England Confederacy, Chapter IV. 

New France and New England Fiske. Chapter VI. 

History of the United States Bancroft. Shipbuilding in Massachu 
setts, Vol. I, 280; town meetings, Vol. I, 285; slavery, Vol. I, 293; free 
schools, Vol. I, 315 ; navigation acts, Vol. I, 346. For life of Roger 
Williams consult table of contents, Vol. I. 

The Emancipation of Massachusetts Adams. The Scire Facias, 
Chapter V. 



The Indian and the White Man. It is not strange that trouble 
should frequently occur between the Indians and the colonists. 1 
Practically there was nothing in common between them. The 
New England colonist for many years was bent on converting the 
Indian to Christianity even insisting on his learning the cate- 
chisrn ; the Virginia planter was equally bent on forcing him to 
work in the tobacco fields. The Indian, for his part, had an ill- 
concealed contempt for the civilization of the white man. He 
cared nothing for his virtues, but he was an apt pupil in acquiring 
his vices. 

The Acquisition of Land. Foremost among the local troubles 
between the two was the acquisition of land by the colonists. 
When, for instance, Manhattan Island was purchased for the 
sum of twenty-four dollars, the transaction must be regarded 

1 The following are the main tribes with which the colonists came in contact, and 
their location : 


Delawares, Middle Colonies Oneidas 

Pequots, New England Senecas 

Mohegans, New York and New England Cayugas New York 

Wampaiioags, Massachusetts Onondagas 

Narragansetts, New England Mohawks 

Adirondacks, New York Tuscaroras, North Carolina 


Catawbas 1 Seminoles ] 

Tutelos Creeks South 

Woccons j ^ tlant Chocktaws - Atlantic 

Biloxis J C Chicasas | Coast 




as questionable in spite of the fact that the Indians received 
blankets and articles that they needed. It is comparable with 
a case in which a sharper persuades a six-year-old boy to sell 
his new overcoat for a tin whistle. William Penn in Penn 
sylvania and Sir William Johnson in New York paid the 
Indians good, honest prices for the lands they obtained, and as 


a result there was little or no trouble. The West India Com 
pany required the purchasers of its lands to settle also with 
the Indians; as a rule, however, the white man got the best of 
the bargain. In the New England colonies, too, the authorities 
became very strict about such purchases, and the courts would 
not permit a sale that gave to the Indian less than the proper 
value of his property. 



In all the colonies, however, the Indians saw the ownership in 
their lands slipping away little by little, and they had nothing to 
show for the transaction. The lands bartered away were their 
hunting grounds, upon which they must depend for food, and 
without these lands they must be slowly crushed between Indian 
foes beyond the frontier, on the one side, and white foes, on the 
other. It is not surprising, therefore, that a feeling of reserit- 

From an old engraving. 


ment should have grown into the Indian mind, nor is it sur 
prising that this feeling gave place to one of intense hatred. It 
needed only an exciting cause to start the tribes on the war 

Why the Indians were allowed to buy Firearms. It would seem 
foolish on the part of the colonists to supply the Indians with 
firearms j yet this is exactly what they did. Fur trading was a 


most profitable employment, and all who could do so engaged in 
it either secretly or openly. But in getting pelts the white man 
was no match for the Indian. Inasmuch as the latter got far more 
pelts with the flintlock than with the bow and arrow, the fur- 
trading companies supplied their trappers and hunters with fire 
arms and powder ; and as the Indians to whom these weapons 
were given lived far from the settlements, the colonists made no 
great objection. Indians living near the settlements, however, 
were not permitted to have firearms ; nevertheless, they usually 
managed to get possession of the weapons. 

The Pequot War. 1637. About the time when the settlements 
in Connecticut were becoming prosperous, the Pequot Indians 
began to resent the intrusion of the settlers. Years before that 
time the Pequots had been driven by the Mohawks across the 
Hudson River from the west. With the coming of so many 
white people they realized that they were about to be forced 
back again toward the Mohawk country. As a result, they began 
to harass the English settlers by burning their buildings and 
setting fire to the crops and the timber about the settlements. 
Soon they began to kill every white man whom they might am 
bush. There was scarcely a village that did not suffer, and 
finally the Connecticut people appealed to Massachusetts for aid. 

Captain Mason gathered a company of about one hundred 
men, together with some friendly Indians. He advanced to the 
Pequot village near the site of Stonington, Connecticut (1637). 
The troops and allies reached the strongly palisaded village 
just before daybreak and lost no time in making the attack. 
The Pequots were not only surprised, but were panic-stricken. 
After several heavy volleys which killed many, Mason s men 
threw into the village lighted torches which set the wickiups 
afire. When the fight was over, out of the seven hundred 
Pequots five were alive. 

Some wholesome lessons were learned from the Pequot uprising, 
not the least of which was a more intelligent under 
standing of the Indian character. The people of the f h e e s ^ of 
New England colonies had labored hard to convert 
the Indian to Christianity, to teach him to read, and to persuade 


him to wear clothing of European fashion. The influence of the 
white man affected only the few Indians who lived about the 
towns, mainly the more shiftless and idle ones. The people 
were rudely awakened to the fact that underneath the coat of 
London cut there beat a heart that was thoroughly Indian. 
Moreover, they learned that the ability to repeat the catechism 
did not root out the desire for the scalping party. 

After that there was an honest effort to give the Indians the 
full protection of the laws of the colony, and the law was equally 
prompt to punish him if he did not behave himself. Whenever 

From the painting by GErtel. 


an Indian was to be tried for a grave crime, it became the custom 
to summon a number of Indians on the jury that tried him. 
Comparatively few Indians remained about the settlements. The 
seven or eight thousand Indians outside the vicinity of Massa 
chusetts Bay Narragansetts, Nipmucks, Wampanoags (or Poka- 
nokets), and Mohegans were left pretty much to themselves. 

The Uprising of the Algonquians. 1643. The policy of Governor 
Kieffc in New Netherland was very exasperating to the Indians 
of the Middle colonies. He took no decisive measures to prevent 
the sale of liquor to them, but he punished without mercy or 
judgment any crime committed by a drunken Indian. He also 
attempted to tax the Indians for the protection which, he asserted. 


the fort at New Amsterdam gave them. In 1643 a band of 
Mohawks came down the Hudson Valley, ostensibly collecting 
their usual tribute, but really killing about every Algonquian 
Indian in sight. In mortal terror, the Algonquian tribes sought 
the protection which they had the right to expect of Governor 
Kieft. Instead of protecting them, however, Kieft s soldiers 
fell upon them at night and massacred nearly one hundred and 
forty. It was an atrocious and treacherous act, and the imme 
diate effects were most appalling. Nearly all of the Algon 
quian tribes in the vicinity immediately started on the warpath, 
killing the people of the small settlements for twenty miles 
around. Nothing but smoking ruins was left of a score of 
beautiful villages. 1 

Fortunately at this time Captain John Underhill, a famous 
Indian tighter, came to New Netherlands The Indxano, in the 
meantime, had fortified themselves seven hundred strong in a 
palisaded village near where Stamford, Connecticut, now is. 
Underhill with one hundred and fifty men attacked the Indian 
stronghold at midnight, and at dawn there were eight warriors 
left alive. This decisive fight put an end to Indian warfare in 
the lower Hudson Valley. 

King Philip s War. 1670-1675. In the peace of nearly forty 
years that followed the Pequot War great prosperity came to New 
England. The population of twenty-five thousand (1645) had 
increased very materially, and the forty or more villages had 
more than doubled in number. In the fertile valleys of the 
western part were thriving towns and rich farms, and there 
was a considerable trade with the Indians. Of these a genera 
tion had grown up who could not remember the fate of the 

So long as Massasoit, the chief of the Wampanoags, was alive, 
he was steadfast in his loyalty to the colonists. In return he 

1 There were English settlements at the present sites of Throggs Neck, Hack- 
ensack, Corlears Hook, and the Bowery. The latter, now a street with six rail 
way tracks, was then a country lane leading to the farms of the thrifty Dutch 
settlers. All these settlements were destroyed. It was during this massacre 
that Mrs. Anne Hutchinson and most of her family were slain. 

2 Captain Underhill had taken part in the Pequot War. 



both demanded and received just treatment from them. His sons, 

however, brooded over the loss of the tribal lands until they 

possessed a very unfriendly feeling for the white 

people. In 1662 the second son, best known as King 

Philip, became chief of the tribe. He was a cautious and wily 

leader, who saw clearly that he must take no risks ; nevertheless, 

he shared an opinion which had become general among the Indians 

of all tribes, that, unless they 
resisted the encroachment of the 
whites upon their lands, they 
were doomed. 

The incentive for a general 
uprising came in 1670; almost 
simultaneously eight villages 
were destroyed and most of the 
captives were horribly tortured. 
Hostile war parties extended 
their atrocities in every direction. 
Troops were at once put into the 
field, but several detachments 
were attacked from ambush and 
massacred. A company sent to 
guard the farmers who were 
securing the grain stored at Deer- 

fi^d were killed. 

-r, ,, 

Deerheld was de- 

stroyed, and Spring- 
field also was set 

KING PHILIP," AND HIS MARK OR upon and the greater 
SIGNATURE. part of it was burned. 

By this time (1675) the Narragansetts had made up their minds 
to join Philip. Governor Winslow of Massachusetts, however, 
Destruction at once called out a thousand troops and started for 
of the the Narragansett fort near South Kingston. He used 

Indians tne game p j an of attac ^ tna t had succeeded in the 

Pequot War. The wickiups were fired by torches thrown among 
them, and a constant fire of musketry was kept up. When 



the sun went down about a thousand Narragansetts had been 
slain. The few hundred who escaped were run to bay in small 
bands during the following spring and most of them were shot 

The Nipmucks were still active, however, and in the spring of 
1675 they attacked nearly every small village in eastern Massa 
chusetts and Khode Island. They were pursued day and night l 
until most of them were slain. Thus closed the most dreadful 
Indian war of colonial times. The three tribes Wampanoags, 
Narragansetts, and Nipmucks were well-nigh exterminated. The 
Mohegans were about the only Indians remaining in New England, 
and they were friendly to the colonists. Forty of the colonial 
villages had been damaged or destroyed, and one in twenty of 
the population had been killed by the Indians. After King 
Philip s War the Indian no longer played a part in New England 

Uprisings in the Southern Colonies. In the early years of Vir 
ginia (1622) the colony suffered from an Indian attack, in which 
about three hundred and fifty white settlers were 
killed. Again in 1644 there was an Indian uprising Tuscaroras 
which cost the colony as many more lives. But from 
that time the Southern colonies were comparatively free from 
Indian troubles. In 1711, however, the Tuscaroras, an Iroquoian 
tribe, murdered about two hundred settlers living in the vicinity 
of New Berne, North Carolina. For this, a swift vengeance fol 
lowed. Colonel John Barnwell gathered a force of white men 
and friendly Indians, marched nearly three hundred miles, fell 
upon the Tuscaroras, and killed about four hundred. Hardly 
was Barnwell out of sight when the Indians began their deadly 
work again. So (1713) Colonel James Moore gathered over one 
thousand men, attacked the palisaded fort of the tribe, and 
killed the greater part of its members. The remnant of the Tus 
caroras then went to New York and joined the Iroquois Con 

1 They were not allowed to rest long enough to concentrate at any one point. 
This policy has been pursued in the Indian outbreaks of recent times, both by 
General Crooks and General Miles, 


The Yamassees, a Muskhogean tribe, had been the steadfast 

friends of the English of the Southern colonies. They were 

accustomed to make occasional raids into the Spanish 

Yamassees c l n y ^ Florida, capturing whom the} could and 

burning their prisoners alive. The English colonists 

did not object to these invasions, but it was their custom to give a 

ransom to the Indians for the lives of the unfortunate prisoners, 

and the latter were surrendered to the Spanish on payment of the 

ransom money. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century the Spanish authori 
ties began a systematic effort to incite the Yamassees to massacre 
the frontier settlers of the Southern colonies. They succeeded 
only too well. In 1715 the Yamassees, together with some of 
the Catawbas and Creeks, took the warpath and surprised one 
settlement after another all along the frontier. Nearly four 
hundred white people were killed. Charles Craven, governor 
of South Carolina, was equal to the occasion, and when his 
troops had finished the campaign there were but few hostile 
Indians left. The small remnant of the powerful Yamassee tribe 
fled to Florida. 

Pontiac s Conspiracy. 1763. The last uprising of Indians dur 
ing colonial times occurred just after the French and Indian 
War, the conquest by which the French were driven from North 
America. The defeat and expulsion of the French brought the 
Indians to realize the fact as they had realized it immediately 
before King Philip s War that the English were fast becoming 
their masters. As a result, there was a general uprising of the 
tribes all along the western frontier. The leadership fell to 
Pontiac, a chief of the Ottawas. In 1763 concerted attacks were 
made against most of the outposts which the English had wrested 
from the French. Some of these were captured, but were re 
taken. Detroit was besieged by Indians led by Pontiac, but they 
were finally defeated by Colonel Bradstreet. The uprising was 
quickly subdued. 1 

1 Pontiac retreated to an Indian village in Illinois, opposite St. Louis, Missouri, 
where he shortly afterward died. 



Most of the Indian wars resulted from the encroachment of the white 
people on Indian lands. As settlements increased, the Indians of the 
frontier were driven westward into contact with other tribes who were 
their enemies. Outbreaks, therefore, were inevitable. 

The Algonquian uprising occurred in New Netherland; the Peqtiot 
and King Philip s wars in New England. The warring tribes were 
nearly exterminated. 

The uprisings of the Tuscaroras and the Yamassees occurred in the 
Southern colonies. 

Pontiac s conspiracy, in 1763, was the last general Indian war. 


Discovery of America Fiske. Chapter I. 
Beginnings of New England Fiske. Chapters III, V. 
Dutch and Quaker Colonies Fiske. Chapter IX. 
Old Virginia and her Neighbors Fiske. Vol. I, 189 ; Vol. II, 303, 305. 
Conspiracy of Pontiac Parkman. Chapter I. 

History of the United States Bancroft. Vol. II, Chapter V; Vol. Ill, 
Chapter III. 

Old Times in the Colonies Coffin. (For popular reading.) 



A Survey of the Field. At- the time of the formation of the 
New England confederacy (1643), New York was still a Dutch 
settlement bearing the name of New Netherlarid. Virginia, 
Maryland, New Netherland, and the New England colonies were 
the chief centers of population. The period of the next hundred 
years was marked by a rapid increase of population, the conquest 
of the Dutch colonies by the English, and the settlement of Penn 
sylvania, the Carolinas, and Georgia. It is interesting to study 
the conditions of life in the colonies at this period. 

Conditions of Social Life. The social and political features of 
life in Virginia were much the same as those of England. The 
rich plantation owner with his numerous servants and laborers 
resembled in some respects the great lords with their dependents. 
For the cultivation of tobacco, the plan of organization was un 
doubtedly the best that could be followed. It was not the sort 
of organization out of which a true democracy could grow, yet 
as a business affair the Virginia plan was eminently success 
ful. The effects of this plan of government are apparent even 

Like Virginia, the New England colonies were thoroughly Eng 
lish ; probably less than one man in a hundred came from other 
countries. The social life of the New England colonists was 
very little different from that of the middle class in England, 
and it so remains to this day. The political organization, how 
ever, was vastly different ; for, while the Virginians followed the 
English plan of government in many respects, the people of New 




England broke away from it altogether. Almost from the first 
their government was a democracy. 

As has been noted, the geographic surroundings were mainly 
responsible for the differing political organizations, but the social 
position of the people also had its effect. In Virginia 
the landowners and the clergy ranked with the no 
bility and were people of title and distinction. Many 
of them had found life in England intolerable after the execution 
of Charles I and the usurpation of Cromwell, and they were 



glad to make their home in America. They were the ruling class 
in England; it is not a matter of surprise that they were the 
governing class of Virginia. 

In New England the Pilgrims and Puritans the clergy ex- 
cepted belonged to the middle class of England. They were 
thrifty and intelligent, and consisted mainly of tradesmen, manu 
facturers, and well-to-do people. There were a few families who 
ranked among the gentry, that is, they were owners of estates 
and lands in England, but they bore no titles except that of 


" esquire," and they were not of noble lineage as were most of the 
Cavaliers of the South. 1 

Between the various classes there was very little social inter 
course. The wealthy planter of Virginia or the patroon of New 
York was socially considered a superior person to the tradesman 
or the farmer ; the tradesman and the farmer, too, were a class 
that looked down upon the wage laborer. Even in New England 
the clergy and the gentry were always treated with a distinction 
that was not accorded to the common people. 2 

There were fewer redemptioners and slaves in the New England 
colonies than in the South and the Middle colonies, mainly be 
cause there were no large plantations. On the rugged 
New England plateau the farms were necessarily small ; 
and the family of the farmer, reenforced by a single " hired man," 
furnished all the help required. In New York the patroon leased 
his manor to tenants who, in fact, were but little better than in 
dentured servants, arid usually these were not many in number. 
The Virginia planter, on the contrary, might require more than 
one hundred workmen on his plantation ; hence the great majority 
of indentured servants and slaves were in the South. 

The distribution of wealth was an important feature in social 

life. Virginia was the wealthiest of all the colonies, but the 

wealth was possessed by a few people. There was a 

fairly well-to-do middle class of tradesmen and small 

farmers, but the great bulk of the population, consisting of wage 

laborers and redemptioners, was poor. In New York, likewise. 

the distribution of wealth was uneven. The patroons and the 

merchants, for the greater part, were well-to-do or rich ; the tenants 

and wage earners were not. 

In the New England colonies the wealth was much more evenly 

1 Inasmuch as the Church and the State for a time were officially under one con 
trol, the clergy held an official as well as a spiritual leadership. In New England, 
when grave questions were considered, the clergy were very frequently consulted 
and their judgment was apt to be final. 

2 In practically all the colonies there was a class that might he termed 
"shoddy " in character. This was due very largely to illicit fur trading, to trad 
ing with the pirate ships that were accustomed to visit certain points, and to a 
kind of trade with the Indians that would not bear a very close scrutiny. 


distributed. There were few rich people; on the other hand, 
there were few who were very poor. The rigorous climate forced 
them to be industrious ; the shiftless returned to England and the 
weaklings died. It was a survival of the strongest physically, it 
was a survival of the fittest intellectually, for the stern conditions 
under which the people lived developed the thoughtfulness and 
skill necessary to overcome obstacles. Social lines were more 
quickly broken down in New England than elsewhere, partly 
because of the town meeting and partly because there were com 
paratively few people of great wealth. 

Occupations and Business Enterprises. In the Southern colo 
nies, as has been noted, the cultivation of the tobacco plant was 
the chief industry. The tobacco plantations were 
generally near the rivers. The smallest was many 
times the size of a New England farm ; the largest 
was several square miles in extent. Not all the land was fit 
for tobacco planting. The plantations were apt to be far apart, 
and each was a little center 
of population by itself. As 
a result of these conditions, 
there were practically no cities 
and towns of any importance in 
the South until the colonies were 
more than half a century old. 1 

The people of the Southern 
colonies built few roads, and ROLLING TOBACCO TO THE WHARF. 
even the few roads which they built were not very good. They 
saw no need for good roads. There were many navigable streams 
leading to the ocean, and along these the plantations were estab 
lished. The tobacco was packed in hogsheads, which were 
rolled along to the nearest ship landing by horse power. 2 As 

1 Various colonial legislatures tried to create towns and seaports by making 
laws creating them, and one may still find on a map of Virginia such names as 
Charles City and James City, where towns never existed. No towns came into 
existence in Virginia until years afterward. Nowadays people understand that 
cities and towns are the result of commerce and not of statutory law. 

2 To each head of the hogshead a trunnion was fastened, to which a wagon 
tongue, or a pair of shafts, could be attached. 


the population increased and plantations were extended inland, it 
became more difficult to ship the tobacco. In many instances it 
"cost almost as much, if not more, to get the tobacco from the 
plantation to the wharf as from the latter to the London market. 
With the profit of the tobacco crop which, the planter sold to 
English merchants, he not only paid for the clothing, household 
supplies, and metal wares used, but he also had enough left to 
make him rich in a few years. Practically nothing was manu 
factured in the Southern colonies; even much of the lumber 
used in buildings was made from logs sent to England and there 
sawed into boards to be sent back to Virginia. 


South Carolina was the only Southern colony in which tobacco 
was not a staple crop ; in that colony rice was the chief article 
of export. The general conditions, however, were like those of 

New York was the only colony that was not essentially Eng 
lish. The Dutch colonists were not allowed to trade in furs and 

pelts, as that privilege was reserved for the West India 
NewVork Company. They were not allowed to manufacture 

anything that could be procured in Holland ; even the 
bricks for their buildings were imported. They were compelled 


to trade with the mother country, and the West India Company 
managed to secure most of the profits of the trade. After the 
English occupation many of the trade restrictions were practically 
removed. A brisk trade in furs, lumber, flour, and other food 
stuff grew up. 

When English immigrants had established themselves in New 
Jersey, and colonies of Friends, Scotch-Irish, and Germans had 
pretty well covered the river valleys of Pennsylvania, Farmin in 
farming became the chief industry of the -Middle colo- the Middle 
nies. The land was rich and the crops were bountiful, colonies 
The farms were the best in the world. The exports of flour, pro 
visions, and lumber made the people of these thrifty communities 
nearly as wealthy as the tobacco planters of the South. Most of 
the trade centered at Philadelphia, which for many years was the 
foremost city of the country. There were a few iron smelteries 
and paper mills, although in the main manufacturing was 

The people of the New England colonies grew most of the food 
stuff they consumed, but it was very hard work. The rock-strewn 
surface and gravelly soil were ill adapted to farming. New 
There wa.s no staple crop such as tobacco, rice, or England: 
wheat ; about all that they could depend on were the fi ar h mi " S> 
scanty crops of maize, beans, and garden vegetables, and ship- 
The chief produce came from the sea. The cod buildin s 
fisheries off the Newfoundland coast and the mackerel fisheries 
all along the coast proved a great source of wealth. They also 
created a race of sailors that had no superior. Shipbuilding 
became an important industry, and the sails of the Yankee clipper- 
ship, with her raking masts and sharp cutwater, were to be seen in 
nearly every foreign port under the sun. These were much supe 
rior to the European vess^s, and cost about three fourths as 
much. They were, therefore, considerably in demand by Euro 
pean shippers. It was no uncommon thing for a captain, on 
reaching the West Indies, to sell ship and cargo outright at a 
single transaction. 

The uplands, when cleared of timber, made good pasturage. 
Between the fisheries and the grazing, the New England people 


supplied nearly all the West Indies with, salted beef, codfish, 
salmon, and mackerel ; they even furnished the greater number of 

horses and oxen used in those islands. This trade 

was the beginning of American commerce. 1 The im 
ports to the New England colonies were mainly cotton goods 
and raw wool from England, and sugar, molasses, and logwood 
from the West Indies. The net profits of the voyage were 
brought back usually in Spanish coin, which was quite as com 
mon at times as English money. The logwood was used in dye 
ing the cotton and wool fiber ; the wool was made into cloth in 
the looms which were found in every household. 

The Navigation Laws. From the time that the commerce of 
the colonies began to be profitable, the English Parliament as 
sumed the right to gain by it. At first (1651) the navigation 
laws required that merchandise to and from the colonies should 
be carried in English vessels ; later (1660) it was ordered that all 
colonial products be sold in ports belonging to England. Next 
(1663) all goods imported to the colonies must be bought in Eng 
land if English merchants could furnish them. The Parliament 
even (1673) forbade New England vessels from carrying any 
imports, and levied a tariff 2 on all goods shipped from one colony 
to another. Within a few years the laws were made still more 
oppressive ; the colonists were forbidden to manufacture such 
articles as would compete with English-made goods, to manufac 
ture for themselves anything which was made in England, or to 
sell in foreign markets anything which English buyers might take. 

As a matter of fact, these laws were not rigidly enforced until 
Enforcement tne accession of George III (1760), and the govern- 
of the laws meiit probably did not intend that they should be. 

1 One product of the New England colonies was unique, namely, barrel staves ; 
probably more than half the world s supply was made in the vicinity of the New 
England ports. By far the greater part of these staves went to the West Indies 
and were used for the barrels and hogsheads in which sugar, molasses, and rum 
were shipped. The rum casks made by the New England cooper were the finest 
in existence. The traffic in staves extended to Europe, and considerable quanti 
ties were shipped to Spain and Portugal. 

2 That is, a payment of money was exacted by the government on all goods 


The laws were enforced just often enough to create vexation ; 
they were neglected just enough to breed contempt for them. 

Perhaps Virginia and the Southern colonies suffered more than 
the others when the restrictions imposed by the Parliament were 

enforced, inasmuch as the planters were compelled to 

The results 
sell their crops to English merchants, who fixed the 

price of the tobacco to suit themselves. The tobacco growers, 
having no surplus money to spend, could not buy anything, and 
this condition was quickly felt in England ; the shopkeepers and 
farmers could not sell to customers who had no money. As a 
way of getting income from the colonies, the trade restrictions 
were a failure. 

It is often thought that England imposed unnecessarily harsh 
commercial relations upon her American colonies, but this is 
hardly true. Until George III became king, she was far more 
lenient than were other European states in the treatment of their 
dependencies. The Dutch settlers of New Netherland were very 
glad to exchange Dutch for English rule, because of the greater 
commercial freedom they were to enjoy. Except in the matter 
of trade regulations, the colonies were generally left to them 
selves until they became royal provinces, and even then they 
were not more strictly governed than were the people in the 
mother country. As a rule, nearly every reasonable request was 

Forms of Colonial Government. There were three forms of 
government in the colonies. To the founders of some of the 

earlier colonies charters were given, either by the 

,., j 4.1 Charter, pro- 

Crown or by a mercantile company acting under the pr i e tary, 

permission of the Crown. 1 These were the charter and royal 
colonies. In other cases, such as Pennsylvania, the c< 
patent or title to the lands was given to an individual. These 
e the proprietary colonies. In other cases, the governing 
power of the colony was directly in the hands of the king. 
These were called royal provinces. In time seven of the colonies 

1 Virginia was settled by a mercantile company having a charter from the 
Crown. Massachusetts, Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Haven 
were all charter colonies in the early days. 




became royal provinces. Connecticut and Rhode Island refused 
to surrender the charters which they had received ; Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, and Maryland were governed under patents issued to 
individuals, and not even the king could annul the title. The 
other colonies Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, New 
Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia 
became royal provinces. Of these, Massachusetts forfeited her 
charter, and the royal governor practically abolished the General 
Court. A new charter was obtained in 1692, which restored some 
of the privileges that the people had enjoyed. 

Of all the royal governors, Sir Edmund Androfj stands out as 
the most interesting character. That he was despotic and arbi 
trary there is no doubt. In New York he succeeded 
Governor Dongan, a most excellent chief magistrate, 
who was every inch a statesman. He deposed Philip 
Carteret, governor of New Jersey, 
and seized the government of 
that colony. When the New 
England colonies were under his 
rule, about the first of his acts 
was to take forcible possession 
of Old South Meeting House in 
Boston, turn the Puritans out, 
and use it as an Episcopal church. 
The opposition of the New Eng 
land people whetted his appetite 
for a very strict government, and 
he was not slow to impose it. 
So far as trade was concerned, in 
spite of his enforcement of the 
oppressive regulations, there was 
great prosperity. Andros was 
finally ordered to England to be 
tried for misconduct, but was 
acquitted without trial. Shortly afterward he was appointed 
governor of Virginia, and to the surprise of all he proved a very 
popular magistrate. His despotic ways were due to his military 



training, and his unpopularity arose largely from his lack of 
tact. In every respect he was an honest watchdog, serving most 
faithfully his royal master. 1 

The Beginning of Legislative Assemblies. The machinery of 
government in the various colonies did not differ much in form 
or in practice. In Massachusetts the governor, his deputy, and 
the board of assistants were elected by a general court composed 
of the stockholders of the company. The charter itself was a per 
mit granted by the English government. 2 The board of assist 
ants was supposed to be the real working machinery, and all 
went well until it attempted to levy a tax on the various 
settlements for building a small fort or blockhouse at The repre _ 
Newtown. Then there was a protest that English sentation of 
subjects could not be taxed without their consent. the P e P le 
But there was no legislative assembly of the people to grant 
the levy ; in order to meet the difficulty, it was agreed to create 
a general court consisting of two deputies from each settlement 
to advise with the board of assistants. At first the deputies 
met with the board, but in 1644 there was a falling out between 
the two bodies, 3 and thereafter they formed two distinct branches. 

Thus was established in America the legislative body composed 
of two houses. The Virginia assembly, established in 1619, con 
sisted of only one house. By the time of the Revolu 
tion all of the colonies had adopted the Massachusetts h0 u se ^ 
plan of legislative organization, and this system was 
continued by every state as well as by the national government 
of the United States. 

The other New England colonies had representative assemblies. 
In New York, during Dutch rule, the necessity of a popular 
assembly to assist the council of the West India Company 

1 Lady Andros was as much beloved as her husband was hated, and at the 
time of her death was sincerely mourned in New England. She was buried in 
King s Chapel, Boston. 

2 When this charter was granted in 1629, Charles I was trying to govern 
his kingdom without the aid of Parliament, and so he himself gave the charter. 

3 The misunderstanding came about through a lawsuit over Mistress Sher 
man s pig. It produced a breach between the two houses, and each thereafter 
had a veto power over the other. 


became apparent. Both Kieft and Stuyvesant allowed the 
people to elect such an assembly, but each governor managed to 
have the assembly composed of men who were under his control. 1 
After New York became an English possession, Governor Dongan, 
a very wise ruler, obtained a charter for the colony which proved 
to be a good constitution. This charter provided a legislative 
assembly to be elected by the people. In Pennsylvania, from the 
first, there was an assembly to represent the people ; this assem 
bly, with the governor appointed by the proprietor, made the laws. 

Maryland, as has been noted, was practically a palatinate or 
little monarchy, under Lord Baltimore, who was an unusually 
broad and humane man. Yet the popular assembly was early 
regarded as the real law-making and governing body. In Vir 
ginia the House of Burgesses made the laws, which, after having 
been approved by the governor, must also receive the approval 
of the king. In fact, the king reserved to himself the Fight to 
cancel all laws passed by the assemblies in the royal provinces. 

Subordinate Officers. In the main, the subordinate offices and 
officers of the colonies were about the same as in the mother 
country. There were courts of justice, courts of record, judges, 
sheriffs, clerks, constables, and the like, and their duties have 
not changed materially in two centuries. There were tithing- 
men, who originally collected one tenth of each man s income 
for the benefit of the church, or perhaps for the king. The 
"tidy-man" of New England stood guard over the church con 
gregation, thwacking with his long rod the thick skull of any 
unfortunate who should presume to find a three-hour sermon dry 
enough to put him to sleep. There were also town-criers, who 
kept the people in touch with any startling news. All these were 
the heritage from the mother country, and when no longer 
necessary they were discarded. 

Popular Government. The rapid spread of the desire for popu 
lar government in the colonies was not due so much to any 
superiority which the colonists might possess as compared with 

1 Governor Stuyvesant once exclaimed to an obstinate councilman: " If any 
one during my administration shall appeal, I will make him a foot shorter and 
send the pieces back to Holland." 


the people of the mother country ; it was due chiefly to their new 
geographical surroundings. The conservative lawmakers of Eng 
land could not know what the colonists needed. But the colonists 
themselves knew well what laws were best suited to their environ 
ment, and proceeded to get them by means of their own assemblies. 
Had the Established Church party emigrated to America, instead 
of the Puritans and the Friends, the result would have been the 
same. It was merely a case of the man adjusting himself to 
changed environment, and that is the chief reason why " Liberty 
was in the air." 


The political and social features of the colonies were essentially the 
same as those of the home country, but were somewhat modified by new 

The lines between the aristocracy and the commoners in the colonies 
were strongly drawn. In Virginia the aristocracy consisted of the 
wealthy tobacco planters, in New York they were the patroons, and in 
New England the clergymen, the colonial officers, and a few gentry. 

In the Southern colonies the chief industry was tobacco planting ; in 
New York the fur trade and commerce were the chief employments, and 
in New England fishing, shipbuilding, and ocean commerce. 

The navigation laws prohibited the colonists from trading with any 
country except England, and had the effect of lowering the prices of 
commodities for export. When enforced, these laws crippled the trade 
of the colonies. 

There were three forms of colonial government : charter, proprietary, 
and royal. All the colonies except Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware, 
Pennsylvania, and Maryland became royal provinces. The last three 
named were owned by individual proprietors. 

Elective legislative assemblies were created in all the leading colonies, 
and out of these grew the double-assembly system in the states and the 
United States. 


Old Virginia and Her Neighbors Fiske. Chapters X, XII. 
Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America Fiske. Chapters XV, XVI. 
History of the United States Bancroft. Vol. I, Chapter XIV. 
The Beginnings of New England Fiske. Chapter III. 



Early French Explorations. The French, did not take any con 
siderable part in the early exploration of the American continent. 
Only one of the earlier expeditions under the direction 
of the French king was fruitful. In 15M-1535 
Jacques Cartier coasted about the island of Newfoundland and 
discovered the river which he named St. Lawrence. His party 
ascended the river to an island that was the site of a large 
Indian village. To the lofty boss of volcanic rock that afforded 
a most delightful view, he gave the name of Montreal, meaning 
royal mountain. 

Possibly the fact that the undiscovered lands of the earth had 
been divided between Spain and Portugal may have prevented 
the French from taking part in the earlier voyages of discovery ; l 
certain it is that they did not become active until more than 
seventy years after Cartier s voyage. Just about the time (1608) 
that Henry Hudson explored New York Bay, Samuel 
Champlain, a young Frenchman, descended from an 
excellent Huguenot family, established a permanent settlement 
at a locality that he had visited four or five years before. The 
promontory that overlooks the narrow stretch of the St. Lawrence 
commended itself to him as the best place for a trading post and 

1 King Francis I demanded " the clause in the Mill of Father Adam which 
divides the earth between the Spanish and the Portuguese to the exclusion of the 
French." Cartier s expedition was probably a perfunctory act designed to 
establish a precedent. 



fort, and he named it Quebec, an Algonquian word meaning " the 
narrows." The next year he went farther inland and discovered 
the lake which was named in his honor. 

The business of fur trading proved a paying industry, and in 
order to put it on a better basis, Champlain made a treaty with the 
Algonquian Indians. This affair shortly afterward drew him into 
a battle with the Mohawks, near Ticonderoga. He defeated these 
Indians, but in doing so brought upon himself the eternal hatred 
of the Iroquoian tribes ; as a result, the French were not able to 
establish trading posts in central New York. 

The Settlement of New France. In the course of time various 
small settlements were made by the French, mainly within the 
area now including Nova Scotia and a part of New Brunswick 
and Maine. Perhaps the most important of these settlements was 
Port Royal, now Annapolis. This area, settled largely by fisher 
men, pastoral people, and fur traders, was named Acadia. 1 The 
region of the Great Lakes was penetrated by hardy French ex 
plorers who established small blockhouses, forts, and trading posts 
all along the entire basin. This region, along with Acadia, was a 
French Crown possession, and was known as New France. 

The Exploration of the Mississippi. 1672-1682. From the 
Indians it was learned that a great river lay to the westward 
of Mackinac, a trading post where now is a town 
of the same name. In May, 1673, Louis Joliet and 
Father Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, 2 with a small 
party in two canoes, crossed Lake Michigan to Green Bay, 3 and 
then dragged their canoes across the portages and divides that 
separate Green Bay from the Mississippi. In June they reached 
the river and descended it as far south as the mouth of the 

1 An Algonquian word, Aquoddy, meaning " a place." 

2 The Jesuits, or Society of Jesus, was an order composed of priests. The 
order, organized for the purpose of spreading the Christian faith throughout all 
heathen lands, contained men selected with great care and splendidly trained for 
their work. No men were ever more zealous in their work, and there was no 
part of the world they did not reach. Thousands died from the hardships 
endured, hut there were a score ready to take the place of each one. 

3 This arm of Lake Michigan was noted by Jean Nicollet, who reached the 
source of the Mississippi about 1634-1635. 



Arkansas River, not far from the place of De Soto s death. From 
that point they paddled and dragged their canoes back to the 
Great Lakes. * 

A few years later (1679) Robert de la Salle was ordered to 
complete the work of Joliet and Marquette, for the French king 

Route ofMarqi 

Route of La Salle x X X 

Freuch Forts -*. 


saw a wonderful future in the broad prairies of the Mississippi. 
Near Buffalo La Salle built a small vessel, the 
Griffin, which carried the men and supplies to the 
mouth of the St. Joseph River, where they built a fort that 
afterward became the town of St. Joseph, in Michigan. From 

La Salle 


this point they proceeded by stream and portage in canoes to 
the present site of Kankakee, Illinois, and thence to the place 
where Peoria now stands, building blockhouse forts at each 
place. It became necessary to go back to Canada for supplies, 
and a year was thus lost. 

In 1682 La Salle reached the present site of Chicago, again om- 
barked on the Illinois River, and descended it to the Mississippi. 
In two months more he had reached the Gulf of 
Mexico, and there he erected a wooden cross on which 
was fastened a shield emblazoned with the coat of arms of France. 
La Salle thereby claimed for France all the lands drained by the 
Mississippi Eiver a region six 
times as large as the whole of France. 
He named it Louisiana in honor of 
Louis XIV, at that time king. 

The Building of French Forts. In 
order to hold the territory thus ac 
quired, it was necessary not only to 
build many forts along the Mississippi 
and its eastern tributaries, but also 
to establish a settlement at its mouth 
which should be strong enough to 
keep out the Spaniards, who had a 
number of outposts along the shores 

of the Gulf. The French already 

, ,, ., ~. T ^ ROBERT DE LA SALLE. 

held the St. Lawrence valley and 

the basin of the Great Lakes, a territory that they named 
New France; with a fort and settlement at the mouth of the 
Mississippi, they could control the whole central plain through 
which the river flowed. 1 

The carrying out of these plans was slow work ; nevertheless, 
in the course of fifty years a chain of forts was established 
extending up the St. Lawrence River, along the Great Lakes, 
and down the Mississippi River to the Gulf. Some forts were 

1 The first settlement made in the Louisiana region by white men was at 
Biloxi, just east of the mouths of the Mississippi, where Iberville, a French 
Canadian, established a company in 1099. New Orleans was founded in 1718. 




intended to guard places of easy approach ; others were to protect 
trading posts ; still others were intended for defense against the 

Indians. Many of them were 
blockhouses, surrounded each 
by a palisade. 1 In almost 

jjfmjm?j^-^~fL~- r ^ -^""frf > U \. 

liSMSiSteSsI J.i)J?/y every instance a trading post 

was established at the fort, 
a village grew up about the 
trading post, and the village 
finally became a city. Chi 
cago, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, 
St. Louis, New Orleans, and 
a number of smaller places 
had such a beginning. Every 
thing looked toward the establishing of a great French empire 
in the New World. 2 

Thus was created the French possession named Louisiana. The 
French king must have known that his title to the country was not 
the very best, for it overlapped the Spanish claims in what is now 
Texas, and trespassed in several places on territory occupied by 
the English. Moreover, England claimed the whole continent. 
The region including the present states of Mississippi and 
Louisiana, however, was held by the French by actual settle 

The Indifference of the English to the Mississippi Region. In 
the meantime the English had done nothing toward exploring the 
region west of the Appalachian Mountains. In part this apparent 
neglect was owing to the fact that they did not then care to arouse 
the hostility of the Iroquoian tribes, but mainly it was because 
they felt secure in their right to the western country. By their 
charters the territory of several colonies extended from ocean to 
ocean. They felt all the more secure because there was but little 

1 The palisade usually consisted of a mud wall surmounted by a row of heavy 
stakes, the whole being ten or twelve feet in height. When faced with a row of 
pointed stakes pointing outward, it was a stockade. 

2 In order that the occupation might be in due form, the commander-in-chief 
of New France directed (1743) Celoron de Bienville to bury leaden tablets on which 
was engraved the claim of King Louis XV to the Ohio and the Allegheny valleys. 


During the 

djFreiu h LJ Knjjlish | [Spa 

50 100 200 300 


immigration to the great Louisiana country almost all of it 
was confined to New Orleans, Mobile, and the few forts near the 
Gulf coast. 


The Colonies become involved in European Wars. During the 
sixty years previous to the real struggle over their possessions 
in America, England and France were at war on several occa 
sions, and each time their respective colonies in America were 
drawn into the struggle. Nothing of importance to the colonies 
was settled by these wars. 

As a result of the revolution that drove James II from the 
English throne, war was declared between France and England. 
Count Frontenac, who conducted the French campaign R . 
in America, planned to send a strong force down the William s 
Hudson Valley, but the fact that tlie jVIohawk Indians War. 
had just attacked Montreal, compelled. him to change ^89-1697 
his plans. Instead (1690), scalping -parties were sent out at 
different times. One of these descended on Schenectady, New 
York, and massacred ninety people ; another destroyed Salmon 
Falls, Massachusetts ; another devastated the region along the 
Maine coast where Portland now stands. A few years later 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, was attacked and many of the people 
were killed. In the meantime, the New England colonies sent 
out a fleet which captured Port Royal, the French stronghold near 
the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia. This war cessed (1697) when 
the mother countries each restored conquered territories and 
declared a temporary peace. 

A few years later (1702) the war was renewed. The Indians 
were turned loose, and resumed the occupation of burning and kill 
ing. The New England colonists again captured Port Q ueen 
Royal, but were defeated in an attempt to take Quebec. Anne s 
Another temporary peace was declared. There was a War- 
distinct gain for the English colonists, for they kept fl**-*? 1 * 
Port Eoyal, which they renamed Annapolis ; they also gained 
Acadia (now Nova Scotia), Hudson Bay Territory, and Newfound 




Twenty-eight years later, in the reign of George II, hostilities 
between England and France were resumed. In the meantime, 
King ^ ie ^ 1>en h aa( l accomplished much in strengthening 

George s themselves in New France and Louisiana. They built 
War. the most substantial fort in the New World at Louis- 

1741-1748 burg, on Cape Breton Island. It guarded the entrance 
to the St. Lawrence River, and therefore to New France. Neverthe 
less, Colonel Pepperell with a few thousand militia, together with 

the British fleet, captured it. 
There was not much hard 
fighting ; the French were 
frightened out. The result 
was twofold. This capture 
of Louisburg put an end to 
the work of French pirates 
who had been plundering the 
New England fishing fleets, 
and it gave the colonial troops confidence in themselves. Very 
foolishly the English gave Louisburg back to the French at the 
close of the war. 

The Beginning of the Struggle for a Continent. By this time it 
had become apparent to both England and France that one or the 
other must quit the continent of North America 
there was no longer room for the two nations upon it. 
Neither England nor her colonies seemed to appreciate 
how strong the .French had become, but the latter knew how weak 
the English were. It is true that there were about fifteen English 
colonists to every Frenchman, but the French had practically every 
advantage of position, and they were not slow to perceive this. 

Years before this time efforts were put forth to induce young 
men to go to New France and Louisiana, and many had gone 
there; but the king would not permit them to be landowners, 
and instead of making farms and growing food crops, most of 
them drifted into a vagabond life, living with the Indians and 
trading in furs. 1 In later years the government had given much 
more attention to forts than to farms, and the line of forts down 

1 They became known by the name of coureurs de bois (rangers of the forest). 



the Mississippi and its tributaries had increased to about sixty in 
number. Although the French nominally held the basin of the 
Great Lakes, they kept away from the south shores of Lakes Erie 
and Ontario for a very good reason, they did not care to have 
more trouble with the Iroquoian tribes who claimed this region. 

The Appalachian ranges separated the French and the English, 
and inasmuch as these mountains produced nothing that either 
side cared for, they formed an excellent " buffer " ter 
ritory between the two. In these ranges, however, 
were three important gateways between the English Appaia- 
and the Mississippi Valley. The chief of these was c 
the Mohawk River gap. As this was held by the Iroquoians, the 
French had not attempted to interfere there ; however, they built a 
fort at Kingston, opposite the present 
site of Oswego, New York. The next 
in importance as a gateway was the 
valley of Lake Champlain. There 
was clear sailing over the lake from 
head to foot, and the trails along the 
lake from the Hudson to the St. 
Lawrence were level enough for a 
wagon road. At Crown Point, a 
peninsula that cuts the lake almost 
in two, the French built a fort. On 
Ticonderoga, a tableland that com 
mands a narrow view of the lake, 
they built another. 

There was still another pass across 
the mountains, namely, the gap along 
the Potomac at Cumberland and 
across the divide to the Ohio. 1 It had become an important 
route from Virginia to the Ohio River, and the French were not 
slow to see the value of it. They also established Fort le Boetif 
in the valley of French Creek, a few miles south of Lake Erie. 

1 It had been an old Indian trail before the white men came ; it was discovered 
by the bison before the Indians knew of it. It is the route of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad to-day. 





of the 

From this point, if necessary, they could quickly go clown the 
river to the Ohio, or they could as easily get back to Presqu 
Isle, the present site of Erie, Pennsylvania. 

Many have charged the English government with dilatory con 
duct for remaining idle while all these things were going on. 

The fault, 
lay chiefly 
with the colonists 
themselves. The 
governors of Vir 
ginia, New York, 
and Massachusetts 
each called upon his 
legislative assembly 
to take active meas 
ures, but the assem 
blies adjourned with 
out doing anything. 
Benjamin Franklin 
and other leading 
men, in a congress 
at Albany in 1754, 
drew up a plan for 
the federation of the 
colonies in order that 
they might take con 
certed action, but the 
colonists, who stood 

centralized power, rej.ected the plan with but little ceremony. 1 

England, however, sent over some of her best troops, and the 
colonies called out their militia. But almost always regular 

1 The congress was called for the purpose of making a treaty with the Iroquo- 
ians ; but some of the delegates preferred to make treaties independently with the 
tribes on the borders of their own colonies. They regarded Franklin s federation 
of the colonies as the greater of two evils. The meeting is known as the Albany 
Congress. See page 177. 


troops look upon militia and volunteers with contempt, and this 
case was no exception to the rule ; the two did not get on together 
very well, and each reserved their worst manners for the other. 
This was the state of affairs at the beginning of the greatest war 
that had occurred in the New World, the conflict known as the 
French and Indian War. 

Washington s Mission. 1755. When it was learned that the 
French were in the Allegheny Valley, Governor Dinwiddie of 
Virginia determined to send a messenger to confer with the com 
mander of the French troops, and also to prevent as far as possible 
any intrigues with the Indians. The 
messenger selected was a young sur 
veyor, George Washington. Wash 
ington presented his message to the 
French commander at Fort Le Boeuf, 
who told him in a very polite way 
that what the French were doing in 
the Allegheny Valley was none of 
Governor Dinwiddie s business. The 
commander also intimated that the 
French troops intended to drive the 
English out of the country. When 
Washington returned, Governor Din 
widdie at once ordered a fort built 
on the peninsula at the junction of 
the two rivers, where Pittsburg now 
stands, in order to save the lands of the Ohio Company ; l but 
the French drove the men away and themselves completed the 
fort, which they named Duquesne. 

Washington was again ordered to the frontier with three hun 
dred men. 2 He hastily threw up earthworks, which he named 

1 This first Ohio Company, organized in 1749 by Virginia colonists and London 
merchants, was given by the king of England 500,000 acres of land in western 
Pennsylvania and along the Ohio River. The company prepared to open roads 
and establish settlements, but it soon went out of existence. 

2 It was a Virginia regiment of which Joshua Fry was colonel and Washington 
the second in command. Colonel Fry was mortally ill, however, and Washington 
therefore took the command. 

From a painting. 



Fort Necessity, at Great Meadows, a few miles south of Fort 
Duquesne. While there, he attacked and captured a French scout 
ing party, which had been reported by his Indian allies ; but in a 
very short time a force of French troops and Indians was upon 
him, and after a brief struggle (July 4, 1755) he surrendered. 
He was permitted to leave with arms and equipments. His chief 
Indian ally, Half-King, remarked that " the French behaved like 
cowards and the English like fools." It would be a more correct 
interpretation to claim that neither side desired to shoulder the 
responsibility of committing a formal act of war, although the 
fight was clearly an act of war. 

The English Plan of Campaign. Both France and England saw 
that the struggle was one of life and death, and both prepared 
themselves for the contest. All the troops that could be spared 
were hurried to the scene of conflict. The French seemed inclined 
to act on the defensive. The English planned to attack in four 
places by as many expeditions. The expeditions were : 

(1) By way of Cumberland, Maryland, across the divide, to attack 

Fort Duquesne, at the head of the Ohio. 

(2) Up Lake Cham plain to capture Fort Ticonderoga and Crown 

Point and to lay siege to Quebec, 

(3) Through the Hudson and Mohawk valleys to Oswego and 


(4) Against the French towns in the northeast by a naval expedi 

tion, thereby holding back troops that might otherwise go 
to the defense of Quebec. 

Braddock s Defeat. 1755. The most important operation was 
the one designed to check the advance of the French at the head 
of the Ohio, and General Braddock, the Commander-in-chief of the 
English and colonial forces, undertook this part of the campaign. 
Braddock s army cut its way through the heavily timbered 
country until he was within a few miles of Fort Duquesne, when 
he made the mistake which cost him his life. He would not 
allow his men to get behind trees or to lie down to deliver their 
fire, after the Indian plan of fighting. Instead, he held them in 
solid columns, to be mowed down by the deadly fire of his enemy. 1 

1 The British followed a similar plan during the first part of the Boer War, 
but they learned better by experience before the war was over. 



Braddock himself was a brave leader, and on a European battle 
field he would have been a most efficient commander. Fighting 
a foe of skirmishers in the timber, however, was a new strategy 
to him and one for which he was not prepared. Washington, 
who was with Braddock as an aid, was better informed in this 
sort of fighting, and so lie conducted an orderly retreat. 

The Campaign in New York and Canada. The conduct of the 
war in New York and Canada for the first three years was dis 
heartening. The French had a new commander, a 
young man named Montcalm. Montcalm was not 
only a born soldier, he was a born diplomat as well. He made 
peace with the Iroquoians, long enemies of the French, and even 
persuaded them to give no help 
to the English. To emphasize 
his good intentions, he crossed 
Lake Ontario from Fort Fronte- 
nac one night and drove the Eng 
lish from Fort Oswego. Then, 
to show the Indians that he did 
not want their lands, he destroyed 
the fort and returned to Canada. 

The expedition to the Cham- 
plain Valley for a time was barren 
of results. Fort William Henry, 
at the head of Lake George, 
was captured by Montcalm, and 
many of the disarmed English 
soldiers who were retreating to 
Fort Edward were massacred by 


drunken Indians. General Abercrombie (1758) attempted to cap 
ture Ticonderoga ; but though he had nearly five times as many 
men as Montcalm, the affair was badly managed and proved a 
wretched failure. After six assaults upon the fort, Abercrombie 
had lost over two thousand men, killed and wounded. Aber 
crombie himself kept away from the fight, but brave Lord Howe, 
who led the assault, was slain. A movement against Crown Point 
was partly successful, but it had no real results. 



The operations against Niagara were a flat failure. To add to 
the gloom of the situation, a scalping party of Indians destroyed 
Palatine Village, New York, leaving forty of its people dead. 

An expedition from New England to Acadia in the northeast 
succeeded in driving out the French. 1 

The Turning of the War. Bradstreet destroys the French Supplies. 
1758. At the beginning of 1758 the English cause seemed al 
most hopeless. Fortunately William Pitt had just come to the 
front in England as secretary of state. He practically had control 
of colonial affairs, and his good common sense was felt very quickly. 
During that year, moreover, an incident occurred that helped very 


The picture shows a rare brass medal, bearing a head of Admiral Boscawen on 
one side, and on the other a quaint view of Louisburg harbor and fort. 

materially to turn the tide of war. The French had never grown 
any amount of food stuffs in New France and Louisiana. From 
the beginning of the war they had depended upon the mother 
country for their supplies, and these were passed onward from 
one to another of the chain of forts. 

During the spring and summer of 1758, it happened that a very 
large quantity of supplies had accumulated at Fort Frontenac, 
waiting to be transferred to the forts beyond, mainly to Fort 
Duquesne. In August Colonel John Bradstreet, a militia officer, 
urged upon the council of war the necessity of destroying these 

1 Some six thousand Acadians were forcibly removed from their homes and 
distributed among the English colonies because of their strong loyalty to France. 


supplies, and permission for an expedition was reluctantly given. 
Bradstreet gathered a force of about twenty-seven hundred men, 
moved rapidly to Oswego, crossed the lake, and before the French 
were aware of his approach, Fort Frontenac was forever lost to 
them. All the stores were captured or destroyed, and the chain 
of forts that had been strangling the colonies was broken. 

The Fall of Fort Duquesne and Louisburg. 1758. The loss of 
the food stuffs was a fatal blow to the French; at Fort Du 
quesne starvation was not far off. Washington gradually closed 
in about the fort (1758), and the garrison set fire to it and 
retreated. When the English flag was raised over the smoking 
ruins, all agreed to call the village Pittsburg in honor of William 
Pitt. About the same time, too, Louisburg, after a hard siege, 
was surrendered to two very good fighters, Amherst and Bos- 
cawen, and thus the St. Lawrence 
River gateway to New France 
was in possession of the English. 
In the meantime, Sir William 
Johnson made a rapid advance 
against Fort Niagara and captured 
it, thus breaking another link in 
the chain of forts. 

The Storming of Quebec. 1759. 
- The operations in Canada had 
been directed by General James 
Wolfe, 1 a very skillful commander. 
After the fall of Louisburg there 
remained but one important 
stronghold, Quebec. The fortress 

above the town had been made 

i -, j i ^ GENERAL WOLFE. 

as strong as human hands could 

build. The following year, 1759, General Wolfe entered the 
St. Lawrence and proceeded to lay siege to Quebec. Several 
weeks of bombardment failed to reduce it, so, during the night 
of September 12, Wolfe and his men scaled the steep side 

1 He was a most gallant officer, and was selected by Pitt for the command of 
the forces in the St. Lawrence Valley, ten thousand in number. 


of the cliff in the rear of the fortress for a final attack. The 
morning found them on the top of the cliff, a tableland called 
the Plains of Abraham. Montcalm at once gave battle, but after 
a terrible fight the French yielded. Wolfe and Montcalm both 
fell that day; two better men and braver soldiers than they 
never met. Quebec was then occupied by the English. In the 
following summer Montreal was taken. And so ended the French 
empire in America. 

The French expelled from America. 1763. War had not been 
publicly declared (May, 1756) until two years after the fighting 
had begun, and both countries were equally slow in 

making peace. Three years after the surrender of 

Montreal, the treaty was signed in Paris, in 1763. By 
its terms France gave to England all of Canada, except the islands 
of St. Pierre and Miquelon, and all her territory east of the Mis 
sissippi. A small area around the mouth of the river, however, 
was excluded ; this and all territory west of the Mississippi was 
ceded to Spain, who was an ally of France. 1 During the war the 
English had taken Havana in Cuba ; by the treaty this city was 
exchanged for the Spanish possessions in Florida. 

The territory gained by the treaty comprises a large part of the 
most productive area of the United States. Had the French 
retained this region with its tremendous natural resources, and 
the commercial outlets by way of the St. Lawrence and the 
Mississippi, France might have become easily the greatest power 
on the earth. 



The French entered America by way of the St. Lawrence River and 
established a chain of forts to hold this valley. The region about the 
St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes constituted New France. 

By virtue of discovery and exploration, the French claimed the basin 
of the Mississippi River, named Louisiana, and proceeded to hold it 
also by a chain of forts connecting the Great Lakes and the Gulf of 

1 This territory, including New Orleans, was in 1800 again transferred secretly 
to France. 


During hostilities between England and "France, the war was three 
times carried into the American colonies, constituting King William s, 
Queen Anne s, and King George s wars. 

A fourth war, called the French and Indian War, was waged to deter 
mine the mastery of the continent. 

A campaign against Fort Duquesne ended in a rout of the English 
and colonial forces. 

A campaign into Champlain Valley for the capture of Fort Ticou- 
deroga and Crown Point also failed, and the French general, Montcalm, 
advanced and captured Fort William Henry. 

A sudden capture of Fort Frontenac by Colonel Bradstreet was the 
turning point of the war. He destroyed the food supplies of the French. 

The capture of Quebec by General Wolfe in 1759, and of Montreal in 
1760, took from the French their last strongholds in America. 

By the treaty of Paris, in 1763, France surrendered to England all of 
Canada, except two small islands, and all her claims to territory east of 
the Mississippi ; Spain ceded Florida to England. The territory west 
of the Mississippi was ceded to Spain. 


New France and Neio England Fiske. Chapter I. 
History of the United States Bancroft. Vol. II, Chapters X, XI. 
Montcalm and Wolfe Park man. Vol. I, Chapters V, VII T; Vol. II, 
Chapters XXIV, XXVII. 

With Wolfe in Canada Henty. (For popular reading.) 


The King s Plan for Taxing the Colonies. 1765. One might 
reasonably think that the fortunate ending of the French and 
Indian War would tend to bring the colonies and the mother 
country into more harmonious relations. As a matter of fact 
it did not. During the half century that the French had been 
a constant menace, the question of defense against French 
aggression had been uppermost. For their protection the colo 
nies naturally looked to England, and therefore all unpleasant 
feeling about the navigation laws and other restrictions was 
put aside. When, however, the French were driven out of the 
continent and were no longer to be feared, all the old issues again 
came to the surface. Just at this time, too, another vexatious 
question came up, namely, the payment of the war debt and the 
right of the mother country to tax the colonies for it. 

A few years after George III had come to the throne (1760), 

a general plan for levying taxes was arranged by his prime 

minister, Grenville, and under its provisions the 

e imp co i on i s ts were to be required to contribute to the 
Royal Treasury. The law, passed in 1765, was 
known in England as the Stamp Act, from the fact that it 
required that revenue stamps purchased from the government 
should be placed on all legal documents, promissory notes, and 
receipts, and also on newspapers and other publications. This 
form of taxation applied to the mother country as well as to the 
colonies. The stamps ranged in value from a half penny (one 
cent) for a stamp to go on a small newspaper or pamphlet, to. 
six pounds sterling (a little more than twenty-nine dollars) for 
a stamp to go on a commission for a public office. Grenville 




believed that a large sum could be raised every year from the 
Americans in this way. 

Why the Stamp Act was Passed. At the time of the passage 
of the Stamp Act, the public debt of England had reached a 
total of about seven hundred million dollars. This debt had 
been contracted mainly in the wars with France, which had 
been fought in America as well as in Europe. The English 
people were of the opinion that as a considerable part of the 
indebtedness had been incurred for the defense of the colo 
nies, it would be no more 
than right that they should 
contribute to the payment 
of this debt. King George 
desired to keep a standing 
army in America, and it 
was proposed to make the 
colonists pay the cost of it 
by means of the stamp tax. 
This tax was an experi 
ment ; should it be success 
ful, other taxes were to be 
laid. For many years the colonists had been required to pay 
to England duties on the sugar and molasses they imported 
from the West Indies, but never before had the British govern 
ment attempted to raise taxes except on matters of commerce. 
The colonists feared that the proposed stamp tax would lead to 
many other forms of internal taxation. They resented bitterly 
any tax which hampered or interfered with them in their own 
internal affairs. 

The Colonies are Aroused. The passage of the Stamp Act 
brought on the first serious struggle which England had with 
her American colonies. The tax made an important change 
in the political system and therefore produced much 
excitement in each colony. "The sun of Liberty is without 
set," Benjamin Franklin wrote. A great wave of represen- 
indignation seemed to roll from New Hampshire to 
Georgia. In every colony the tax was called illegal. The 




colonists emphatically asserted that they could be legally taxed 
only when the taxes were levied by their representative as 
semblies, and not by the English Parliament, in which they had 
no representation. " Taxation without representation is tyranny/ 
they declared. 

This cry of "no taxation without representation" had been 

Fiom the painting by Rothermel. 


voiced by James Otis of Massachusetts four years previous to 
the passing of the Stamp Act. In opposition to the attempts 
to enforce the navigation laws, he argued strongly that England 
had no right to tax the colonies unless they should have repre 
sentation in the Parliament. In the Virginia House of Bur 
gesses in 1765 Patrick Henry l offered resolutions declaring that 

1 PATRICK HENRY (1736-1799) was a native of Hanover County, Virginia. He 
early turned from business, for which he had no liking, to the study of law. 



the colonies had all the privileges of Englishmen, and that 
Virginia s charter gave them the right to be taxed by their own 
assembly alone. Henry s eloquence carried the resolutions with 
a storm of applause. 

For five hundred years it had been a fundamental principle 
with the English people that no taxes could be lawfully laid on 
them " but by their own consent or by their represen- Th 
tatives." This principle had been maintained by the principles 
Americans so far as it related to direct taxation. As at issue 
subjects of England, they claimed all the rights and liberties of 
Englishmen. It was not the question of money, but the manner 
by which it was to be obtained, 
that aroused opposition. 

The colonies had paid the 
expenses of the soldiers they 
furnished in the campaigns of 
the French and Indian War, 
and had done all they could to 
enable England to conquer her 
old enemy and to become the 
ruler of ISTorth America. The 
war had cost the colonies six 
teen million dollars. Of this 
vast sum the British govern 
ment had refunded only about 
five millions. Although still 
suffering from the effects of 
the war, the colonies would not 
have been unwilling to contrib 
ute to the relief of the mother 
country had England asked 
them to vote their own taxes. 

The Stamp Act Congress. 1765. Massachusetts went about 

In the Virginia House of Burgesses he was the first to spread revolutionary ideas 
and enthusiasm. He protested against the Stamp Act, and played an important 
part in the Continental Congress of 1774. He was twice elected governor of Vir 
ginia. He has been named " the orator of the Revolution." 


the matter in a very business-like way. In June, 1765, the 
House of Representatives of that colony passed a resolution 
asking a conference of the colonies for the purpose of discussing 
England s new plan of colonial taxation. Nine colonies 1 decided 
to elect delegates to the conference, which met in New York 
in the October following. The conference was known as the 
Stamp Act Congress. 2 During a session of nearly three weeks, 
the question of taxation was thoroughly discussed. A petition 
to King George praying for justice and a memorial to both 
houses of the Parliament were adopted. The latter document, 
The entitled " The Declaration of Eights and Grievances 

Declaration of the Colonists in America," set forth in strong 
of Rights language the colonial sentiments in regard to taxa 
tion. It was declared essential to the freedom of a people 
and the rights of Englishmen that no taxes should be imposed 
on them except with their own consent. The declaration 
asserted : 

That the people of the colonies were not represented in the House 
of Commons in Great Britain, since they themselves had 
no vote in the choice of its members. 

That no taxes could be constitutionally imposed on them but by 
their respective legislatures. 

A protest was made against the Stamp Act and other recent 
obnoxious acts of the Parliament which, it was declared, had 
"a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the 
colonists." The proceedings of the Congress were received with 
favor by the people, and the " Declaration of Eights and Griev 
ances" was forthwith sent to England as an expression of the 
feeling then prevailing in America. 

Increase of Popular Indignation. The Stamp Act was to take 
effect November 1, 1765, and as the day drew near popular indig- 

1 Massachusetts, Connecticut, Ehode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl 
vania, Maryland, Delaware, and South Carolina sent delegates to the Stamp Act 

2 Timothy Ruggles of Massachusetts was chosen president of the Congress, and 
among its prominent members were James Otis, John Dickinson, Robert Living 
ston, Christopher Gadsden, and Edward Rutledge. 



nation against the measure greatly increased. Merchants in the 
leading colonial cities signed agreements not to buy any goods of 
England while the Stamp Act was in force. " The women, ani 
mated by the same spirit, united with the men in their exertions 
to prevent the importation of English goods." Mobs in several 
cities assaulted the stamp officers and forced them to resign their 
commissions ; and boxes of stamps which had come from En-gland 
were seized and destroyed. For a short time much confusion in 

The TIMES are 


Dolorous, and 

TburOqr. OfM* 31. 1765 THE NUMB. 1195. 




EXPIRING: In Hopes of a Refurrection to LIFE again. 

M ferry to be obliged] 
to acquaint my R< 
ACT. .sfearMlobeob- 
|ig.U,ry upon ui aft, 

rgv) the PubUfhcref IhU Ppr unable to , 

I bear the Burthen, has thought it expedient( of "X Subfcribers many of whom h*ve 
iherlnyMelhodYcan be found to elude thel immed;iUtl y Ditchvge their refpective Ar 
Chains forged for ua, and efcape the infu p .| r " s ttal "V e able, not only to 
ponabU Slavery, it is hoped, from| fa PP rt m > felf durin ? <" Interval, but 
the raft Reprefcntat.ons now made agawftl 1 * ttr P re f ire<l to P*"* *&"" with 
that AA, may be effefled Mean v,h.l*,|i his ^P"" whCTev - opening for that 
1 n,uA ^rnemy Reou^ ever, .nd-vdua,^^ ^P^^J^g", J 


business affairs resulted, as no one would use the required stamps 
on the various documents. Finally, there was a general agree 
ment that unstamped documents should be received as valid. 
Thus the hated stamp law was practically annulled by the 

The Repeal of the Stamp Act. 1766. An act to repeal the 
Stamp Act was introduced in the Parliament in 1766. The cause 
of the Americans was advocated by William Pitt, then member of 
the House of Commons. He contended that, while the Parliament 
had the power to legislate generally for the American colonies, it 


had not the power to lay internal taxation on them without giving 
them representation. 1 

There was great opposition to the act of repeal, and for a time 
it seemed as though the bill would fail to pass. At last the English 
merchants and manufacturers, whose trade had been nearly ruined 
by the refusal of the Americans to buy their goods, began to exert 
a strong influence on the Parliament. They crowded the lobbies 
of both houses, and made personal appeals to the members. As a 
result, the repeal act was passed. 

The Declaratory Act. 1766. When the Parliament repealed 
the Stamp Act, it passed what is known as the Declaratory 
Act. This act stated the sovereignty of the Crown over the 
American colonies, and declared: 

That the king, with the advice of the Parliament, had full power 
to make laws binding America in all cases whatsoever. 

That the acts passed by the colonial assemblies denying to the 
Parliament the power to tax the colonies were unlawful and 

Thus the repeal of the Stamp Act was made the occasion for a 
strong assertion of the supreme authority of the king and the 
Parliament. Nothing had been gained by the colonists but a 
temporary relief from taxation. 

Taxation by the Parliament. 1767. The Stamp Act and the 
Declaratory Act proved to be great mistakes on the part of the 
British government. Up to 1765 the colonial legislative bodies 
had not disputed the right of the Parliament to lay duties, but 
now they took the position that if the British government wanted 
money from them, the levies should be made by the colonies 
themselves and not by the Parliament in England. If the king 
had called on the colonies for any reasonable amount of money, 
the colonial assemblies would have raised it with nothing more 
than the usual grumbling. 

Had the king possessed a little more tact, he would not have 

1 He said : "You have no right to tax America. I rejoice that America has 
resisted. Three millions of our fellow-subjects, so lost to every sense of virtue as 
tamely to give up their liberties, would be fit instruments to make slaves of the 


proposed that the Parliament raise any other taxes from the 
American colonies after the failure of the Stamp Act. How 
ever, at his direction duties were imposed, in 1767, 
on glass, lead, paper, painters colors, and tea brought 
into the colonial ports from abroad. 1 The money thus 
collected was to be used to pay the salaries of Crown officers in 
the colonies, and to support a standing army. This plan had a 
Gunning scheme about it that was quickly unmasked ; it not only 
made the Crown officials independent of the colonial assemblies, 
but it encouraged them to raise as large a sum as they could. 

It is no wonder that such a plan was even more hateful to 
the people than the Stamp Act had been, and they were quite as 
determined to resist it. With a standing army in their midst and 
Crown officers independent of the colonial assemblies, the colonies 
reasonably concluded that they would have but little power of 
their own. Therefore, in retaliation, American merchants stopped 
importing the taxed articles from England. They smuggled tea 
from Holland and the other supplies from France and Spain, in 
spite of the best efforts of the customhouse officers to prevent. 
So the smuggling went on for nearly three years. 

The King sends Troops to America ; the Boston Riot. 1770. 
About this time (1770) the king s ministers unwisely decided to 
send several regiments of soldiers to America. The troops were to 
garrison the larger towns and hold themselves in readiness to en 
force the king s bidding. What was still more unwise, the colo 
nies were ordered to provide quarters and supplies for the troops. 
When the troops reached America, the colonies ignored the king s 
order, and as punishment their legislative assemblies were in 
nearly every case dissolved by the royal governors. 

The presence of the troops was offensive, and it was unfortu 
nate that both the troops and the colonists forgot their good man 
ners when they came in contact with each other. 2 The idlers and 

1 These tax bills were called the Townshend Acts after their author. 

2 The desecration of the Sabbath by the king s troops was a great source of 
irritation to the colonists. In many instances church services were purposely 
disturbed by drunken soldiers. A wanton and unprovoked assault upon James 
Otis, made by British officers, probably did. quite as much as the Boston riot to 
drive Massachusetts into rebellion, 



loafers were only too glad of an occasion to have fisticuff encoun 
ters with the soldiers, and disgraceful fights were of almost daily 

occurrence. One evening in 
Boston (March 5, 1770) a false 
alarm of fire called out the 
usual crowd. There happened 
to be a sentinel in the vicinity 
doing duty on his post at a 
public building. The crowd 
jeered and annoyed him until 
he was compelled to call for 
the rest of the guard. When 
the latter appeared they were 
surrounded by a hooting mob, 
who pelted them with snow 
balls and prodded them with 
sticks. In the excitement one 
of the soldiers fired, and im 
mediately the guard followed 
KING GEORGE THE THIRD. with a volley . about a dozen 

men were killed and wounded. 1 This incident did much toward 
precipitating war. 2 

The Tea Tax. 1770-1773. At last, at the demand of the Eng 
lish merchants and manufacturers, in March, 1770, the duties 
on everything except tea were removed. The duty on tea was 
threepence (six cents) a pound. Lord North, then the prime 
minister of England, said that the tea tax " must be retained, as 
a mark of the supremacy of the Parliament and its right to 
govern the colonies." As a matter of fact, the retention of this 
tax increased the prevailing bad feeling. 

1 In order to allay popular feeling, the soldiers of the guard were tried for 
murder. Josiah Quiricy and John Adams defended them, and all but two were 
acquitted. Two were found guilty of manslaughter. 

2 In the year following the Boston riot, an outbreak occurred at Alamance In 
North Carolina, where a pitched battle was fought in resistance to excessive 
taxes laid by the governor. The colonial force was defeated. In 1772 a number 
of Rhode Island people captured and burned a British revenue vessel, the Gaspee, 
which had been collecting duties from Providence vessels. 



The merchants in the leading American cities had adhered 
strictly to their policy of buying no tea from the English import 
ers, known as the East India Company. This company supplied 
the colonial markets with the products of the Oriental lands. 
To obtain the tea tax a simple but ingenious plan was arranged 
whereby the company s tea, even with the duty of six cents a 
pound added to its price, would be cheaper than it was in Eng 
land, and even cheaper- than the tea smuggled from Holland. 
It was believed that the cheapness of the tea would induce the 
Americans to buy it, in spite of the duty. 

The plan was a good one, but it failed because the colonists 
were determined to resist the king s encroachments. A fleet 
of ships laden with tea was sent 
to America in the fall of 1773, but 
not a pound of the tea was sold. 
When some of the tea ships 
arrived in the outer harbors of 
New York, Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore, they met with so much 
opposition that they returned to 
England at once. At Annapolis 
the tea was burned. Some tea 
was landed at Charleston for the 
Southern markets, but the people 
allowed none of it to be sold. It 
was stored in damp cellars, and 
soon spoiled. In New York some 
of the tea was destroyed. 

When the tea ships entered Boston Harbor, a committee 
headed by Samuel Adams guarded them and permitted none of 
the tea to be brought on shore. As the ships had 
come within the port limits, they could not -legally x^a Party 
depart without clearance 1 from the customhouse or 
a permit from the royal governor of Massachusetts. The people 
made diligent efforts to obtain a clearance, in order that the 
ships might go out to sea again without unloading, but failed* 

1 A clearance was a certificate granting permission to sail. 


The governor declared that the tea should be entered in the 
customhouse ; the people declared that it should not. At the 
expiration of twenty days the customhouse officers had the right 
to seize the ships and unload them. So at nightfall a number 
of citizens disguised as Indians went aboard the ships, and threw 
the tea into the water. Three hundred and forty-two chests of 
tea were thus destroyed. It was an unlawful act, but there was 
great exultation over it. 

The King Retaliates. 1774. When the news of the destruction 
of the tea at Boston reached England, the king determined to 
punish the rebellious colonists of Massachusetts, and measures 
of retaliation were enacted by the Parliament. 1 One of these, 
the Boston Port Bill, prohibited the landing or shipping of any 
goods at the port of Boston until the city should pay tjie East 
India Company for the tea that had been destroyed. Thus the 
port was entirely closed to commerce, and great suffering resulted. 
By another measure the charter of Massachusetts was so changed 
that it was virtually repealed. The seat of government of the 
colony was transferred to Salem, and the ruling power was placed 
in the hands of the Crown officials. 

The whole country was aroused at the retaliatory action of the 
king, and sympathy and aid were freely given to the people of 
Massachusetts. It was declared that the cause of Massachusetts 
Committees was *^ e cause ^ a ^ tne colonies, and all should unite 
of Corre- to resist the dangerous encroachments of the English 
spondence government. The colonies had already begun to act in 
unison. Committees of correspondence had been appointed in the 
various colonies, and they developed a regular system for reporting 
actions and exchanging opinions as to methods of resisting the 
Parliament. 2 

1 The measures adopted by the Parliament are commonly known as the Five 
Intolerable Acts. They closed the port of Boston, gave the governor power to 
send certain offenders to England for trial, changed the charter of Massachusetts, 
legalized the quartering of soldiers on the colonists, and practically extended 
the boundaries of Quebec over the Mississippi Valley. 

2 Committees of correspondence were first established between towns in Massa 
chusetts, according to a plan of Samuel Adams. The suggestion that permanent 
committees of correspondence be appointed in all the colonies was made by 
Dabney Carr in the Virginia Assembly in 1773. 



The First Continental Congress. 1774. The people of every 
section saw that the misfortune which had come to Massachusetts 
might come to any other colony which should oppose the demands 
of the king. They began to realize that they must unite. Alone, 
they were powerless; united, they might be able to accomplish 
much. The colonial 
leaders, having a 
strong desire to meet 
with one another and 
confer about the situ 
ation, made arrange 
ments for a colonial 
congress. It was 
thought that a good 
plan of action might 
be devised by an as 
sembly of this kind. 
In September, 1774, 
the first Continental 
Congress met in 
secret session in Phil 
adelphia, in a small 
hall belonging to the 
Society of Carpenters. 
Afl the colonies, ex 
cept Georgia, had 
elected delegates. 
The delegates were 
directed "to consider the most effectual manner of regulating 
the commercial connection with the mother country, so as to 
procure redress for Massachusetts, and also to procure the return 
of harmony and union." l 

1 The Congress was composed of able men. Among the more distinguished 
members were George Washington, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, and 
Peyton Randolph of Virginia ; Samuel and John Adams of Massachusetts ; John 
Dickinson and Thomas Mifflin of Pennsylvania ; Roger Sherman of Connecticut ; 
Stephen Hopkins of Rhode Island; Samuel Chase and Thomas Jefferson of Mary 
land ; Caesar Rodney of Delaware ; Edward Rutledge and Christopher Gadsdeu 



The Declaration of Rights. The Congress passed a resolution 
approving of the conduct of Massachusetts ; it passed also the 
Declaration of Rights, a memorial setting forth the rights and 
privileges claimed by the people. It asserted : 

That the people of the colonies were entitled to life, liberty, and 
property ; and that they had never ceded to a sovereign power 
the right to dispose of any of these, with or without their 

That the right of England to raise a revenue in America by 
any plan of taxation was most emphatically denied. 

That the people of the colonies were entitled to the common 
law of England, and especially to trial by a jury, and to all 
the privileges granted them by royal charters. 

Two of the foregoing claims are worthy of attention. At first 
the colonists were not opposed to paying taxes which were levied 
by themselves, but when it was discovered that the king meant 
to use the money thus raised to pay Crown officials and to sup 
port the troops in America, there quickly grew up a determination 
to pay no taxes whatever. The second notable claim referred to 
trial by jury, and was brought about by the passage in the Par 
liament of the Transportation Bill, one of the Five Intolerable 
Acts. This act gave the royal governor of a colony the right to 
send to England for trial any one accused of the killing of a 
Crown officer, while the latter was trying to enforce the laws. 

It was generally agreed in the Congress that the colonists 
should try only peaceful measures to bring about a more reason- 
The Non- a ^ e P^i c y on the part of the king and his ministers, 
importation The plan actually followed, however, served only 
Agreement ^ Q exas p era te the Crown government. The colonies 
bound themselves to import no more merchandise from England, 
and no tea, coffee, and spices from English colonies. It was 
thought that the loss of colonial trade would result in the over 
throw of the king s ministry, or force it to be more lenient. 

The people of the colonies, both North and South, fully ap 
proved the measures of the Congress. They regarded them as 

of South Carolina; and John Jay and Philip Livingston of New York. Peyton 
Randolph was chosen president of the Congress, and Charles Thomson of Phila 
delphia, secretary. 



moderate in sentiment and fair. No authority had been given 
to the delegates to do anything but recommend an efficient plan 
of action. They were given no such power as they exercised. 
But their recommendations were accepted by the colonies, and 
the friendly league they called for was entered into readily. 
By bringing the colonies into association, the Congress was 
an important step toward the formation of a permanent 

The King decides to coerce the Colonies ; the English View. In 
a few weeks after the Congress adjourned, the Declaration of 
Rights and other papers of the Con 
gress were laid before the British 
Parliament and discussed in both 
houses. In the House of Lords, 
William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 
urged liberal measures for the colo 
nies, saying: "The way must be 
immediately opened for reconcilia 
tion, or it will soon be too late. His 
Majesty may indeed wear his crown ; 
but the American jewel out of it, it 
will not be worth the wearing." But 
all the attempts made by Chatham 
and the other friends of the colonies 
to repeal the obnoxious acts were 
unsuccessful. The Parliament also 
declared that the colonists had long de 
sired to become independent of Great 
Britain, and had " only waited for op 
portunity to accomplish their purpose." 
Therefore it was the duty of every 
Englishman "to crush the revolt," and 
this must be done " at any price." 

It was pointed out that the colonists were as much represented 
in the Parliament as were Englishmen living in Eng- Representa- 
land. This was true, inasmuch as the great mass of tion 
colonists, being regarded as commoners, were represented as a 


class in the House of Commons. 1 Therefore they ought to be 
satisfied to pay the Crown tax imposed in the same manner 
as it was in England. 

The question of trial by jury was a more serious one, and was 
the outcome of the smuggling that had been going on in the 

colonies for more than a century. From the time the 
by navigation laws had been passed, smuggling had been 

practiced in every colony, and, although a crime, it 
was not considered either a sin or a vice. When the Crown 
officers began in earnest to put a stop to it, they found it almost 
impossible to do so. Violators of the law were arrested and 
tried ; but it was not often that a jury would convict, no matter 
how clear the evidence. Even when revenue officers were killed 
or wounded by smugglers, it was always difficult and sometimes 
impossible to secure a conviction. It was for this reason, there 
fore, that the Parliament gave to the royal governors the power 
to send to England or to another colony for trial a person charged 
with murder in resisting the laws. 


England attempted to levy an internal tax on the colonists, instead of 
permitting the colonists themselves to provide the funds and determine 
the method of levying the tax. 

The king s plan of levying the tax by means of revenue stamps on pub 
lications and documents failed, because the colonists refused to use the 

1 At that time, individual representation in England was not practiced ; that is, 
political divisions, such as counties and shires, did not of necessity constitute elec 
tion districts, as they are known to-day. Large cities, like Liverpool, Manchester, 
and others, did not have a single representative in the Parliament. Classes, 
not localities, were represented. The clergy and the Church were represented by 
bishops ; the nobility, by members of the House of Lords ; the great middle class, 
or commoners, by members elected to the House of Commons. This plan of rep 
resentation had been followed for many generations in England, and Englishmen 
knew no other. Inasmuch as it was satisfactory to them, they could not under 
stand why it was not good enough for the colonists. On the other hand, to the 
democracy of the colonists, which grew out of the geographic surroundings in 
which they lived, such a scheme of representation was no representation at all. 
Each was right fronj his own standpoint. 


Nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress, which passed 
a " Declaration of Rights," protesting against the levy of taxes on the 
colonists unless the latter were to have representatives in the Parliament. 

The Stamp Act was repealed by the Parliament, but the Crown levied 
another tax on tea, in order to hold to the principle that the Crown 
had the right to tax the colonies. 

The colonies refused to admit tea at the various ports,, and the Parlia 
ment passed the Five Intolerable Acts as a punishment. 

The First Continental Congress met in 1774 and presented- to the 
king a Declaration of Rights stating the rights claimed by the colonists. 


The American Revolution Fiske. Chapters I, II. 

History of the United States Bancroft. Vol. Ill, Chapter VI. 

The Story of Liberty Coffin. (For popular reading.) 



Massachusetts resists the King s Orders. 1774-1775. During 
the winter of 1774-1775, the relations between the colonies and the 
British government began to assume a warlike aspect. After 
the Parliament had rejected Pitt s efforts to make peace, King 
George and his ministers manifested a disposition to quell the 
revolt in the colonies by military force. The king s army in 
the colonies was increased, and a fleet of 
war ships was sent to American waters. 

In Massachusetts the royal government 
had been practically set aside. The people 
had refused to accept the changes made 
by the Parliament in their ancient charter. 
They had forced the resignation of the 
councilors appointed by the king and 
had closed the king s courts. The General 
Court, or assembly of the colony, having 
been dissolved by the king s orders, the 
members formed a Provincial Congress, 
which assumed control of public affairs 
and provided for the equipment of twelve 
thousand militia to defend the colony from 
attack. One fourth of the militia were 
to be " minutemen," ready to march "at 
a minute s warning." 
The king appointed General Gage, commander of the British 
troops in America, as military governor of Massachusetts, and the 
latter established himself in Boston with about three thousand 
soldiers. Outside of Boston and the near-by towns, however, he 


From the statue at Concord. 


had but little authority, as the remainder of the colony fully 
supported the Provincial Congress and ignored his orders. 

All the other Northern and some of the Southern colonies were 
in sympathy with the defiant attitude of Massachusetts. Virginia 
and North Carolina set aside the royal governments and formed 
provisional governments. 

In February, 1775, the Parliament declared Massachusetts 
in rebellion, restricted her commerce, and shut out her fishermen 
from the Newfoundland fisheries. The commercial restrictions 
were subsequently extended to all the colonies, except New York 
and South Carolina. 






The Skirmish at Lexington and Concord. April 19, 1775. In 
April, 1775, General Gage was informed that the Provincial Con 
gress of Massachusetts had collected a quantity of military stores 
at Concord, and he determined to seize them. Previously, he had 
received orders from England to arrest Samuel Adams and John 
Hancock, the distinguished Massachusetts leaders, for so-called 
treasonable utterances, and to send them to England for trial. 
He learned that they were at Lexington, a small village eleven 
miles from Boston, on the highway to Concord, six miles 


During the night of April 18, Gage sent from Boston eight 
hundred soldiers with orders to seize Adams and Hancock at 
Lexington, and the military stores at Concord. The departure of 
the soldiers was discovered, and Paul Revere was sent on a swift 
horse to give warning of their approach. Revere aroused the 
people everywhere, and reached Lexington considerably in ad 
vance of the soldiers. Adams and Hancock fled to a place of 
safety. Revere was arrested near Concord, but his warning 
reached there, and the military stores were securely hidden. 

At dawn 011 the 19th, Gage s soldiers reached Lexington. On 

the village green were about seventy minutemen drawn up to 

oppose them. Major Pitcairn, the British commander, 

ordered them to disperse, but they did not obey. 

Then the British troops fired a volley into their ranks, killing 

seven and wounding nine. The fire was returned in a scattering 

way, but did little or no harm. The minutemen saw that it would 

be foolish to give battle to so large 
a force and therefore retreated. 

The troops proceeded to Con 
cord. They did not find the mili 
tary stores, but they seized and 
destroyed some supplies of flour 
and a few abandoned gun car 
riages. Three companies advanced 
to North Bridge, where The retreat 
they were attacked by from 
minutemen. Then the Concord 
whole force began to retreat in 
disorder. The retreat became a 
panic. The minutemen followed 
almost to Boston, firing with 
deadly effect from the shelter of 
trees and walls. About three 
hundred were killed, including 
fifty minutemen, before the troops reached Boston. 

The news of the conflict of arms was carried rapidly over New 
England, and in a few days sixteen thousand militia had assem- 


bled around Boston. The Middle and Southern colonies were 
startled by the bloodshed in Massachusetts, and began to prepare 
for war with energy and determination. This was the condition 
of affairs when the second Continental Congress began its session 
at Philadelphia, on- May 10, 1775. 

The Second Congress. 1775. Delegations from all the colonies 
were present during the session of the second Congress, which 
met (May, 1775) in Philadelphia in the building then called the 
State House, but now known as Independence Hall, because there 
the Declaration of Independence was signed. Washington, the 
Adamses, Lee, Sherman, Henry, Dickinson, and most of the other 
prominent members of the first Continental Congress were present 
in the second. Among the new members were Benjamin Franklin l 
and John Hancock, who became its president. With little real 
authority to act for the United Colonies, but with the tacit con 
sent of the people, the Congress set up a revolutionary govern 
ment. It was necessary for the Congress to assume governmental 
powers ; it took upon itself much the same authority as the British 
Crown had previously exercised in the colonies. 2 

Committees were appointed to have charge of the several execu 
tive departments, and they went to work speedily. Arrangements 
were made for the enlistment of troops from all the colonies, the 

1 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-1790) was born at Boston. At an early age he 
engaged in the printer s trade ; in 1729 he went to Philadelphia and edited 
the Pennsylvania Gazette. He later founded the Philadelphia library and the 
University of Pennsylvania. In 1752 he made the important discovery that 
lightning is a discharge of electricity. He served as deputy postmaster-general 
for the colonies from 1753 to 1774. In 1775 he was elected a member of the Con 
tinental Congress. He was instrumental in concluding the treaty by which 
France acknowledged the independence of America in 1788, and the treaty of 
peace with England in 1783. He ranks with Washington as a founder of the 
American nation. 

2 Although the colonists had engaged in battle with the British and were mak 
ing extensive preparations for war, the Congress decided to send another address 
to King George, entreating him to deal justly with the colonies. This rather 
singular step was taken in order to satisfy the conservative members of the Con 
gress, such as John Jay and John Dickinson, who thought that one more attempt 
should be made at reconciliation with England. Dickinson wrote the address, 
which he called an " Olive Branch." The king answered it by declaring that the 
Americans were rebels and traitors and must be forced to submit to the rule. of 
the British Crown. * 



whole to form the Continental army. Arms and military supplies 
were ordered from foreign countries. The sixteen thousand New 
The England militia, encamped around Boston, were drafted 

Continental into the government service. Colonel George Wash- 
army ington l was appointed general and commander-in-chief 

of the Continental army. Washington was selected for the 
command partly as a compliment to Virginia, but mainly on ac 
count of his services in the French and Indian War. In the com 
mission he received from the Congress the expression, "United 
Colonies/ appeared for the first time in an official document. 

The Battle of Bunker Hill. June 17, 1775. The politic General 
Gage seemed anxious to avoid the beginning of hostilities as long 

as there was the 
slightest prospect of 
restoring peace. The 
skirmish at Lexing 
ton and the fight 
on the retreat from 
Concord, however, 
put an end to all 
thought of peace, 
and Gage at once 
began measures of 
a warlike character. 


Across a stretch of water now quite narrow, but then half a 
mile wide north of Boston Neck, is Charlestown Neck, on which 

1 GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) was the son of a Virginia planter. He dis 
tinguished himself as an able and intrepid soldier in the French and Indian War. 
He was chosen delegate from Virginia to the Continental Congress of 1774 and 
1775. On June 15, 1775, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental 
forces, and he remained in command to the close of the Revolution in 1781. He 
then retired to his farm at Mt. Vernon. From there he was called, in February, 
1789, by a unanimous vote, to become the first President of the United States. 
He was inaugurated at New York, April 30, 1789. Reflected in 1793, he continued 
to serve as the head of the new nation until 1797. The remaining two years of 
his life were spent at his Mt. Vernon home. He was a man preeminently calm 
and just and incorruptible. It was due largely to his personal leadership that 
the Revolution succeeded, and to his integrity of character that the new govern 
ment stood firm. 


are Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill. These hills overlooked the 
harbor and pra ctically commanded it ; hence it was necessary to 
the safety of the British fleet that they should be fortified, and 
General Gage was about to undertake the work. The intention 
was discovered, however, and the colonial authorities sent Colonel 
Prescott with twelve hundred men to take possession of the heights. 
The troops worked rapidly during the night (June 16), and their 
presence was not known until morning. 

At dawn General Gage saw with chagrin that he had been out- 
maneuvered. The British fleet opened fire, but the shots made no 
difference to the Continental soldiers ; they kept on until a line of 
entrenchments was nearly complete. General Gage sent a force 
of about three thousand men, under General Howe, across from 
Boston. The British troops charged the steepest side of the hill, 
and when they were only a few feet from the breastworks a gall 
ing fire raked them with a terrible effect. They retreated, but 
re-formed and charged again. 

With the third volley the powder of the Americans was ex 
hausted, and the battle became a hand-to-hand conflict, in which 
the Americans were obliged to rely on " gun-clubbing " as the 
only means of defense. Then, having lost more than one third 
of their number, they fell back and retreated over the neck to 
the mainland. The British loss was nearly eleven hundred ; the 
colonists lost about four hundred. 1 

The moral effect of the battle was very great. The American 
troops learned that as fighters they were equal to the pick of the 
British troops ; the latter also learned the same lesson, 

and it was a disagreeable surprise to them. The ( 

skirmish at Lexington and Concord and the battle of 
Bunker Hill brought the fighting qualities of the colonists to the 
attention of Europe. Vergennes, a noted French diplomat, de 
clared that two more such British victories would leave England 
without a colonial army. 2 

1 Among the dead were the gallant General Warren, commander-in-chief of the 
Massachusetts militia, and the English Major Pitcairu, the leader of the attack 
on Lexington and Concord. 

2 The Parliament passed an act (August 23, 1775) declaring the colonies in 
rebellion and prohibiting all commerce with them. Great preparations were 


Washington takes Command. 1775. On July 2, 1775, fifteen 
days after the battle of Bunker Hill, General Washington took 
command of the army around Boston. By this time many of the 
minutemen and some of the militiamen had returned to their 
homes, their term of service having expired. About three thou 
sand men from Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania were added 
to the army, making it nearly nine thousand strong. It was a 
wretched condition of things that Washington found. The men 
had no idea of discipline nor military training ; they were with 
out sufficient arms; there was neither quartermaster s stores 
for clothing and equipment, nor commissary department to look 
after food supplies. Washington not only overcame these diffi 
culties, but he kept the British army shut up in Boston in the 

It was evident that prompt measures must be taken to save 
Boston and New York City. To do this 

The British were to be prevented from invading New York from 
Canada by way of Lake Champlain. 

General Gage was to be kept in Boston for the time being. 

The Invasion of Canada. 1775. In order to prevent an invasion 
from Canada, Washington proposed to capture Montreal and 
Quebec. One detachment under Richard Montgomery went north 
by way of Ticonderoga and captured Montreal; another under 
Benedict Arnold marched through the pine forests of Maine, and 
after terrible suffering reached Quebec, where the two forces joined. 

On the last day of December, 1775, Quebec was attacked on 
two sides, and a desperate battle took place. Montgomery actually 
entered the city, but was killed. Arnold was severely wounded. 
The plucky Colonel Daniel Morgan, with his Virginia companies, 
also entered the town, but not having any support, he was 
surrounded and captured. Shortly afterward the British were 
reenforced and the Americans were pushed back to Crown Point 
on Lake Champlain. 

made to subdue the colonies, and for that purpose a British army of twenty-five 
thousand soldiers was ordered to cross the Atlantic at once. In addition to this 
great force about twenty thousand Hessians were hired from German princes. 


The Escape of the British from Boston. 1776. While Washing 
ton was drilling his army, he was also drawing his lines closely 
around Boston. All this time he was censured for not giving battle 
to the British. Many wished him to set -fire to the city. Wash 
ington stood the abuse patiently and watched for his opportunity. 
Among other disadvantages was the fact that he had no cannon, and 
without them he felt helpless in making any offensive movement. 

From the painting by Wagcman. 


By the 1st of March, however, cannon had been dragged to the 
scene of action on sledges many of them from Fort Ticonderoga l 
and the time for attack had come. On the night of the 4th of 
March, while the British were kept busy repelling a sham attack, 
two thousand men, with spades and picks, ox carts, and bales of 
hay, were throwing up fortifications on Dorchester Heights, a little 
to the southeast of Boston. And when General Howe woke up 
the following morning, he found himself in a trap. The siege 

1 Ethan Allen of Vermont and Benedict Arnold of Connecticut, with a small 
body of volunteers, surprised and captured the strong fortress of Ticonderoga, 
with its supply of powder and cannon (May, 1775). 


guns on Dorchester Heights were ready for business. Not only 
his army but the fleet as well were at the mercy of Washington, 
General Howe had his choice : he could fight or get to sea. His 
men, however, had not forgotten Bunker Hill; he quickly got 
aboard his ships and made for Halifax. 

Headquarters transferred to New York. Washington felt sure 
that sooner or later General Howe would attack New York City, 
and he moved his troops there with little delay. By April he 
was encamped on Brooklyn Heights, Long Island. These move 
ments ended the war operations in the New England colonies. 
New York became the center of the next campaign. 

The Beginning of the Navy. While these operations were going 
on, the Congress ordered the fitting out of vessels to cruise in 
the New England waters and intercept ships carrying military 
stores for the British. This was the beginning of a Continental 
navy, under the command of Admiral Esek Hopkins of Ehode 
Island. In retaliation for an act of the Parliament which had 
authorized the capture and condemnation of American ships, 
the Congress gave authority to public and private armed vessels l 
to seize British ships and goods found upon the high seas. 

Preparations for the Conflict. Two million dollars of paper 
money, known as bills of credit or Continental currency, were 
issued by the Congress to defray the expenses of the war and 
to maintain the national government. The United Colonies were 
pledged to pay the face value of these bills in gold or silver in 
from four to seven years. 2 

The ports of the United Colonies were opened to the vessels of 
all nations except Great Britain. 

A treasury department and a general post-office for the United 
Colonies were established by the Congress, and diplomatic rela 
tions were entered into with foreign nations. 

Fighting in North Carolina. 1776. After the disastrous victory 
at Bunker Hill, the king did not attempt to send any more troops 
to Massachusetts. Orders had been given for the landing of the 

1 Armed vessels owned ana officered by private persons, but acting under a 
commission from the government, are called privateers. 

2 See page 173 


British transports in the estuary of Cape Fear Kiver. The royal 
governor of North Carolina determined to cooperate with the 
British forces, and raised about sixteen hundred men for the 
purpose. But his plans went badly awry. There were minute- 
men in North Carolina; Colonel Richard Caswell, having gathered 
about one thousand of them, fell on the governor s troops at 
Moores Creek (February 27, 1776). He captured most of the 
troops, together with fifteen thousand pounds in gold and two 
thousand muskets. Within a few days ten thousand men had 
enrolled to defend North Carolina, and the British forces did 
not dare to land. The colony was ready to declare for inde 

The Burning of Norfolk. 1775-1776. In November, 1775, Lord 
Duhmore, the governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation calling 
all slaves and indentured white 
servants to take arms against the 
colonists. The only result was to 
enrage the colonists. Hearing that 
North Carolina minutemen were 
about to march on Norfolk, Dunmore 
built a fort at Elizabeth River and 
established a force of the king s 
troops to hold it. This added to 

the intense hatred for Dunmore to THE RATTLESNAKE FLAG, CAR- 

such an extent that a body of 

Virginia minutemen pounced upon the fort, killed about sixty 
troops, and put the rest to flight all without the loss of a 
minute man. 

Lord Dunmore then escaped to the British warship Liverpool. 
On New Year s Day, 1776, he entered the port of Norfolk, turned 
the Liverpool s guns upon the city, and soon had it in flames. It 
was a wanton act, for Norfolk had been loyal to the king up to 
that time. After that event there was no question as to the 
attitude of Virginia. Some six months later Dunmore waa driven 
out of the state. 

The Attack on Charleston. 1776. Sir Henry Clinton had 
sailed south from Massachusetts with two thousand men, and in 


May, 1776, his flee 4 : was strengthened by the ships and troops 
from Great Britain. The force was then thought to be strong 
enough to attempt a landing at Charleston. The colonists under 
Colonel Moultrie had built a fort of palmetto trunks and sand at 
Sullivan s Island, a point which commanded the harbor. Through 
a piece of stupidity, the British troops were landed in a swamp 
where they were helpless arid the fire from their ships was harm 
less. When the fight of ten hours was over, the British ships 
were so badly battered that only one of the ten ships was fit for 
service. Ships and troops thereupon returned to New York. 

The Demand for Independence. From the very beginning of the 
trouble about taxation, a few of the leading colonists had advo 
cated separation from the mother country. There was no appar 
ent desire, however, among the masses of the American people to 
separate from the country to which they had so long given alle 
giance and for which they had genuine affection. But with the 
news that a large army had been sent to subdue them, the people 
began to realize, for the first time, the need of separation if they 
were to preserve their freedom. 

At first they resisted taxation and the various usurpations of 
George III with the feeling that resistance would speedily cause 
their grievances to be redressed. They were loyal subjects, but, 
like the freemen from whom they were descended, they were 
prompt and firm in the assertion of their rights and liberties. 
As it became evident that a peaceful adjustment of grievances 
was unlikely, there came from people throughout the colonies a 
demand that the Continental Congress should come out boldly for 
independence. 1 

Maryland and Pennsylvania had not much to complain of, and 
were somewhat reluctant to take any decisive step. The New 
England colonies could not forget the behavior of the king s 
soldiers and the atrocious assault upon James Otis. In Virginia 
the people had witnessed the burning of Norfolk by shells from a 
British* warship, and the experience was bitter to them. It is not 
surprising, then, that the Virginia Assembly should vote to "pro- 

1 It should be noted that at this time probably one third of the people in the 
colonies were loyal to the king. These people were called Tories or Loyalists. 


pose to the Congress that the colonies should be declared free and 
independent." l 

For a considerable time there was constant discussion of inde 
pendence in public and private, and many pamphlets upon the 
subject were published. Thomas Paine, a prominent journalist 
of Philadelphia, gained much fame by a pamphlet entitled " Com 
mon Sense," in which he advocated the necessity and advantage 
of separation from the mother country. 

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The question was at last taken up by the Congress on the 7th 
of June, 1770. Richard Henry Lee, by request of the Assembly 
of Virginia, offered resolutions for independence as 

foll WS: - relation, 

Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right 

ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved 
from all allegiance to the British Crown ; and that all political 
connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and 
ought to be, dissolved. 

Resolved, TJiat it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual 
measures for forming foreign alliances. 

Resolved, That a plan of confederation be prepared and submitted 
to the respective colonies for their consideration. 

1 At the statehouse at Williamslmrg the British flag was hauled down, and a 
banner with thirteen stripes was hoisted in its place. 


In opposition to Lee s resolutions, it was contended that the 
colonies had only a small, poorly equipped army and navy and 
insufficient resources, and that conciliatory measures would be 
much better. By the 1st of July, however, every colony but New 
York had instructed its delegates in the Congress to vote for 
Lee s resolutions. The next day, the 2d, they were passed by 
the votes of all the colonies except New York. 1 

The Declaration of Independence. July 4, 1776. The Congress 
then began to consider the draft of the Declaration of Independ 
ence, which was submitted by the committee appointed to prepare 
it. It had been hastily written by Thomas Jefferson in his lodg 
ings in Philadelphia by request of the other members of the 
committee. A few verbal changes were made ; and in the after 
noon of the 4th of July, 1776, the Declaration of Independence 
was agreed to. It was subsequently signed by all the members 
present except one. 2 


In most of the colonies the people either resisted the king s orders or 
failed to obey them. 

In Massachusetts, Virginia, and North Carolina the royal governments 
were set aside and provisional governments were formed. 

In Massachusetts the king s troops, in 1775, fired on the minutemen at 
Lexington and Concord, but returned to Boston with great loss. 

The Congress arranged for the organization of the Continental army, 
and appointed George Washington cornmander-in-chief. 

The king s troops attacked the Americans at Bunker Hill and drove 
them from their position. 

The next year the British were forced to evacuate Boston. 

An invasion of Canada by the Americans in 1775 failed. 

In Virginia the royal Governor Dun more s troops were attacked near 
Norfolk by minutemen and were defeated. The governor retaliated by 
burning the city. 

1 The delegates from New York favored them, but as they had received no 
instructions about the matter from their legislature, they asked to be excused 
from voting. 

2 The exception was John Dickinson. His refusal to sign was due not to a lack 
of patriotism, but to a feeling of extreme caution. 


In North Carolina Colonel Caswell attacked and captured at Moores 
Creek a regiment of Tories, who had taken up arms for the king. 

On July 4, 1776, the Congress declared the colonies free and indepen 
dent states. 


The American Revolution Fiske. Vol. I, Chapters II, IV. 
History of the United States Bancroft. Vol. Ill, Chapters XIV-XVI, 

The Boys of 76 Coffin. (For popular reading.) 



- Washington at New York City. 1776. By the spring of 1776 
Washington had concentrated at New York City all the troops 
that could be spared, about eight thousand in number, and pre 
pared to defend it. With these troops he must guard not only 
Manhattan Island but also Brooklyn and Jersey City. He could 
not defend Staten Island. The Hudson Valley was guarded by 
Fort Washington and Fort Lee, the former at the head of Man 
hattan Island, the latter on the Jersey side immediately opposite; 
the channel between them was blocked by sunken ships. Wash 
ington held Manhattan Island ; Brooklyn Heights was placed 
under the command of General Putnam. This position over 
looked what was then the city of New York, and it partly con 
trolled the water supply. 

Washington needed two things badly men and equipments. 
He asked the Congress for both, and it tried faithfully to get 
The them. But the Congress had no power. It could ask 

Congress the various states for soldiers or for money, but it 
powerless GOU \& & o nothing but ask. The states responded 
slowly. Nevertheless, after much delay, Washington got together 
about eighteen thousand men. 

The Tories. There was another serious trouble with which 
Washington had to contend. Not all the people in and about 
New York City favored the American cause. The Friends, of 
whom there were many, were prevented from taking sides actively 
because of their faith, which forbade any but peaceful measures. 
There were many others, commonly calleti Tories, who were in 



outspoken sympathy with the British cause ; as a rule they were 
English-born subjects who had resided only a few years in 
America. They were intelligent and well-to-do, and they used 
their efforts against the American cause. Even at that time 
Friends and Tories had enough power to thwart Washington in 
many ways. 1 

The Battle of Long Island. 1776. To do battle with Washing 
ton s force, the British reached Staten Island with over twenty- 
five thousand troops effective for service under General Howe, 
and a well-equipped fleet commanded by his brother, Lord Howe. 
They determined first to capture Brooklyn Heights, and on 
August 27, 1776, they fought their way to Putnam s fort on 
the Heights. About three hundred Americans were killed or 
wounded, and one thousand were taken prisoners. With the 
coming of night, it seemed certain that Putnam s entire force 
would be captured, but a most providential thing happened. A 
very heavy rain, followed by a dense fog, caused the British to 
delay their final attack. By this time Washington, who had 
taken charge of affairs, saw that the only chance to escape cap 
ture was a quick retreat. Under cover of the fog, the Americans 
crept silently to the site now occupied by Fulton Ferry, leaving 
their camp fires to illuminate the murky fog. The retreat was a 
most skillful piece of work. 

Washington well knew that after his abandonment of Brooklyn 
Heights, the British would quickly take possession of New York, 
and also that his army must get out of the city. He therefore 
moved his troops northward through Harlem. 

The British in New York. General Howe thus found little 
resistance to his occupation of New York City. It was probably 
the best military base he could have had, for he could easily 
receive his supplies from England. Moreover, if he could possess 
himself of the Hudson and Mohawk valleys, the New England 
and the Southern colonies would be kept apart and could be 
subdued one after the other. 

1 Two Quakers who conducted a party of royal troops to an American outpost 
were convicted of treason and hanged. About three thousand Tories afterward 
left the country. 


The King s Plan. In order to conquer the region that is now 
New York State, the king s advisers made the following plan : 

General Burgoyne should march a British army southward from 

Canada through the Champlain Valley. 
Colonel St. Leger should cross Lake Ontario to Oswego and occupy 

the Mohawk Valley. 
General Howe and Lord Howe should go up the Hudson and meet 

the other divisions at Albany. 

The plan was an excellent one, but for very good reasons it did 
not succeed. Washington s retreat furnished one of the reasons. 

Washington s Retreat. 1776. While Washington was getting 
away from New York City, General Howe s troops were close 
upon him. 1 There was some sharp fighting at Pelham, where 
Glover s "fishermen" held back the advance of the British 
troops ; there was also some hot work in the vicinity of Harlem, 
but the army got away in safety. From Harlem, Washington 
moved to White Plains, where there was another skirmish at 
Chattertons Hill. Then he crossed the Hudson, remaining a short 
time at Hackensack, New Jersey. 

The Capture of Fort Washington ; Lee s Disobedience. 1776. In 
the meanwhile, General Howe was not idle. By a skillful stroke 
he captured Fort Washington and three thousand American 
soldiers. Fort Lee, on the Jersey side of the Hudson, then 
became the chief object of attention, and Howe ordered Cornwallis 
to take it. Cornwallis, however, was too late to capture the 
troops there, for they got away in much the same manner as at 
Brooklyn Heights. General Charles Lee was still on the east side 
of the Hudson with four thousand American soldiers, and he was 
ordered to join Washington so that the two forces might capture 

1 Most of the British troops landed at what is now the Thirty-fourth Street 
Ferry, and were close to the rear of Putnam s soldiers, who were on their way 
northward from Fulton Ferry. About a mile from the Thirty-fourth Street 
crossing there lived Mrs. Murray, the mother of the grammarian, Lindley Murray. 
Mrs. Murray was equal to the occasion ; she invited General Howe and his staff 
to an elaborate luncheon, which she was careful to take plenty of time to pre 
pare, and for more than two hours she kept her guests at table. In the meantime, 
General Putnam and his troops had hurried up the road and had joined Washing 
ton somewhere near Harlem. The site of Mrs. Murray s house has long since been 
covered by massive buildings, but to this day it is known as Murray Hill. 



Lord Cornwallis. To his shame, Lee disobeyed the order. 1 
Later, however, he crossed at his leisure. He himself was 
captured, but his troops joined Washington. Washington after 
ward fortified West Point in order 
to command the Hudson. 

Washington s Stand in New 
Jersey. 1776. Washington re 
treated across New Jersey into 
Pennsylvania, destroying the 
bridges and all property which 
the British troops, who were in 
pursuit, might need. He noted 
with satisfaction that the British 
army had been di 
vided, and acted ac 
cordingly. To make 
an occasional dash 
upon the British and 
then retreat was 
about the only thing 
that he could do 
during the fall of 


1 At the time Lee was using his influence with the Congress to obtain the com 
mand of the army for himself. Failing in that, it has been learned in late years, 
he opened a treasonable correspondence with British authorities in New York. 
Lee was afterward courtmartialed and dismissed from the army. While he was 
a prisoner of the British, he was sentenced to be hanged as a deserter. His life 
was saved by Washington s intercession. This act has been characterized as the 
only mistake Washington ever made. Charles Lee was not related to the Lees of 


1776. He would have had little chance of success in a general 
engagement, but by the plan he followed, his troops were gaining 
the experience and discipline they needed, while the British were 
losing men and arms all the time. 

On Christmas night Washington crossed the Delaware River 
above Trenton, 1 made a sudden attack upon the British camp, 
captured one thousand hired Hessian soldiers, and got 
Princeton 11 back to Pennsylvania with them. He then returned 
to New Jersey, and on January 2 was facing the enemy 
at Trenton. Cornwallis, who more than once had Washington 
where escape seemed impossible, remarked that he had the old 
fox penned and would bag him in the morning. Next morning, 
however, the "old fox" was gone. While a few of his men 
were making a show of throwing up earthworks, Washington 
moved his troops away under the cover of night. At dawn 
he fell upon three regiments of British troops at Princeton, and 
in twenty minutes had them badly whipped, capturing three hun 
dred men, together with a much-needed supply of arms and ammu 
nition. Cornwallis followed to Princeton, but was too late to 
" bag the fox." 

Washington remained quiet at his winter camp near Morristown, 
New Jersey, except for making an occasional dash. On one of 
these raids he captured about two thousand prisoners from the 
British, and opened communication with the Hudson Valley. By 
this time, the military leaders of Europe discovered that Washing 
ton was employing tactics hitherto unknown in the art of war. 
During the winter he gained many recruits ; the British, on the 
other hand, lost many Hessian soldiers by desertion. 2 Many 
Tories and British sympathizers turned to the American cause at 
this time ; but the greatest aid that the Americans received was 

1 Before he could cross the river it was necessary to send scouting parties up 
and down the river, a distance of many miles, to take possession of all boats 
that could be found. 

2 The Hessians, being hired soldiers, cared nothing for the British. The Con 
gress, in order to encourage their desertion, made an offer of land to any one who 
should desert to the Americans. Printed notices to this effect, inclosed in tobacco 
wrappers, were distributed among them, with the result that a considerable 
number carne to the Americans. 



the services of Marquis de Lafayette, a young French officer, and 
of Baron von Steuben and Baron De Kalb, both famous German 

The Campaign about Philadelphia. 1777. In the following 
summer General Howe determined to take Philadelphia, then the 
capital of the United States. He 
started by land, but Washington 
harassed him so badly that he went 
back to New York and embarked 
his troops on transports. When he 
reached the mouth of the Delaware, 
he found that it would be almost 
certain destruction to run by the 
two forts guarding the river, so 
he turned southward, entered the 
Chesapeake Bay, and landed at the 
head of it. Washington tried to 
check his advance at Chads Ford, 
on the Brandywine, but the battle 
was against him (September 11, 
1777). Washington then entered 
Philadelphia and remained a few 
days, but he left the city rather than 
risk a general battle. 

Shortly afterward General Howe took possession of Philadel 
phia, and the Congress fled to Lancaster, in Pennsylvania. General 
Howe left part of his army encamped at Germantown, while he 
w r ent with a considerable force to capture the forts on the Dela 
ware. While he was gone, Washington made a sudden attack on 
the force at Germantown, but failed to capture it. Then he made 
his winter camp at Valley Forge, twenty miles from 
Philadelphia. During this winter the troops suffered 
dreadfully for want of food and clothing. Some of 
the men were without shoes, 1 and part of the time they had to 
sleep in the snow. 

1 There were plenty of supplies to be had, but there was no system in the 
quartermaster s department, the bureau that has charge of such supplies. 



Carrying out the King s Plan; Burgoyne invades New York. 
1777. While Washington was keeping General Howe busy in 
the vicinity of Philadelphia, the first part of the king s plan was 
under way. Early in the summer of 1777, General John Burgoyne 
started southward from Canada along the Cham plain Valley. He 
had about eight thousand men, which were more than enough ; of 
supplies he had by no means a sufficient amount. He had been 
led to believe that he could obtain whatever supplies he needed, 
and also that there were many Tories in the Mohawk and Hudson 
valleys who would join him. 1 

In part, this was true. The route into New York was not a 
difficult one, but the supplies never reached Burgoyne, because 
the Americans determined that they should not. The Tories were 
also there, but the sturdy men of New York saw to it that they 
did not get to Burgoyne. As- a matter of fact, General Burgoyne 
left his base of supplies in Canada and, inadequately equipped, 
plunged into a forest wilderness, ignorant of the conditions ahead 
of him. For this he himself was partly to blame, but in the main 
it was the fault of the king s advisers. 

On the way up the Champlain Valley, Burgoyne captured Fort 
Ticonderoga (July, 1777) and drove General Schuyler, who de 
fended it, to Fort Edward. Burgoyne learned that 
some provisions and military supplies had been stored 
at the village of Bennington, Vermont, and he sent one thousand 
men to capture them. At Bennington the troops met Colonel 
John Stark, a veteran of Bunker Hill, who routed them so effec 
tually that scarcely one hundred got back to their command. Bur 
goyne struggled onward, hoping against hope that he might have 
news either of General Howe or of Colonel St. Leger. 

In the meantime, there were near him three Americans who had 
developed great skill as fighters Generals Schuyler and Arnold, 
and Colonel Daniel Morgan. They seemed never to sleep. Schuy- 

1 At that time the entire population of New York State was not more than one 
hundred and seventy-five thousand, it ranked seventh among the colonies, 
and practically all of it was in the Hudson and Mohawk valleys. Many people 
in the western part remained loyal to England among them Sir John Johnson, 
son of Sir William Johnson, who had been the British superintendent of Indian 
affairs in the colonies. The Iroouoian tribes also were loyal to the king. 



ler destroyed the roads and bridges upon which Burgoyne must 

depend. Then, at an opportune moment, Arnold and Morgan 

fell on him at Bemis 

Heights and stopped 

his progress south 

ward ; three weeks 

later they inflicted a 

harder blow at Still- 

water. Then, step by 

step, he was driven 

back to Saratoga. At 

Saratoga he found him 

self without food, sur 

rounded by Americans. 

There was but one thing 

Burgoyne s heCOlllddo; 

Surrender SO on Octo- 

at Saratoga 

his army of six thou 
sand men laid down 
their arms. 1 To the 
lasting shame of the 
Congress, General 
Gates s promise to 
send Burgoyne s troops 
home was never carried 
out ; the troops were 
kept as prisoners of 

The operations about 
Saratoga in many 
ways were the turn 
ing point of the war. 

From a military standpoint, Burgoyne s 

1 The surrender was made to General Gates, who had just superseded General 
Schuyler. Gates was a blunderer as a military leader, but undoubtedly was a 
shrewd " wire-puller." The action of the Congress in displacing General Schuyler 
has always been considered unwise. It was done against the wishes of General 


surrender completely put an end to the king s plans. In another 
respect, also, it was a turning point, for the French* king, 
seeing that the Americans had an excellent chance to win, 
seized the opportunity to come to their aid with troops and 

Carrying out the King s Plan ; St. Leger s Expedition. 1777. - 
In the middle of July Colonel St. Leger crossed Lake Ontario 
In the ^0 Oswego with a force of about one thousand men. 

Mohawk He did not take more troops because he expected to 
a ey gather a considerable force in the Mohawk Valley. 

As a matter of fact, he was joined by Sir John Johnson s rangers 
and by the Mohawk chief, Joseph Brant. With nearly two 
thousand troops he then set out to capture Fort Stanwix, now the 
site of Rome. 

Among the substantial men of the Mohawk Valley was 
Nicholas Herkimer, a German veteran, who had seen much 
military service. Herkimer gathered about eight hundred men, 
and started to intercept St. Leger s troops. While on the way, 
Herkimer himself was surprised at Oriskaiiy by Chief Joseph 
Brant and Johnson s rangers. Herkimer was mortally wounded, 
and by all the rules of war was badly whipped. Just at the 
time when he was at their mercy, however, both the Indians and 
the rangers turned and fled. . Colonel Gansevoort, in command 
of Fort Stanwix, heard the firing and, suspecting trouble, sent 
Colonel Marinus Willett to the rescue. Willett overtook Johnson s 
rangers, and punished them so severely that they took no further 
part in the war. Most of the Mohawks deserted. After this 
St. Leger became frightened, abandoned his position, and retreated 
to Canada. 

Carrying out the King s Plan ; Why Howe did not go to Albany. 
The first and second parts of the king s plan failed, and, for that 
matter, so did the third. There were two very good reasons why 
General Howe did not move his troops up the Hudson to join 
Burgoyne and St. Leger. During the first part of the campaign, 
Howe had his hands full in trying to defeat Washington ; the rest 
of the time he was busy trying to prevent Washington from whip 
ping him. Moreover, it is now known that General Howe never 



received positive orders to cooperate with Burgoyne and St. 
Leger. 1 

Thus the king s plan utterly collapsed, and its failure com 
pleted the War of the Revolution so far as New York was con 
cerned. The rest of the fighting in the state was mainly for 
the purpose of punishing Indians and Tories. 

The Massacres at Wyoming Valley and Cherry Valley ; Sullivan s 
Expedition. 1777-1779. The Indians of the Six Nations, al 
though loyal to the English, 
were not inclined to take any 
important part in the war, and 
there was no general uprising 
of the Iroquoian tribes. Never 
theless, many Indians joined 
with the bands of Tories and 
helped in the attacks on defense 
less frontier villages. Some 
Tory rangers and Seneca In 
dians under Colonel Butler fell 
upon the settlement at Wyoming 
Valley, Pennsylvania, and mas 
sacred a great many of the 
people. Butler also left a trail 
of blood and smoking ruins 
through the valleys of the Una- 


Given as rewards to the chiefs who 
adhered to England. It shows an 
Englishman and an Indian smoking 
a pipe of peace together. 

dilla and Cobleskill rivers in 
New York. His son, with a 
company of rangers and In 
dians, attacked the villages in Cherry Valley, New York, and 
massacred most of the settlers there. 

After this sort of warfare had been going on for nearly two 

1 That General Howe must have known he was expected to ascend the Hudson 
seems certain, hut it is also certain that he was permitted to use his discretion 
about doing so. Nevertheless, a positive order to that effect was issued from 
the British War Office, but not having been accurately copied it was withheld. 
Fortunately, or unfortunately, the paper on which hung the fortunes of Burgoyne 
was consigned to a pigeonhole in some one s desk and forgotten ; it was not dis 
covered until long after American independence was assured, 



years, General Sullivan was ordered to put a stop to it. In 
1779 he gathered a force of soldiers and carried a very vigorous 
campaign into the territory of the Six Nations. The Tories 
quickly slunk away, leaving the Indians to bear the brunt of 
the punishment. The punishment that Sullivan inflicted was so 
effectual that the Iroquoians were no longer a factor in the war. 
About fifty of their villages and forts were destroyed. 

Clark s Conquest in the Northwest. 1778-1779. During the 
war the fort at Detroit was perhaps the most important outpost 


/~ " 50 lOO"^ 160 200 M\LES--14- 


on the western frontier, and it was strongly garrisoned. The 
British military governor, Hamilton, although far away from 
the scene of the war, managed to stir up the Indians in the 
West, and planned to attack the whole western frontier. A 
plucky dare-devil from Virginia, Colonel George Eogers Clark, re 
cruited several hundred men in 1778, and embarked at Pittsburg. 
The command made its way to the British fort at Kaskaskia, on 
the Mississippi Biver, which was readily captured. Then Clark 
led his riflemen eastward on a most difficult journey to Vincennes, 
which he captured, Puring two brilliant campaigns in the next 


few months, he drove the British from nearly all the outposts 

between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi Kiver, 

and practically won the region 

for the Americans. Detroit 

was the only important post. 
The National Flag. During 

the first year of the war various 

designs were used for the 

national standard. The one 

most commonly used had thir 
teen stripes, alternately red and 

white, with the cross of St. 

George (the British Union Jack) 

at the upper corner next the 

halyards. In June, 1777, the 

Congress ordered a blue field 

with thirteen white stars in 

the place of the cross of St. 


France aids the Americans. 

1778. In February, 1778, the 

king of France not only recog 
nized the United States as an 

independent power, but he also 

sent troops and a fleet to the aid of the Americans. This was 

due partly to their success at Saratoga and partly to the fact 
that Benjamin Franklin, whom the Con 
gress had sent to France, proved a most 
capable counselor. Moreover, France was 
only too willing to hit back at her old 
enemy, England. What was quite as 
necessary to the Americans, France made 
a commercial alliance with them. King 
THE AMERICAN FLAG George felt uneasy, and offered the Ameri- 

AS ADOPTED IN 1777. , ,, . ., TIT -i j 

cans about everything they had demanded 
except independence. This offer, however, was rejected, as nothing 
short of independence would at that time be considered. 


The British evacuate Philadelphia; the Battle of Monmouth. 1778. 
When General Clinton, who had succeeded Howe, learned that 
the French fleet was making for the American coast, he feared to 
remain longer at Philadelphia, and so he abandoned the city and 
started for New York. Washington, who had remained with his 
half-clad, half-starved command at Valley Forge, was on the 
alert, following him closely. At Monmouth, New Jersey, Wash 
ington felt safe in offering battle. It would have been a decided 
victory for the Americans had not General Charles Lee treacher 
ously ordered a retreat. The British lost heavily, though Wash 
ington gained nothing. If Lafayette and Steuben had not refused 
to obey Lee, the American loss would have been far heavier. 

Two things became apparent during the battle. In Lafayette, 
the Americans had a courageous field officer ; moreover, the train 
ing which Baron von Steuben had given the troops during the 
winter at Valley Forge and the excellent organization which he 
had introduced into the army proved to be of the greatest value. 

The battle of Monmouth was the last important fighting that 
occurred in the Middle states. 


The King s New Plan. By the last of 1778, the king had a 
new plan, namely, that the royal army should start at the 
South, where the Tory sentiment was very strong, and sweep 
a clean path northward through the Middle and New England 

The Capture of Savannah and Charleston. 1778-1780. The 
first efforts were successful. Under General Clinton s direction 
Savannah was captured, and the royal governor was reinstated 
over Georgia. The Americans seemed unable to check the British 
advance. General Lincoln, who had won distinction in the Ameri 
can campaign about Saratoga, landed at Charleston, South Caro 
lina, and raised an army of about three thousand recruits. A part 
of this force was sent to retake Savannah, but, after several battles 
at Augusta, the Americans were so badly beaten that scarcely five 
hundred men were left. 


The British general, Prevost, had things pretty nearly his own 
way, and drove the American forces before him to Charleston. 1 
General Clinton advanced by land from Savannah. Together 
Clinton and Prevost moved upon the city, and on May 12, 1780, 
they captured not only the city itself, but Lincoln and his entire 
force, which numbered about seven thousand. It was not a case 
of overwhelming odds, but one of bad judgment on the part of 
Lincoln ; Clinton showed the better generalship. 

General Gates s Defeat; Camden. 1780. After this hard blow, 
another army of three thousand men was raised and placed 
under the command of General Gates, in August, 1780. The 
British forces were scattered, and had Gates followed the advice 
of Baron De Kalb, he could have routed them one after another. 
Instead, he waited ; and while he was waiting, Cornwallis, with 
only two thousand troops, fell upon him at Camden, South Caro 
lina. The battle was short and decisive. Many of the Ameri 
cans they had lost all confidence in Gates ran away ; most of 
the others were killed or captured. With the remnant of his 
command, Gates retreated to North Carolina. 

Arnold s Treason. 1780. About this time, too, there occurred 
the most disheartening incident of the war. After the battle of 
Saratoga, Arnold, who had been severely wounded, was placed in 
command at Philadelphia. Like Washington, Greene, and Mor 
gan, he had been the object of malicious intriguers ; at their 
instigation he was courtmartialed, but the court acquitted him 
of all blame. During this time his pay was withheld for more 
than a year. In disgust he made up his mind to resign. 2 Wash 
ington was angry at the injustice, and at Arnold s request 
Washington transferred him to West Point. 

Before his transfer to West Point, however, Arnold had begun 
the plot which was to make his name infamous forever, and his 
appointment to this important station gave him the opportunity 

1 During this march Prevost s troops gutted every planter s mansion and de 
stroyed all property in sight. For this he has heen unmercifully criticised. One 
must bear in mind, however, that his act was one of war, and that his march was 
not a picnic. The effect was to bring many Tories to the American side. 

2 Greene and Morgan had both resigned for similar causes, but had reentered 
the army at Washington s request. 


to carry out the plot. He negotiated with General Clinton 
to give up West Point to the British; for his treachery he 
was to receive six thousand pounds and a brigadier-general s 


commission in the British 
army. Through the capture 
of Major Andre, Clinton s sec 
retary, the plot was discovered 
and thwarted. The unfortunate 
Andre was hanged as a spy 


a cruel necessity of war ; Arnold managed to escape to the British 
lines. After this Arnold was engaged in a pillaging expedition in 
Virginia j he also carried on a similar guerrilla warfare near New 
London, Connecticut. 1 

The Mutiny at Morristown. 1780-1781. The moral effect of 
Arnold s treason was great. The troops in the winter camp at 
Morristown, New Jersey, driven to desperation by hunger and 
want of clothing, began to revolt in 1780-1781. They were paci 
fied by the personal appeal of Washington. 

The Turning of American Fortunes; Greene s Campaign. 1780- 
1781. After the defeat of General Gates at Camden, the British 
had things pretty generally their own way in South Carolina. At 
King s Mountain, however, a British force of eleven hundred was 
routed and captured by some Carolina mountaineers. 

The Americans in the South were badly in need of a leader, and 
in time he came. General Nathanael Greene was the man, and 
his right-hand man was Daniel Morgan, who was already in the 
South. Both had been snubbed by a clique of intriguers, who 
had not a little influence with the Congress, 2 and neither one 
was sorry to be sent out of reach of his annoyers. With 
Greene was also the clever Baron Steuben. Greene got together 
a force of about three thousand men. One British officer called 
them "dirty mongrels," and most likely it was an undisciplined, 
motley crowd. Nevertheless, after the training which they re 
ceived at the hands of Greene, Morgan, and Steuben, these same 
"dirty mongrels " were to bring about the humiliation of their critic. 

1 In England, Arnold was shunned as an outcast. Twenty years after his act 
of treason, on his deathbed, he begged to be once more clothed in the old uni 
form he had never forsaken, and wearing the sword knot that Washington had 
given him, he died. % 

2 It is sad to contemplate the fact that there were men who were perfectly will 
ing to sacrifice an army for the sake of political ambitions. Washington, Greene, 
and Morgan had suffered from their plottings, but being men of broad char 
acter, they w r ere strong enough to ignore their enemies. One of these schemes 
was planned by General Gates, for the purpose of depriving Washington of the 
command of the army and getting the place for himself. Gates had succeeded 
in putting himself above General Schuyler, to the disgust of all who knew of the 
trickery, but when his intentions to supersede Washington became known to 
the people, popular opinion forced Uim to desist. The scheme was known as the 
Conway Cabal. 




Greene lost no time in beginning his work. He followed the 
plan of Washington in New Jersey, constantly making sudden 
and unexpected dashes on his enemy, and quickly getting away. 
Marion, Sumter, " Light-Horse Harry " Lee, and William Wash 
ington, with their commands, were striking at the enemy almost 
day and night. At Cowpens, Morgan fell on the British 
force under Tarleton and nearly crushed it out of 
existence. In the skillful handling of men, the battle of Cowpens 
was one of the most brilliant of the war. 

The strategy that he employed showed the good judgment of 
Greene. Step by step he led Cornwallis a round- 
Courthouse about chase until the British general had been drawn 
far away from his supplies. At Guilford Courthouse, 
Greene found a favorable opportunity for attack. The battle 

was by no means a victory for 
the Americans, and it showed 
that Cornwallis was a splendid 
fighter ; but it left him so badly 
crippled that he could not return 
south, and was compelled to get 
to the seaboard. He went to 
Virginia and was shortly after 
ward ordered to Yorktown pe 
ninsula, which he proceeded to 
fortify. Lafayette, with his 
troops, immediately crept upon 
the neck of the peninsula ready 
for action ; Steuben followed 

Cornwallis being out of the 
way, Greene turned southward 
and, with the help of Marion, Sumter, and Lee, drove the British 
and Tories before him toward Charleston. At Eutaw 
Sprhjs Springs, near Charleston, they made their last stand; 
they were not defeated, but their forces were crippled. 
They got back to Charleston under cover of the British fleet, 
and there they remained, 

From the painting by Copley. 




Yorktown ; the Surrender of Cornwallis. 1781. While Corn- 
wallis was fortifying Yorktown, Washington was planning to 
recapture New York. For this purpose the French fleet had been 
ordered from the West Indies to the Chesapeake Bay in order to 
cooperate with him. Then it 
was that the cautious, re 
treating, slow-moving Wash 
ington made one of his 
characteristic lightning move 
ments. 1 He made a feint 
against New York and led 
Clinton to think that that 
city was the objective point; 
then he moved rapidly to the 
head of the Chesapeake Bay, 
and thence took ships for 
a landing place near York- 
town. On the last day of 
August the French fleet was 
before Yorktown, and two 
weeks later Washington 
joined Lafayette. The trap 
door was shut. There was 
but one thing for Cornwallis 
to do; he surrendered, and 
about eight thousand troops 
laid down their arms, 2 on 
October 19, 1781. 

In his campaigns Cornwallis had proved himself a brave 
soldier and a splendid fighter; he had served his king loyally 
and faithfully. He was the most capable general on the British 
side, and the bitter ending of the campaign in the South 


1 It is said that Robert Morris provided the funds for the transportation of 
Washington s army on about forty-eight hours notice. 

2 When his troops marched out of Yorktown between the American lines, 
the British military band played the quaint melody, "The World turned upside 


reflects no discredit on him or his soldiers ; it was the fortune 
of war. 1 

The News in England. The surrender of Cornwallis was prac 
tically the end of the war, although the British troops remained 
for some time in New York and Charleston. When the news of 
the surrender reached England, the ministry that had so long 
supported the king at once resigned. When next the Parliament 
opened (1782), George III, whose obstinacy had caused the war, 
announced that he was ready to grant the independence of his 
former colonies. During the following twelve months the British 
troops sailed for England. General Washington disbanded the 
American troops, bade farewell to his officers, and returned his 
commission to the Congress, then in session at Annapolis, 

The Naval Operations of the Revolutionary War. As early as 
1775, the Congress chartered several privately owned vessels to 
search for British ships that were to bring ammunition to America. 
Shortly afterward (December, 1775) the building of thirteen 
cruisers was ordered, six of which were built. A number of 
merchantmen were impressed into service and fitted with guns. 
A wealthy Philadelphia merchant, John Barry, gave up his busi 
ness in order to take command of the squadron of converted 
merchantmen. In command of the Lexington, Barry captured 
several British cruisers. He proved himself such a good fighter 
that Lord Howe offered him a large sum of money to take a com 
mand in the British navy. At New Providence, in the Bahama 
Islands, Barry s squadron captured a much-needed supply of 
ammunition. John Paul Jones was a lieutenant on the flagship 2 
of this fleet. 

The Congress also issued "letters of marque," that is, charters, 
to privately owned merchantmen, licensing them to arm as 
privateers ; and year after year these made war, with various 

1 On his return to England, Cornwallis was decorated with the Order of the 
Garter, and shortly afterward was made governor-general of India. 

2 The flagship flew a yellow silk standard, having as its device a pine tree and 
a coiled rattlesnake. It bore the motto, "Don t tread on me." This was the 
first naval flag. The flag now the standard of the country was not in existence 
at that time. 




fortunes, on British commerce. Some of them went to the Eng 
lish coast and performed a risky service there. It was not a sort 
of warfare that would be permitted now, but it was considered 
proper at that time. 



The Battle between the Serapis and the Bonhomme Richard. 1779. 

Paul Jones, although a young man, showed excellent fighting 
qualities. In 1779 he had command of a squadron of five ships, 
built mainly in France, for the purpose of capturing and destroy 
ing such English merchantmen as might be on the British coast. 
In September of that year, while off Flamborough Head, Eng 
land, his flagship the Bonhomme Richard 1 was overhauled by the 

British frigate Serapis. Jones 
grappled the Serapis and lashed 
his own vessel to her. During a 
momentary lull in the furious 
conflict, the captain of the Serapis 
called out : " Have you struck your 
colors?" "No," replied Jones, 
" I have not yet begun to fight." 

In three hours of most bloody 
fighting, nearly half of the crews 
of both vessels were killed or 
wounded. Then a gunner of the 
Bonhomme Richard crawled on a 
yard of the Serapis and into 
the open hatchway below threw a 
grenade, which exploded and killed 
most of the remaining crew. 
When, at ten o clock at night, 
the Serapis surrendered, only a few of her men were left alive. 
The Bonhomme Richard sank before morning, and Jones made 
the half-wrecked Serapis his flagship. After more than a year 
of service in foreign waters Jones reached Philadelphia. 2 

Finances of the Revolution. To provide the necessary funds 
for carrying on the war was a most difficult task. There were no 

1 It was named after Benjamin Franklin s character " Poor Richard," whose 
epigrams have made " Poor Richard s Almanac " famous. 

2 He was made commander of a man-of-war, but the vessel was not built 
until peace was declared. Jones later became an admiral in the Russian 
navy. He died in Paris, while still a young man. His remains were recently re 
covered and brought from France to the United States in great honor. They are 
now at Annapolis. 



gold mines to draw upon, and the amount of gold and silver coin 
on hand was small. It was difficult to borrow from foreign 
bankers, because the country was considered to be in The 
rebellion. So the country proceeded to borrow from Continental 
its own people, and to issue promises to pay the debt. 
These " promises to pay " were the same in many respects as the 
bank bills in use to-day, the chief difference being that there was 
no security to make them good. The Continental Congress author 
ized their issue for the first time just after the battle of Bunker 


Hill; they had not dared to do this until the emergency was 
great. By the close of 1779 bills to the amount of more than 
$241,000,000 had been issued by the general government, each 
issue being made by a special act of the Congress. The states 
also from time to time issued similar bills amounting to more 
than $210,000,000. About $8,000,000 in gold and silver was 
borrowed in Europe during the war, mainly from France and the 

The Continental, currency began to lessen in face value in a very 
short time ; in 1777 it was worth about eighty cents per silver 
dollar, and five years later it was worth nothing. The chief rea 
son, perhaps, was the fact that the Continental Congress had no 



legal right to issue the bills and could therefore make no valid 
law for the redemption of them. The whole country was flooded 
with counterfeits of these bills, which were printed in England 
and circulated in America with the knowledge of the British 
government. Very little of the Continental money was ever re 

The real financial power of the War of the Eevolution was 
Robert Morris. His strict integrity and wonderful ability won 

the confidence of bankers both at home and abroad. 
Morris More than once he borrowed large sums of money on 

his personal security in order that the plans of Gen 
eral Washington might be carried out. 

THIRTY Sellings tfft N. ? 7 

(J^HIS Bill, by an ORDINANCE of the Provincial Congrefs, 
fhall pafs current in all Payments within the COLONY off 
Money. Dated the 20th Day of February 1776. 



The Treaty of Paris. 1783. The treaty of peace was signed at 
Paris, September 3, 1783. Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and 
John Adams were the American commissioners. The treaty 
was ratified by the Congress a few months later, on January 
14, 1784. 

By this treaty Great Britain relinquished all claims to the gov 
ernment and territorial rights of the thirteen states. All of the 
region on the Atlantic coast from Canada to the." Florida country " 
and westward to the Mississippi River was given into the posses 
sion of the new republic. The almost unknown territory from 
the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean was conceded to Spain. East 


and West Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, 
were returned to Spain by Great Britain, which had held the terri 
tory since 1763. Under the terms of the treaty the United States 
had the right of free navigation of the Great Lakes, and equal 
rights with Great Britain to the Newfoundland fishing j^nks. 
The navigation of the Mississippi from its source to its mouth 
was free and open to both Great Britain and the United States. 
Spain at this time held the city of New Orleans. 


Washington endeavored to hold New York City in 1776, but was 
forced to retreat to New Jersey. There he weakened the British by 
a number of unexpected attacks, the most important of which was at 

The king s plan provided that New York State should be the field for 
operations. Lord Howe was to ascend the Hudson, General Burgoyne 
was to move southward through Lake Champlain Valley, Colonel St. 
Leger was to proceed eastward from Oswego. The forces were to unite 
and hold the Mohawk and Hudson valleys. 

Burgoyne was defeated, and surrendered at Saratoga on October 17, 
1777. Colonel St. Leger was defeated at Oriskany. Lord Howe did not 
receive his orders ; moreover, he was compelled to hold Philadelphia 
against Washington s troops. 

General Sullivan marched against the Iroquoian tribes and punished 
them for the massacres at Cherry and Wyoming valleys. 

George Rogers Clark, with a force of men, drove the British from 
various outposts between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi 

The king of France recognized the Americans as an independent power 
and aided them with ships and troops. 

After the failure of the campaign in New York, the king s ministers, 
in 1778, adopted the plan of invading the South, and thence pushing the 
troops northward. 

In this plan the British were at first successful ; an American army 
under General Lincoln and one under General Gates were badly defeated. 
Savannah and Charleston were captured. 

The American command in the South was then given to General 
Greene, who inflicted a severe blow on the British at Camden. On 


Yorktown peninsula Cornwallis was surrounded by Greene and Washing 
ton, with the cooperation of the French fleet. He surrendered on 
October 19, 1781. 

The treaty of peace by which Great Britain acknowledged the inde 
pendence of the United States was signed in Paris, in 1783. The treaty 
gave &*the Americans the territory between the Atlantic Ocean and 
the Mississippi River, with the exception of the Florida country. 


The American Revolution Fiske. Vol. I, Chapters V, VI, VII; 
Vol. II, Chapters XIV, XV. 

History of the United States Bancroft. Vol. V, Chapters III, IV, V. 



Previous Federations. From their first settlement on the 
Atlantic coast the colonists had made temporary federations to 
defend themselves against the Indians and for other The New 
purposes. In May, 1643, delegates from the colonies England 
of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Confederac y 
Haven formed a federation under the title of the " United Colo 
nies " of New England, commonly called the New England 
Confederacy. 1 Articles of confederation were adopted and were 
observed until 1684, when the union was dissolved. Every year 
two delegates from each colony met in convention and discussed 
matters pertaining to the general welfare. 

In 1690, six years after the New England federation had fallen 
apart, trouble with the French settlers and the Indians in Canada 
led to the assembling, in New York City, of the first general con 
gress of the colonies, and as a result a league was formed to carry 
on a campaign against the French and the Indians. 

In expectation of war with Canada, then in possession of the 
French, a congress in Albany, 2 in 1754, declared that a colonial 
union was absolutely necessary. A plan of union was 
offered by Benjamin Franklin, and adopted by the con- 
gress. By this scheme, commonly known as the Albany 
plan, the colonies were to unite under a central government, with 
a president-general appointed by the British Crown and a grand 
council chosen by the people. All the colonial legislatures, as 
has been noted, rejected the plan, because in each colony the 
people feared that it would imperil their liberty. In England 
the Board of Trade, which usually acted for the king in the 

i See page 81. 2 See page 114. 




government of the colonies, did not approve of this plan, because 
it thought the colonists would have too much liberty. 

The War of the Revolution, which was in progress for nearly a 
year before independence was declared, had been carried on by 
The *ke Continental Congress, 1 under its general authority 

Continental as a revolutionary government. This Congress at- 
Congress tended to the general affairs of the newly created 
nation, and did some excellent work under trying circumstances. 
Its powers were not defined. Since its acts were not legally bind 
ing on the states, it had no power 
to enforce them ; each state indi 
vidually accepted or rejected at 
will the advices of the Continental 
Congress. It was simply tolerated 
because the time was one which 
threatened the life of the nation. 

The Articles of Confederation. 
1777-1778. Under these condi 
tions the Continental Congress 
saw the need of a central, or fed 
eral, government, but the states 
for a time were reluctant to 
accept its advices. They re 
modeled their own governments, 
but they delayed making a central 
governing power because each 
state feared to surrender any of 
its authority. The experience of 
the states with the British Crown had made them suspicious of 
a national power. They feared that the proposed government 
might deprive them of their rights, and this fear was not over 
come for years. But because of the perils of the war for their 
independence, they consented to the formation of a confederation. 
The "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union" were 
approved by the Continental Congress November 15, 1777. A 
circular letter was then sent to each state legislature, requesting 
i See pages 133, 141. 


that its delegates in the Congress be instructed to sign the articles. 
The delegates of ten states signed during the next few months. 
New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, however, were not ready 
to sign because they objected to the claim of several states to the 
ownership of western lands. It was maintained that these lands 
should be held for the benefit of all the states. After consider 
able controversy, the states claiming these lands agreed to cede 
them to the United States. 1 By March 1, 1781, all the states had 
ratified the Articles of Confederation, and the Congress proclaimed 
the new government to the world. For the next eight years the 
thirteen United States were governed by these Articles. 

The Congress of the Confederation and its Powers. The general 
powers of the Congress were strictly defined in the Articles of 
Confederation. The Congress exer 
cised executive, judicial, and legis 
lative functions. The president of 
the Congress was the chief officer of 
the nation, and the chairmen of the 
congressional committees were the 
heads of the executive departments. 
The Congress consisted of but one 
house ; it met annually in November, 
and continued in session as long as it 
pleased during the following twelve THE GREAT SEAL OF THE 
months. When it was not in session, UNITED STATES - 

the public affairs were carried on by Adopted in 1782> 

a committee of states, consisting of one delegate from each state. 
Not fewer than two nor more than seven delegates could be sent 
to the Congress by each state, and each state had only one vote in 
the Congress whatever the number of its delegates. To amend 
the Articles of Confederation required the vote of every state. 2 

The Congress could declare war and peace, call upon the states 

1 See page 187. 

2 The. delegates were chosen by the state legislature to serve for one year, 
but they could be recalled at any time and others sent in their places. No dele 
gate could serve for more than three consecutive years. The delegates were paid 
by the states, the compensation ranging from ten to twenty dollars a day and 
expenses. The voting in Congress was done by states. 


for soldiers, and build a navy. It could create an army and navy, 
and direct the operations of the military and naval forces. It 
could enter into treaties and alliances with foreign nations. It 
could borrow money and coin gold and silver. It could appor 
tion among the states the money needed to pay the expenses 
of the government, but it could not compel a state to pay its 

x The power to regulate commerce was not possessed by the Con 
gress, and the lack of this power was a fatal weakness. It could 
not levy a tax of any kind on the people, or place duties on 
exports or imports. It could not compel the states to comply 
with its requisitions. 

The Need of a Stronger Government ; a Grave Crisis. It was 
early seen that the Federal government established by the Articles 
of Confederation was a complete failure. Without the power 
either to raise money or to compel obedience, it was, as Washington 
said, "a half-starved, limping government, always moving upon 
crutches and tottering at every step." Undoubtedly the Congress 
of the Confederation conducted affairs as best it could, but it 
could not make an efficient government while it lacked governing 

Moreover, the states did not properly sustain the Federal gov 
ernment they had created. After the Revolution there was a 
disposition to treat the Federal authority with indifference, if not 
with contempt. The times were very hard through the country, 
and all the industries were depressed. Not much gold and silver 
were in circulation, and the paper money issued by the Congress 
had little value at home and no purchasing power abroad. 1 

1 To add to the confusion, from most of the states there came a demand for the 
increased issue of paper money, in order to meet the emergency caused hy the 
lack of gold and silver coin. In the Carolinas the hills that were issued immedi 
ately fell in value, until the merchants refused to take them. In Georgia a law 
was passed compelling people to take them, but its only effect was to make the 
bills valueless. In New York and New Jersey the " rag money," as it was called, 
caused very heavy losses. In Rhode Island the farmers, who were chiefly respon 
sible for the rag money in that state, attempted to boycott the merchants who 
refused to take it, with the result that mobs and riots prevailed all over the state. 
As in the other states, the only result was the lowering of the value of the money 
until it was practically worthless. One dollar in good coin was equivalent at 


The patriotism of the revolutionary days for a time seemed to 
be gone. Each state seemed to think it had enough to do in 
looking after its own affairs ; therefore the affairs of the nation 
were neglected. Some of the states expressed their contempt for 
the Congress by sending no delegates to it. It was very apparent 
that there must be a stronger central government, "or the new 
American republic would cease to exist. 

During the War of the Revolution, the Congress had borrowed 
considerable sums of money from capitalists in France, Holland, 
and elsewhere. But after the war had closed, the 
national finances were in such a bad state that the wea kness 
money lenders would not give gold and silver in ex 
change for the government s promises. The Congress was obliged 
to depend on the states for the means to pay the expenses of the 
government, and the failure of the states to provide the means 
caused serious embarrassments. The interest on the public debt 
was not paid, and other obligations were unsatisfied. 

It was thought that if the Congress had power to levy direct 
taxes and duties on imports, much of the weakness of the Federal 
government would be removed, and an unsuccessful attempt was 
made to secure this power. The Congress then asked the states 
for power to levy a duty of five per cent on imports for twenty- 
five years, the money to be used in paying the interest on the 
public debt. The proposition was favored by all the states except 
New York, but through this opposition the plan failed. 

Treaties with foreign powers were frequently violated in the 
ports of some states, and the Congress was powerless in the 
matter. Each state had its own system of export and 
import duties. The result was a very bad condition 
of affairs. Merchants trading along the Atlantic coast 
as well as those trading with foreign lands were seriously affected 
by it. When the states had entered the Confederation, they had 
retained the right to regulate their own commerce. For this 
reason the Congress could do nothing to improve matters. Once 

one time to about five hundred currency dollars. A majority of the people had 
not learned the wholesome lesson that legislative bodies cannot create something 
with value out of nothing. 



Danger of 

there was an effort to get the consent of the states to a national 
commercial system, but they refused to consider the subject. 
Merchandise and agricultural products shipped from one state to 
another were heavily taxed, and this naturally caused a great 
deal of bad feeling. 1 

It was, indeed, a critical period. The union of the states, which 
had been formed under the pressure of a common dan 
ger, had now become a very loose one. Each state was 
virtually independent, and it heeded the Federal gov 
ernment or not, as it pleased. European statesmen had no confi 
dence whatever in 
the stability of the 
Federal union. Wise 
leaders in America 
saw that the states 
would fall apart and 
become separate 
communities, unless 
the powers of the 
Federal government 
we,re extended. 
They strove to se 
cure from the states 
concessions which 
would give strength 
to the nation and 
prevent its dissolu 

The Annapolis Con 
vention. 1786. In 
1785 the Virginia 
Assembly passed a 
resolution inviting 
the states to send 


Here the Declaration of Independence and the Con 
stitution were signed. 

1 This was especially true of produce shipped from Connecticut and from New 
Jersey to New York City ; a great deal of smuggling and fighting resulted. 

delegates to a con- 


vention to be held at Annapolis, in order to consider a national 
system for the regulation of commerce. When the convention 
met the next year, only five states were represented, and there 
fore the consideration of commercial regulations was postponed. 
The delegates, however, adopted an address written by Alexander 
Hamilton, recommending to the states that a convention be held 
at Philadelphia, to take such steps as might render the Articles 
of Confederation effective. The states generally approved, and 
the Congress authorized that the convention be held. 

The Federal Convention. 1787. The Federal convention, called 
in May, 1787, for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confed 
eration, was composed of delegates from all the states except Rhode 
Island. Washington was unanimously chosen its president. 1 
Instead of revising the Articles of Confederation the convention 
decided at once to devise a new system of government which 
would be adequate, not only to the present need of the republic, 
but to the future as well. 2 

1 All the proceedings were secret, and little was known of them for a long time. 
Eventually, the official records and the notes of the debates made by James Madi 
son and others were published. 

2 Four plans of government came before the convention. 

The Virginia plan, presented by Edmund Randolph, the governor of Virginia, 
was prepared mainly by James Madison. It proposed a national government to be 
so conducted " that the idea of states should be reduced to a minimum " ; it should 
have every power necessary to make it an efficient central government, including 
the power to tax and to enforce the laws. The Congress, consisting of two 
branches, was also to have a veto on state legislation. A national executive, 
appointed by the Congress, was to have power to carry on the affairs of the 

The South Carolina plan had some of the features of the Virginia plan, and some 
that were original. Its most distinctive feature was a provision for a " President 
of the United States of America " who was to be called " his Excellency." 

The New Jersey plan proposed what was scarcely more than a revision of the 
Articles of Confederation. The Congress was to remain a single body, but was 
to have the power of taxation and to regulate foreign and domestic commerce. 
There was to be an executive council, and also United States courts. 

The fourth plan was offered by Alexander Hamilton of New York. His plan 
proposed a congress of two houses, with legislative power sufficient to administer 
national affairs. A "Chief Executive," to hold office for life, was to have the 
" supreme executive authority." 

The four plans were thoroughly discussed. The convention discarded Hamil 
ton s and New Jersey s plans and eventually accepted the best features of the 
other two plans. 


Making the Constitution. 1787. : The ground plan of the Con 
stitution that gradually took shape provided that the government 
should be vested in 

A legislative body, or Congress, consisting of a Senate and a 
House of Representatives. In the Senate each state should 
have two members ; in the House of Representatives the 
number of members should be in proportion to the population 
of the state. 

An executive body consisting of a President and a Vice-President. 

A judicial body consisting of a supreme court and various inferior 

It was also conceded, after a long discussion, that 

Five slaves should be counted as three freemen in estimating 

the population for apportioning representatives. 
The Congress might regulate foreign commerce. 
Exports should not be taxed. 
The importation of slaves should not be forbidden before 1808. 

Finally the work was finished. On September 17, 1787, the 
Constitution was signed by George Washington as president of 

the convention and 
by thirty-eight of 
the delegates. The 

other sixteen would 

. , 

not sign because 

they objected to cer 
tain clauses which they believed interfered with the rights of 
the states. 

The People s Conventions. 1787-1788. In each state, except 
Ehode Island, 1 a convention of delegates chosen by the people 
was held for the purpose of ratifying or rejecting the Constitution. 
There was more or less opposition to the new plan of government 
in most of the conventions, and in some of them the opposition 
was very strong ; in the main, it arose from the fear of giving 
too much power to the Federal government. The people had not 

1 In Rhode Island the Constitution was submitted to the freemen at town 


forgotten the tyranny of George III. But by the last of June, 
1788, the people of nine states (the necessary two thirds majority) 
had ratified the Constitution. 1 

Redrawn from an old print. 


The picture represents a procession in New York City, of which the most 
imposing part was the " Ship of State " on wheels. 

On the 20th of September, 1788, the new Constitution was pre 
sented to the Congress of the Confederation then sitting in the 

1 Delaware was the first state to ratify by a unanimous vote. Nine other states 
ratified shortly afterward. When Massachusetts, South Carolina, New Hamp 
shire, Virginia, and New York ratified, they recommended various amendments 
to the Constitution, which they regarded as "necessary to remove the fears and 
allay the apprehensions of the people." After the constitutional government had 
been in operation for some time, the people of North Carolina and Rhode Island 
changed their minds and ratified the Constitution. They had been practically out 
of the Union. The dates and order of ratification are : Delaware, December 6, 
1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, 
January 2, 1788 ; Connecticut, January 9, 1788 ; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788 ; 
Maryland, April 28, 1788 ; South Carolina, May 23, 1788 ; New Hampshire, June 21, 
1788 ; Virginia, June 25, 1788 ; New York, July 26, 1788 ; North Carolina, Novem 
ber 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790: 


City Hall in New York. The Congress accepted it and ordered 
that the government under the present Constitution should begin 
its existence on the 4th of March, 1789, in the city of New York. 1 

The National Domain in 1783. At the close of the War of the 
Eevolution, the United States was practically without definite 
limits or boundaries, except the one that nature had created on the 
Atlantic coast. The boundaries between the states w ere not wholly 
settled for about a century, while the settlement of the national 
boundary caused international disputes for more than a century. 

The treaty of Paris gave to the Americans an area less than one 
third the present area of the main body of the United States. 
The northern boundary, from the eastern point of Maine to the 
Lake of the Woods, was approximately the boundary of to-day. 
The British claimed a narrow strip on the southern border of the 
St. Lawrence Eiver and the Great Lakes. Spain owned Florida 
and the great region west of the Mississippi. Taking advantage 
of the weakness of the United States, she seized the area com 
prised in the present states of Mississippi and Alabama, and held 
ifc for some twelve years. 

Territorial Claims of the States. South of Virginia, which then 
included the present state of Kentucky, the region belonged 
Territory mainly to North Carolina and Georgia, but South Caro- 
south of lina also claimed a narrow strip ; all these states 
claimed the land westward to the Mississippi, although 
Spain occupied the part of it that was included in Florida. Con 
cerning the land south of the Ohio Eiver there was little dispute. 

The " territory northwest of the Ohio " was claimed in part by 
several states. Directly after the Eevolution there was consider- 
The able emigration to the little-known country northwest 

Northwest of the Ohio Eiver. This Northwest Territory, as it 
Territory wag ca j] e ^ ^ a( j j.j een reserved by Great Britain after 
the close of the French and Indian War as "Crown lands," 

1 The establishment of the new government was an act of revolution for the 
reason that provision was made that it should go into effect without the ap 
proval of two states. The convention of 1787 had no authority to provide the 
means of setting aside the Articles of Confederation except by the unanimous con 
sent of the states in the confederation. 


exclusively for the Indians, and the American colonists were 
forbidden to occupy it. During the War of the Ee volution, how 
ever, Virginia troops under George Rogers Clark took possession 
of it, and it was therefore held by right of conquest. 1 

At first the greater part of the territory was claimed by Vir 
ginia under her original charter; Massachusetts and 
Connecticut also claimed, under their charters, some cessions 
portion of the region; and jSTew York, by reason of 
treaties made with the Indians, laid claim to a very large tract. 


This fort, built for the protection of settlers in the Northwest Territory, 
was the beginning of Cincinnati. 

Each of the other states demanded some of this land, and strongly 
resisted the claims of the four states. The four states finally 
(1781-1786) agreed to surrender their claims to the general govern 
ment, on a pledge from the Congress of the Confederation that 
the lands should be formed into states, which should "become 
members of the union, and have the same rights as the other 

The Ordinance of 1787. Emigrants from the states settled in 
the fertile lands of the Korthwest Territory in increasing numbers 

1 See page 162. 


from year to year. The Congress planned a form of government 
for this territory which, for the greater part, is still used in 
governing the territories of the United States. This plan of 
government was set forth in an ordinance passed in 1787. 

Jefferson was very desirous that slavery should be prohibited 
in the new territory, 1 and the Congress of the Confederation 
included in the Ordinance of 1787 a provision forbidding slave- 
holding anywhere within the Northwest Territory. The First 
Congress 2 of the United States under the new Constitution (1789) 
confirmed this ordinance. 

The exclusion of slavery from the Northwest Territory by the 
Ordinance of 1787 was far-reaching in its effects. There were 
many who declared that the Congress had no right or power 
under the Articles of Confederation to pass such an act, yet there 
was scarcely a protest against it throughout the country. 3 It fully 
illustrates the proposition that, unless a central government has 
broad powers, in a time of emergency it is very apt to take 
them, whether constitutional or not. 


Every attempt to organize a federation of the colonies with any cen 
tralized governing power was resisted by the colonists. 

From 1774 to 1781 the general conduct of the war was directed by the 
various Continental Congresses. 

From 1781 to 1789 the Congress was subject to the Articles of Con 
federation. Under these the Congress had no power to direct commer 
cial affairs or to raise money by taxation. Abroad, there was no faith 
in the stability of the Union ; at home, the country was drifting toward 

In 1785 the Virginia Assembly arranged for a convention which was 

1 In 1784 Jefferson introduced in the Congress an ordinance for the government 
of the Northwest Territory, with a provision for the exclusion of slavery, but the 
Congress rejected that clause. 

2 Since the adoption of the present Constitution each Congress is designated 
by number. 

a Some years later a number of petitions were sent to the Congress from 
Indiana and Illinois by those who favored the introduction of slavery, asking for 
the suspension or the repeal of the anti-slavery clause of the Ordinance of 1787. 
In each case the Congress declined to grant the petition. 


held the next year at Annapolis, at which only five states were repre 
sented. This convention asked for a convention to revise the Articles of 

The Federal Convention, which met in May, 1787, prepared the Con 
stitution of the United States, which was ratified by the states. 

The Congress of the Confederation ordered that the government of the 
United States under the present Constitution should begin March 4, 1789. 

Various states claimed the territory northwest of the Ohio River, but 
they yielded their claims and gave the lands to the general government 
to be made later into new states. 

The Congress of the Confederation passed the Ordinance of 1787 pro 
viding for the government of the Northwest Territory and forbidding 
slavery within its area. The First Congress of the United States con 
firmed this ordinance. 


Critical Period of American History Fiske. Chapters IV, VI. 
Constitution of the United States Appendix, page 8. 



The Election of Washington and Adams. 1789. On March 4, 
1789, eight senators and thirteen representatives of the new 
Congress assembled in the City Hall of New York City, and 011 
the 6th of April the Congress was ready for business. On 
that day the Senate and the House of .Representatives assembled 

in joint session, and 
the votes cast by the 
presidential electors in 
the several states were 
opened and counted. 1 
The count showed that 
George Washington 
was elected President, 
and John Adams Vice- 

From an old print. 


On the 21st of April 
Adams was installed 
as Vice-President, and on the 30th Washington was inaugurated as 
President. He took the oath of office on the balcony of the City 
Hall in the presence of thousands of spectators. Afterward he 

1 The system adopted for the election of the President was peculiar. The 
people were to vote for electors, not directly for the President. Each state 
should choose as many electors as it had senators and representatives in the 
Congress, The electors of each state by themselves were to vote for two men for 
President. The man receiving the majority of votes from the electors became 
President, and the man receiving the next largest number became Vice-President. 
(See page 206.) 



delivered an inaugural address in the Senate Chamber. Thus 
the new Federal government was happily begun. 

First Acts of the Congress ; the First Tariff. 1789. During 
its first months the Congress was busily engaged in arranging 
the details of the new system of government. The first thing 
was to provide a way by which the government could pay its 
current expenses and the debts which had come to it from the old 
confederation. To raise the money for these purposes an act was 
passed putting duties on articles of foreign manufacture. In the 
preamble of the act it was stated that the tariff was "necessary 
for the support of the government, and for the encouragement 
and protection of manufactures." This was the first tariff act, 
and the beginning of the policy of protection to American manu 
factures. Another act was passed placing duties on the tonnage 
of vessels bringing merchandise to the United States. Foreign- 
built vessels were taxed fifty cents a ton, but American-built ves 
sels only six cents a ton. This discrimination was intended to 
encourage home shipbuilding. 

Executive Departments. Three departments to carry on the 
executive work of the government were created by the Congress. 
The Department of Foreign Affairs was at once established ; after 
ward the name was changed to the Department of State, and its 
head was called the secretary of state. The President appointed 
to this office Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, then United States 
minister to France. 

The second department created was the War Department, which 
was to have charge of military affairs. General Henry Knox of 
Massachusetts, a famous soldier, was made the head of the depart 
ment, with the title of secretary of war. 

The Treasury Department was the third department created, 
and to it was given the management of the government s finances. 
Alexander Hamilton, 1 a brilliant lawyer of New York, was ap- 

1 ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1757-1804) was born on the island of Nevis, West 
Indies. He was educated at King s College (Columbia University). He served 
in the Revolution as Washington s aid-de-camp, winning distinction at York- 
town. More than any one else he was influential in the framing and adoption of 
the Constitution. In 1789 Washington appointed him secretary of the treasury. 
In 1799 he was chosen commander-iii-chief of the army. He was killed in a duel 


pointed to the office of secretary. Hamilton at once devised a 
remarkable system for the transaction of the business of the 
department a system so complete that much of it has been 
retained to this day. He was secretary of the treasury for five 
years, and in that time put the finances of the government on a 
sound basis. 

The heads of the three executive departments, together with 
the attorney -general, were the President s advisers. 1 

The Federal Courts. By the Judiciary Act, the Congress estab 
lished United States courts in accordance with the provisions of 
the Constitution, creating a Federal judiciary. A Supreme Court 
of the United States, which was to be the highest legal tribunal 
in the country, and a number of circuit and district courts were 
established. It was provided that the Supreme Court should 
have a chief justice and five associate justices. John Jay of New 
York was appointed chief justice. 

Amendments to the Constitution. 1791. Early in the session 
of the First Congress a number of amendments to the Constitution 
were offered by members from New York, Virginia, and other 
states. There was a long debate over these proposed amend 
ments. Finally, twelve of them were adopted by the Congress, 
and, in accordance with the constitutional provision for amend 
ment, were laid before the states to be ratified. The states ratified 
ten amendments, and on December 15, 1791, they became a part 
of the Constitution. These amendments were intended to satisfy 
the people who had demanded them before the Constitution was 
adopted. Among other things they prohibited the Congress from 
interfering with freedom of religious worship, freedom of speech, 
and freedom of the press. They constituted practically a bill of 
rights. 2 

The Public Debt. In 1790 Alexander Hamilton, the secretary 

with Aaron Burr. Hamilton combined with brilliancy, grace, and vigor, a won 
derfully logical and penetrating mind. 

1 The heads of departments at first met informally for consultation with the 
President. In his second term Washington called them together regularly, and 
out of this practice grew the present system of cabinet meetings, at which the 
President and the secretaries of departments regularly advise together. 

2 See Appendix, page 20. 


of the treasury, submitted a report showing that the nation owed 
at home and abroad the enormous sum of $54,124,463, of which 
the foreign debt was $ 11,710,378. Hamilton urged the Congress 
to arrange a plan for paying this indebtedness in full, with interest. 
He declared that if this were done the national credit, then in a 
very low state, would eventually become equal to that of any 
country in Europe. Little opposition was made in. the Congress 
to paying the foreign indebtedness. There was great opposition, 
however, to paying the domestic 
debt. It was declared by many 
members of the Congress that 
much of the domestic debt would 
be paid to speculators who had 
bought the securities at a low 
price, and who would make an 
immense profit if the securities 
should be paid in full. Therefore 
it was argued that it would not 
be right to pay dollar for dollar 
for this portion of the public 
debt. The majority admitted this 
fact, but held that the Congress 
had no right to refuse the pay 
ment of a single dollar of indebt 
edness because speculators had 

taken advantage of the nation s financial distress. There was a 
long debate about the matter in the Congress ; but it was decided 
to do as Hamilton had recommended. The Congress arranged a 
plan by which payment of the entire indebtedness of the nation, 
both principal and interest, was to be made out of moneys received 
from the sale of public lands and from the surplus of import 

In addition to the foreign and domestic debts, there were debts 
amounting to about $21,000,000 which the states had incurred in 
carrying on the War of the Eevolution. Hamilton proposed that 
the Federal government should pay these state debts. This pro 
posal was violently opposed. Finally, when the question of the 



location of the Federal capital was under discussion, a compromise 
was made ; a few Southern congressmen gave their votes in favor 
The perma- ^ tne assumption of state debts provided the capital 
nent seat of should be located on the Potomac. It was decided 
government ^799) that the government should remove from New 
York to Philadelphia, there to remain for ten years, and then 
(1800) it should be permanently located in the region on the 
Potomac River now known as the District of Columbia. 1 

A Federal Bank. 1791. A plan to establish a Bank of the 
United States was presented to the Congress by Secretary Ham 
ilton, who believed that such an institution would be of great 
benefit to the government in its financial operations. At this 
time the Treasury Department used private banks as places of 
deposit, because the Congress had provided no treasury for 
the safe-keeping of the government funds. 

Hamilton s measure had many opponents on the ground that 
the Congress had no power under the Constitution to establish a 
national bank. The National Bank Act, however, was passed by 
the Congress and was approved by President Washington. Before 
signing the bill Washington got the written opinions of Hamilton 
and Jefferson as to its constitutionality. Hamilton said that the 
Bank measure was constitutional, while Jefferson maintained 
that it was unconstitutional ; Washington accepted Hamilton s 

The Bank of the United States was accordingly chartered in 
1791 for twenty years, and was shortly afterward established at 
Philadelphia. During its existence of twenty years it handled 
nearly all the government money, and was of great assistance to 
the Treasury Department. 

The United States Mint. Up to the time of the War of the 
Revolution, English coins mainly were used in business transac 
tions. Spanish and Dutch coins were common, and the Spanish 
" milled dollar " 2 for a time was standard money. During the 
war, and for some time afterward, almost anything in the way of 

1 Maryland, in 1788, and Virginia, in 1789, ceded land to a total area of one 
hundred square miles to make the District of Columbia. 

2 So named from the raised rim, or edge, which prevented defacement. 




a coin would pass. A great deal of " scrip," or paper money, was 
also issued by the various states, and much of it was never redeemed. 
The Constitution forbade the states to coin money, and so it 
became necessary to take steps for a national coinage. The Con 
gress therefore provided (1792) a mint at 
Philadelphia, to which any one might take 
gold or silver and have it refined and 
made into coins free of charge. It was 
also provided that the value of gold should 
be, weight for weight, just fifteen times 
that of silver ; that is, the ratio was fifteen 
to one. 1 ^*r 

The First Political Parties. The pas 
sage of the National Bank Act drew clearly 
the lines between two political parties that 
had already been existing for some time. The followers of Hamil 
ton were known as Federalists. They desired that the 
Federal government should have strong authority, and Federalists 
therefore that the powers granted it in the Consti 
tution should be broadly construed ; they 
were called " loose constructionists." 

Those who held the same views as 
Thomas Jefferson were called Anti-federal 
ists. They were " strict con- 

.... , ,. -, .-, The Anti- 

structiomsts," and favored the federalists 

plan of making the state, 
rather than the Federal government, the 
stronger power. The Anti-federalists were 
continually battling against the extension 
of the power of the national government. They interpreted the 
Constitution strictly according to its terms, and would not concede 
to the Federalists the right to do otherwise. 

1 It was subsequently made sixteen to one. 

2 This coin bore on one side a portrait of Washington. He objected to this, 
and it was therefore ordered that " an impression emblematic of Liberty " should 
be substituted for the head of the President. 

a The other side of the coin bears a head of Washington. The coin was used 
in trade with England, and was called the Liverpool halfpenny. 

COIN .3 




New States. 1791-1802. Just after the beginning of the Wai 
of the Revolution the people of Vermont were refused recognition 
in the Continental Congress, on the ground that Ver 
mont was not a separate colony. As a matter of fact 
the region was claimed by both New York and New Hampshire. 
The freemen therefore declared themselves (1777) a sovereign 
state under the name of "New Connecticut, alias Vermont." In 
the course of a few years, however, the claims of these states 
were settled, New York receiving $30,000 for lands which she 
claimed. Vermont was admitted to the Union in 1791, and was 
the fourteenth state. 

The Kentucky region was a part of Virginia. The Virginians 
were willing to give up the region to the general government, 
but they were unwilling to have slavery excluded, 
according to the provisions made for the North 
west Territory in the Ordinance of 1787. Kentucky finally ; with 
slavery, came into the Union as the fifteenth state, in 1792. 

The region of Tennessee was claimed by North Carolina, and 
when the latter expressed a willingness to cede her claims to the 
general government, under the Ordinance of 1787, the 
Tennesseeans would have none of it, because it inter 
fered with slavery. They organized a state of their own, naming 

it Franklin. Some 
of the people ob 
jected to this, and 
declared that they 
were still a part 
of North Carolina. 
The North Caro 
lina party finally 
prevailed, and the 
state of Franklin 
was abandoned. 
With the consent of North Carolina, Tennessee was admitted to 
the Union in 1796, as the sixteenth state. 

Within a few months after the passage of the Ordinance of 1787, 
the Congress sold five million acres of the northwestern lands to 







individuals and companies. The money received from the sale 
was used to pay some of the pressing indebtedness of the 
Federal government. Among the buyers of the lands 
was the famous Ohio Company, which purchased at a low price 
a tract of a mil 
lion and a half 
acres of rich 
lands between 
the Ohio River 
and Lake Erie. 
Through its ef 
forts thousands 
of intelligent, 
thrifty people 
from many parts 
of the Eastern 
states emigrated 
to the Northwest 
Territory, and 
established set 
tlements there. 
In 1800 the ter 
ritory was divided, and Indiana Territory 2 was organized, with 
its seat of government at Vincennes. In 1802 the settlers 
were able to organize the state of Ohio, and have it admitted 
to the Union. Ohio, the seventeenth state, was the first of 
the several states which were formed out of the Northwest 

The Presidential Election of 1792. In the summer of 1792 
Washington was requested by leading members of both political 

1 The area of the present state of Ohio was settled by various land companies 
which purchased districts. When Connecticut ceded her western land claims to 
the Federal government in 1786, she reserved a section known as the Western 
Reserve. Part of this land the state gave to certain citizens, and part was sold 
to a land company. Virginia, likewise, reserved a section to he used to pay her 
revolutionary soldiers. The Ohio Company was a New England organization 
directed by the Rev. Manasseh Cutler of Massachusetts. 

2 See map on page 228. 

The M.-N.Work 



parties to accept another term of office. He consented, and was 
duly reelected without opposition. The vice-presidency, how 
ever, was contested. John Adams was the Federalist candidate, 
and George Clinton of New York was the Anti-federalist candi 
date. Adams was elected. 

The Fugitive-Slave Law. 1793. The first fugitive-slave law 
was enacted by the Congress in 1793. By this law the owner of 
an escaping slave might seize the slave anywhere in the United 
States that he might be found. Upon proof that the person 
seized was a fugitive slave, he was to be returned to the state 
or territory from which he had escaped. Any one who might 
hinder the return of a fugitive slave should pay a fine of 

The French Revolution and the Proclamation of Neutrality. 1789- 
1793. The revolution in France, which began in 1789, caused a 
great deal of trouble for the United States. At first the people 
of the United States had a strong sympathy for the revolution 
ists. Aid had been given by the French people to the Americans 
in the War for Independence, and naturally there was a desire to 
support the French Revolution. But as the revolution went on, the 
cruelty shown in the conduct of affairs in France diminished 
the sympathy of the Americans. So, when it was proposed that 
the United States should become an ally of France in the war 
against England, in 1793, the Federalists strongly opposed it. The 
Anti-federalists, at this time known as Democratic-Republicans, 
contended that the treaty of 1778 between the two countries l was 
still in force, and therefore the United States was in honor bound 
to aid France in her war with England. 

The Federalists urged the President to proclaim the neutrality 
of the United States. They took the ground that the treaty had 
been made with King Louis XVI, and therefore was annulled 
when he had been deposed by the revolutionists. Washington 
accepted this view and issued a proclamation of neutrality (April 
22, 1793). The citizens were warned not to protect any one who 
might draw punishment on himself by aiding either of the powers 
at war. 

i See page 163. 


The proclamation caused great excitement throughout the 
country. Those who favored the cause of France bitterly 
denounced Washington, and it was asserted that he had no 
right to proclaim neutrality. It was even said that he was an 
enemy to France. 

The Genet Affair. 1793. Shortly afterward the new French 
Republic sent an ambassador, " Citizen " Edmund Charles Genet, 
to the United States. It was a very unwise choice ; for several 
months Genet s audacious actions caused apnryance and embarrass 
ment to the administration. He landed at Charleston, South 
Carolina, and at once began to enlist men .and fit out ships for 
the French service, and to do other unlawful acts. When he 
went to Philadelphia, then the seat of the government, he was 
requested by Secretary Jefferson to stop his illegal actions. But 
he, nevertheless, persisted in violations of neutrality. He com 
missioned privateers to capture English ships, and planned hostile 
expeditions against Florida and New Orleans, then held by 

Many of the Democratic-Republicans encouraged Genet, and he 
seemed to think he could do as he pleased. At last Washington 
demanded that France should recall him, which was done. The 
Congress approved of Washington s course, and passed an act giv 
ing greater effect to the neutrality proclamation. 

Unpleasant Relations with England. It was not long before the 
commercial interests of the United States began to be seriously 
affected by the European war. In November, 1793, England 
ordered the capture of all vessels carrying supplies to France or 
to the French colonies in the West Indies, as she had a perfect 
right to do. The order bore heavily on the merchants of the 
United States, who then had a very large ocean carrying trade. 
In a number of instances United States merchant vessels disre 
garded the neutral position of this country and, while trying to 
carry grain to France, were seized by British men of war. But the 
British went further than this; they deliberately took American 
seamen from our ships and forced them to serve in the British navy. 
This outrage called forth loud cries for war with Great Britain. 
Many of the Federalists joined with the Democratic-Republicans; 



a very bitter feeling against Great Britain prevailed, and war 
seemed certain. 

England in turn accused the United States of not assisting 
the Tories to regain possession of their confiscated estates, 1 and 
of failing to require American merchants to pay the debts they 
had owed in England at the breaking out of the war in 1776. 
These charges in the main were true, but they had nothing to do 
with the question at issue. On the other hand, the United States 
complained that British troops had continued to occupy the 
military posts on the great western lakes, and that the Indians 
had been incited to make raids on the frontier settlements. 

Jay s Treaty. 1794. Washington desired to save the country 

from war by all honorable means, 
and he therefore sent Chief Justice 
John Jay to England to negotiate a 
treaty. Jay was a very able states 
man and he was received in England 
with marked respect. England re 
garded the United States as a weak 
country and would make almost no 
concessions in the negotiations. The 
terms offered were far from satis 
factory; but Jay thought it would 
be best to accept the treaty, for it 
would at least secure peace and cer 
tain commercial advantages. The 
treaty was laid before the Senate, and 
ratified after a long, earnest debate. When it was published, it 
was received with violent opposition ; the newspapers attacked 
Washington, and the populace hanged and burned effigies of Jay. 
Washington thought it would be unwise to reject the treaty, 2 as it 

1 During the Revolution the Tories in New York City occupied the houses 
of people who sympathized with the war. After the war these Tories were 
persecuted and deprived of their possessions. 

2 Washington was most shamefully ahused for taking this stand. In less than 
a year, however, the treaty, which he was so severely condemned for signing, 
proved to be such a decided benefit to the country that his wisdom in signing it 
was apparent to all. 


was the first important act of the king of England to establish 
friendly relations with the United States since the Revolution. 

The treaty ignored the question of the impressment of Ameri 
can sailors into British naval service. It provided that 

The western military posts in the United States territory should 

be surrendered to the United States. 

Payment should be made for the seizure of American ships. 
Commercial regulations between the two countries should be 

Commerce was to be allowed with the British West Indies under 

certain restrictions. 
The United States was to set aside $3,000,000 to pay the claims 

of British merchants. 

The Whisky Insurrection. 1794. The national government 
had occasion to prove its strength when the farmers of western 
Pennsylvania offered the first armed resistance to its laws. 
These farmers were dependent for their prosperity on the whisky 
which they manufactured, and when a tax was laid on whisky 
they refused to pay it and drove away the tax collectors. 
President Washington ordered the militia to the scene and the 
Pennsylvanians submitted. 

The Spanish Territorial Claims Adjusted. 1795. After long 
negotiations, a treaty was made with Spain in 1795. The treaty 
fixed the boundaries between the United States and the posses 
sions of Spain in the region of the present states of Alabama, 
Mississippi, and Florida ; secured to the United States the free 
navigation of the Mississippi; and gave to American ships the 
right to use New Orleans as a place of deposit of merchandise. 

Washington retires from Public Service. 1797. Six months 
before the end of Washington s second term as President, he 
announced his determination to retire forever from the public 
service. The Federalists had urged him to accept a third term, 
but he had refused, asserting that such a policy would establish an 
unsafe precedent ; and to this day the precedent thus established 
is stronger than law. Shortly before the close of his administra 
tion, he issued a farewell address to the people of the United 
States, containing counsels which have ever since been revered. 


For many years Washington had been the foremost man in 
America, the most beloved, and the most influential. He had 
striven to establish the new federal government on broad and 
enduring lines. During the eight years of his presidency, differ 
ences with foreign nations had been settled, the public credit had 
been restored and strengthened, and a wonderful impetus had 
been given to American industries and commerce. He had seen 
the United States become a prosperous nation of four million 

Adams elected President. 1797. There had been no contest 
over Washington s first or second election. Long before the third 

election, however, both of the politi- 

fl ///7/n?A ca ^ P art ^ es cnose candidates. The 
^// CLM77M Federalists favored John Adams 1 of 
THE AUTOGRAPH or ADAMS. Massachusetts, then the Vice-Presi- 
dent. The Democratic-Republicans desired Thomas Jefferson of 
Virginia. There was an active campaign, and the contest resulted 
in the election of Adams. Jefferson became Vice-President. 

Trouble with France. 1797-1799. Soon after the inauguration 
of President Adams, there was further trouble with France, then 
governed by a revolutionary government called the Directory. 
The French government was displeased at Jay s treaty with Eng 
land, and in retaliation adopted commercial regulations which 
were hurtful to the ocean carrying trade of the United States. 
In certain cases, the seizure and confiscation of American ships 
were authorized. The American minister was ordered to quit 
France, and it was declared that the French Republic did not 
desire further relations with the United States. 

The excitement created by the action of the French govern- 

i JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826) was a native of Quincy, Massachusetts, and a gradu 
ate of Harvard College. He was already a lawyer of note when he was appointed 
to the Continental Congress of 1774 and 1775. In 1777 he- was sent as commis 
sioner to France, and later was chosen one of the three negotiators of the treaty 
with Great Britain (1782-1783). For three years he was minister to London. 
On his return to America he was elected Vice-President (1789-1797), and in 1796, 
President. At the close of his administration he retired to his farm at Quincy 
(1801). While his impatient, combative disposition won him many enemies, he 
was held in high trust and esteem because of his sincerity and generosity of 


ment caused President Adams to call the Congress in special ses 
sion, in order that it might arrange effectual measures of defense 
in case of war. A special mission was sent to France 

The X Y Z 

to make peace, but the government would not receive m j ss j on 
the envoys. They wefe met, however, by the secret 
agents of Talleyrand, minister of foreign affairs, 1 who informed 
them that before they could begin negotiations for a treaty, it 
would be necessary to give $250,000 to the Directory for its 
private use. They were also informed that the loan by the 
United States to France of at least $6,000,000 would be the 
first condition of a treaty. The envoys positively refused to 
give any money to the Directory. They treated with utter con 
tempt the proposition to buy a treaty. One of the envoys, 
Charles Pinckney, is said to have exclaimed, " Millions for 
defense ; not one cent for tribute ! " The commission remained 
in Paris for several months, but accomplished nothing. 

The failure of the mission to France made war seem inevitable. 
The great mass of the American people had the war spirit, and 
fully sustained the government in its preparations for hostilities. 
The Congress ordered the formation of a small army, and Wash 
ington w r as prevailed upon to take its command. A Department 
of the Navy was created, and provision was made for a naval 
force. All treaties with France were declared void, and inter 
course with that country was suspended. Naval hostilities be 
tween the two nations were actually begun, and the fighting ships 
of the small navy made such a good showing that the Directory 
at once changed its attitude. 

In November, 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, the famous soldier, 
brought about the overthrow of the Directory and 
had himself made the chief ruler of France, under 
the title of consul. A second commission sent by President 
Adams then obtained a satisfactory treaty. 

The Alien and Sedition Laws. 1798. The trouble with France 
was the occasion for the enactment, early in 1798, of what 
were called the Alien and Sedition laws. Agents of the French 

1 Talleyrand s secret agents were known by the initials X., Y., and Z., and 
therefore the mission of the American envoys came to be called the X.Y.Z. mission 


Directory were everywhere in the United States working in the 
interest of their government. They continually published abusive 
articles about President Adams and the Congress, and sought in 
many ways to induce the people to oppose the lawful authorities. 
The Alien and Sedition laws were passed in order to check the 
influence of these French emissaries. 

The Alien Act authorized the President, at any time during the 
next two years, to order out of the country any alien l whose pres 
ence he judged to be dangerous to its peace and safety, or any one 
concerned in treasonable actions against the government. An 
alien who should refuse to obey such an order to depart might be 
imprisoned for a term not exceeding three years. 

The Sedition Act provided that any person who should oppose 
a law of the land, or who should prevent an officer of the govern 
ment from performing his duty, should be punished by a fine not 
exceeding $5000 and by imprisonment. The law provided also 
that any person who should publish any false or malicious 
writings against the government, or either house of the Congress, 
or the President, should be punished by fine and imprisonment. 

These laws were very generally condemned. To give the 
President the authority to send aliens out of the country without 
a legal trial was considered dangerous. The Sedition Act also 
was obnoxious, inasmuch as it interfered with the constitutional 
right of a citizen to express his feelings freely on any subject. 
Although these acts were intended to apply to mischievous 
French agents, they applied also to every citizen of the country. 
The defeat of the Federal party at the following election was 
due very largely to the passage of these acts. 

The legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia, in 1798, passed 
resolutions condemning the Alien and Sedition laws. The 
Kentucky resolution, drawn up by Jefferson, de- 
tack^and dared that the Congress had no right to pass such 
Virginia laws and that the state governments could declare 
Resolutions them void and of nQ force> The Virginia Assembly 

was equally emphatic in its disapproval. 

i An alien is a person residing in a country who is not a lawful citizen 
of it. 



Washington and Adams were elected President and Vice-President in 

Three executive departments Foreign Affairs (afterward State), 
War, and Treasury were established. 

A Supreme Court and various other federal courts were created. 

The first tariff act, for revenue, was passed by the First Congress; a 
fugitive-slave law was also passed. 

Ten amendments to the Constitution were adopted and ratified by 
the necessary number of states. 

A Federal bank was established at Philadelphia to handle the money 
of the government. 

Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio were admitted to the 

Washington and Adams were reflected (1792). 

The first political parties, Federalists and Anti-federalists or Demo 
cratic-Republicans, were organized during Washington s first term. 

Washington proclaimed the neutrality of the United States during war 
between France and England. 

The first friendly treaty with Great Britain was negotiated by John 
Jay, in 1794. The treaty met with violent opposition in the United 

War with France was averted by the overthrow of the Directory, and a 
commercial treaty was made with Napoleon Bonaparte. 

The Alien and Sedition acts were passed in order to permit the Presi 
dent to expel or to punish French agents who were endeavoring to violate 
the neutrality of the United States. They applied, however, to all citizens 
of the United States, and were very obnoxious. 


Critical Period of American History Fiske. Chapters V, VII. 

Constitution of the United States Amendments I-X, Appendix, 
pp. 20-21. 

History of the People of the United States McMaster. Vol. II, pp. 138- 
142 ; pp. 371-374 ; pp. 393-400. 


INDEPENDENCE. 1800-1816 

The Passing of the Federalists; the Election of Jefferson. 1800. 

The Democratic-Republicans had greatly increased their 
strength since the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws. They 
were quick to take advantage of dissensions which arose among 
the Federalists previous to the election of 1800. President Adams 
and Charles Pinckney of South Carolina were at the head of the 

ticket of the Federal party; 
the Democratic-Republicans 
nominated Thomas Jefferson 1 

and Aaron Burr of New 

York. The Federalists were 

defeated. After holding the control of the national govern 
ment for the first twelve years of its existence, the Federalists 
as a party were forced to retire, and they never again gained 

The electors were required by the Constitution to cast their 
votes for two persons without indicating in any way which was 
to be President and which was to be Vice-President. 2 The candi 
date who received the greatest number of electoral votes was to 

1 THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) was a native of Albemarle County, Virginia. 
He received his education at William and Mary College. He was a delegate to 
the Continental Congress of 1775-1776, and wrote the Declaration of Indepen 
dence. He was successively governor of Virginia, United States minister to 
France, secretary of state, and Vice-President ; and was elected and reflected as 
the third President (1801-1809). The remainder of his life was passed in retire 
ment at Monticello, his Virginia home. He has heen classed with Washington, 
Franklin, and Lincoln as one of the four American statesmen who have rendered 
greatest service to their country. 

2 See page 190, footnote. 


1 I Thirteen Original States 



be President. When the electoral votes were counted, it was 
found that Jefferson and Burr had each seventy-three ; neither 
had a majority, and, in consequence, the House of Eepresentatives 
was compelled to exercise, for the first time, its constitutional 
right to elect a President. 1 A ballot of the House resulted in 
the election of Jefferson. Aaron Burr became Vice-President. 

The inauguration of President Jefferson took place in Wash 
ington. 2 He was the first President to be inaugurated there. 3 
As soon as he was fairly seated in the executive chair, Jefferson 
began to make changes in the method of administering the gov 
ernment. Formal and extravagant practices in the executive 

1 The House obtained this right from Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution, 
which then read: "If no person have a majority [of the electoral votes], then 
from the five highest on the list the said House shall . . . choose the President. 
But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representa 
tion from each state having one vote ; . . . and a majority of all the states shall 
be necessary to a choice." By the twelfth amendment to the Constitution, pro 
posed by the Eighth Congress in 1803, and duly ratified by the state legislatures, 
the presidential electors are now required to vote for one person for President and 
another for Vice-President. 

2 The city of Washington had been laid out as the seat of the national govern 
ment just prior to 1800. 

8 Jefferson s inaugural address contained what have always since been called 
the Jeffersonian principles. They have attained wide fame, and to this day they 
have been constantly studied. They are as follows : 

" Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious 
or political ; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling 
alliances with none ; the support of the state governments in all their rights as 
the most competent administrations for our domestic concerns, and the surest 
bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies ; the preservation of the general 
government in its whole constitutional vigor as the sheet anchor of our peace at 
home and safety abroad; a zealous care of the right of election by the people; 
a mild and safe corrective of abuses, which are lopped by the sword of revolution 
where peaceable remedies are unprovided ; absolute acquiescence in the decision 
of the majority, the vital principle of republics; a well-disciplined militia, our 
best reliance in peace, and for the first moments of war, till regulars may relieve 
them; the supremacy of the civil over the military authority; economy in the 
public service, that labor may be lightly burdened ; the honest payment of our 
debts and sacred preservation of the public faith; encouragement of agriculture, 
and of commerce as its handmaid ; the diffusion of information, and arraignment 
of all abuses at the bar of public reason ; freedom of religion ; freedom of the 
press ; and freedom of persons under the protection of the habeas corpus ; and 
trials by juries impartially selected." 



departments were abolished, and simple ways were substituted. 
So far as possible, the expenses of the government were reduced. 
The Purchase of Louisiana. 1803. The chief event of Jeffer 
son s administration was the purchase of the province of Loui 
siana, a vast region extending from the Mississippi Kiver to the 
Kocky Mountains and to Mexico. The province had been a part 
of the French possessions in North America. At the close of the 
French and Indian War, Spain acquired it from France, but in 
1800 secretly transferred it back to her. 1 



New Orleans 


The only part of Louisiana which at that time had any special 
interest to the people of the United States was the port of New 
Orleans, some miles above the mouth of the Missis 
sippi. This port was used as a place for the deposit 
of merchandise by American ships navigating the river, 2 and not 
until the privilege of using the port was suddenly denied to the 
United States was there any suspicion that the province had been 

1 See page 120. 

2 In October, 1795, Pinckney, then minister to Spain, had negotiated a treaty 
giving to American ships the right to navigate the river, and also the privilege to 
deposit merchandise at New Orleans. 


re-transferred to France. This interference with the commerce of 
the West led to a united demand on the part of the merchants 
and settlers in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys that the national 
government should seize New Orleans. 

Jefferson believed there would be a great deal of trouble about 
the navigation of the Mississippi unless the United States should 
gain possession of New Orleans. He was inclined to think that 
the port and the region around it down to the mouth of the river 
might be purchased, and accordingly he directed Robert R. Liv 
ingston, our minister to France, to negotiate with Napoleon, then 
ruler of France, for its purchase. He also sent James Monroe as 
special envoy to join in the negotiations. 

Napoleon was at that time preparing for renewed "war with 
England. The great Frenchman needed money, and offered to 
sell to the United States not only New Orleans, but 
the whole province of Louisiana. He demanded ^ ha 
$20,000,000 at first, but finally reduced the price to 
$15,000,000. The offer had to be accepted at once. England 
might begin war any day; and it was thought that her first hos 
tile act would be to send warships to seize New Orleans. There 
was no time to refer the matter to President Jefferson. Napo 
leon s offer was accepted, and 1 (April 30, 1803) Louisiana was 
ceded to the United States. 

Monroe had gone beyond his instructions in purchasing Loui 
siana, but President Jefferson fully sanctioned the act. Th^ 
treaty confirming the sale was ratified (October 9, 1803) ; a week 
later the Congress appropriated the money required. That the 
purchase was a great stretch of constitutional power was evident ; 
but it was a clear necessity. There was no clause in the Consti 
tution to warrant such a transaction. By many citizens it was 
considered a dangerous precedent, but it was thought that the 
purchase was necessary to the national welfare. 

Before the United States took formal possession of Louisiana, 
the national area was only 828,000 square miles. By 
the acquisition of Louisiana, 1,171,831 square miles 
were added. The ownership of the United States was 
extended over the whole Mississippi Valley. Probably no other 



equal area on the face of the earth has greater natural resources. 
Its food-producing power alone is great enough to sustain a popu 
lation of about one hundred millions of people. In. latitude it 
extends from the cold temperate almost to the torrid zone. It is 
a level stretch of well-watered prairies ; its climate permits the 
growth of the sugar cane, on the one hand, and winter wheat, on 
the other. At the close of the century in which the Louisiana 
purchase was made, the Mississippi Valley produced 

One fourth of the world s wheat crop, 
Four fifths of the world s maize crop, 
Three fourths of the world s cotton crop, 
Three fourths of the world s output of iron ore, 
One third of the world s output of coal. 

The Lewis and Clark Expedition. 1804-1806. Soon after the 

acquisition of Louisiana, Jef 
ferson arranged for an over 
land expedition to explore 
the western part of the terri 
tory, and also the, region of 
the Columbia River. This 
river had been explored 
(1792) by Captain Robert 
Gray of Boston, who had 
sailed up it in his ship 
Columbia. He had renamed 
the river after his ship. 1 

Jefferson put the expedi 
tion in charge of Captain 
Meriwether Lewis and Lieu 
tenant William Clark. They 
ascended the Missouri River 

From a portrait that belonged to William Clark. fa j| g source> making a gCHCral 

exploration of the country 

reached the headwaters of the Columbia. Down this river they 
1 Previously the river had been known as the Oregon. 



went to the Pacific Ocean, obtaining a large amount of infor 
mation of the region. The work of their expedition on the 
Columbia River afterward formed a strong basis to the claim of 
the United States to Oregon. 

Pike s Explorations. 1806. While the explorations of Lewis 
and Clark were under way, Captain Zebulon Pike carried on a 
similar work along the eastern border of the Rocky Mountains. 1 
He made a rough survey of the basin of the Arkansas River and 


then started southwest for the Red River. Pike reached, not 
Red River, but the Rio Grande. Being then on Spanish terri 
tory, he and his party were captured and taken to Santa Fe. They 
were shortly afterward set free, however, and made their way 
back across Texas. 

The Oregon Country. Learning the facts of Lewis and Clark s 
explorations, John Jacob Astor, a fur trader of New York, or- 

1 He found the lofty peak near Denver which was afterward named Pikes 
Peak m his honor. 


ganized the Pacific Fur Company, and began the establishment 
of a train of trading posts along the line of the Missouri to the 
Columbia River, and thence to the Pacific Ocean. One of the 
posts established was Astoria, now a thriving town at the mouth 
of the Columbia. By Gray s discovery, Lewis and Clark s ex 
plorations, and the occupation of Astoria, the title of the United 
States to the Oregon country l was practically completed. 

War with Tripoli. 1803-1805. For many years the states of 
Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco in North Africa had sent out 
pirate ships, for the purpose of capturing merchant vessels sailing 
the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. In order to protect Ameri 
can commerce, it had been the custom of the national government 
occasionally to pay tribute to the rulers of these states. 

Jefferson determined to adopt another policy. So (1803) 
when Tripoli demanded a large tribute, Jefferson sent, instead of 
money, a force of warships to the Mediterranean. The squad 
ron, under Commodore Preble, bombarded the city of Tripoli, and 
brought its ruler to terms. In 1805 a treaty of peace was agreed 
to by Tripoli, and thereafter American ships were not molested 
by that country. 

Jefferson s Second Term. 1804^1808. Jefferson s first term had 
proved so satisfactory to the people that he was again made a 
candidate. The Federalists nominated Pinckney. Jefferson 
was elected by a large majority. George Clinton of New York 
was chosen Yice-President. 

Importation of Slaves Prohibited. Upon the recommendation 
of President Jefferson, the Congress (1806) passed an act pro 
hibiting, after January 1, 1808, the importation of colored per 
sons intended to be sold as slaves. The importation of slaves 
was made a high misdemeanor, punishable by a fine and imprison 
ment. The act was in accordance with the Constitution, 2 which 
practically gave to the Congress the power to prohibit the impor 
tation of slaves when the year 1807 had expired. 

The Cumberland Road. In order to meet the demands of the 

1 The region between the Pacific and the Rocky Mountains from the parallel 
of 42 to 54 40 was called the Oregon country. See map, page 267. 

2 See the Constitution, Article I, Section 9. 



rapidly increasing commerce of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, 
the Congress passed an act, in 1806, for the building of a national 
road from Cumberland, Maryland, to the Ohio Kiver at Wheel 
ing. The highway was constructed and was called the Cumberland 
road. Ultimately, it was extended across Illinois (1838), making 
the total cost nearly $7,000,000. This was the beginning of a 
series of internal improvements by the general government. The 
strict constructionists held that the government had no right 
under the Constitution to make internal improvements, and for 
several years political parties were divided on the question. 

Burr s Trial for Treason. 1807. After Aaron Burr had served 
his term as Vice-President, in 1805, public opinion forced him to 
leave the East. For words spoken in political disputes, Burr had 

Showing its later extension across Illinois. 

challenged Alexander Hamilton to a duel and killed him (July, 
1804). He had thus lost the respect and the support of his politi 
cal associates. He went to the southwestern territory and con 
trived to gain the favor of many people there. He also organized 
a military expedition, which was probably intended to carry out 
a scheme for an independent government in Louisiana or in 

By order of President Jefferson, the expedition was stopped at 
Natchez, and Burr was arrested for treason against the United 
States. He was taken to Richmond, Virginia, to be tried. At 
the trial, in August, 1807, no proof was presented that would suf 
fice to convict him of an overt act of treason, and therefore he 
was acquitted. He then gave bail to appear for trial in Ohio on 
a charge of high misdemeanor. When the case was called, Burr 


did not appear, having fled to Europe, where he remained for 
years. The case was never brought up again. 

The "Gunboat Navy." 1807. After the close of the War of 
the Revolution, our commerce grew to vast proportions, even 
in spite of the troubles with France and England. But the 
entire seaboard was at the mercy of a hostile fleet should war 
be declared, since we had neither adequate navy nor coast de 
fenses. In order to remedy this, Jefferson s plan for a navy of 
gunboats was adopted by the Congress. It was not a popular 
measure. The Federalists had demanded that the navy should 
be made stronger and that the principal seaports of the country 
should be fortified. The demand had been opposed by the Re 
publicans, who had a large majority in the Congress, on the 
ground that the cost would be too great. 

In a message to the Congress, President Jefferson suggested 
that instead of building expensive warships and fortifications, it 
would be cheaper to provide small gunboats and heavy cannon 
mounted on carriages. The gunboats, he believed, could easily 
guard the coast waters, and the heavy cannon could be conveyed 
to any place where they might be wanted to resist attack. 

As a cheap defense this system was favored by the Congress. 
Two hundred and fifty gunboats and a large number of movable 
cannon were ordered. But it was soon apparent that such a 
scheme could never be a worthy substitute for a navy. It was so 
unsatisfactory that before half of the gunboats were finished the 
plan was abandoned. The shadow of coming events, moreover, 
made it plain that there was no substitute for good warships, 
trained sailors, and strong fortifications. Neither Great Britain 
nor France respected any right but that of might. 

Interference with American Commerce. In 1806 France and 
Great Britain were engaged in a sort of retaliation which seemed 
very much like an international game of battledore and shuttle 
cock. The unpleasant feature about it was, that while the two 
European powers played at battledore, the vessels carrying Ameri 
can merchandise were the shuttlecocks. Great Britain proclaimed 
a blockade of the French coast, and six months later Napoleon 
issued a decree from Berlin for a blockade of the English coast. 


In 1807, by the Orders in Council, Great Britain prohibited 
neutral ships from entering any ports of Europe, except those 
of Russia. Napoleon then issued a decree from Milan forbidding 
neutral ships to trade with Great Britain and her colonies. 

Both nations enforced their orders so far as they were able ; 
and in consequence the commerce of the United States was 
severely injured. Voyages continued to be made to European 
ports, but at great risk. Nearly a thousand American ships 
were captured by British and French cruisers and confiscated, 
ships, sailors, cargoes, and all. It was declared in excuse for 
the capture of sailors that only British subjects were taken, 1 
but this was untrue. The Americans were neutral, but Ameri 
can commerce continued to suffer from violations of neutrality. 2 

British warships were stationed off the ports of New York and 
at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay and all vessels, incoming or out 
going, were stopped and searched. In the course of the year 
more than one hundred merchantmen were seized and confiscated, 
and nearly one thousand seamen were impressed into the British 
navy. Many of these were American-born citizens. In the mean 
time public indignation reached a white heat. In the summer 
of 1807, an incident brought matters to a climax. 

1 Great Britain then held the doctrine, which is still held by some European 
powers, that a person who was once a British subject always remained a British 
subject, even though he became a citizen of another country. It was therefore 
claimed that the naval authorities had the right to impress a British sailor wher 
ever he might be found on the high seas. 

2 In part, the trouble was due to American shipmasters themselves. Accord 
ing to the rules of neutrality which Great Britain had established, although an 
American vessel might clear from the United States for any European port, or 
for the West Indies, it was forbidden that a vessel should clear from France to 
a West India port, or from Spain to a Spanish West India port, and vice versa. 
In order to evade this rule, an American vessel would sail from the Spanish West 
Indies to a port of the United States, enter the port and pay duty on the cargo, 
and then clear for a port of Spain. On receiving his clearance papers, the ship 
master would receive also the duty he had paid, less three per cent. 

For a long time it was the custom to break the voyage in this way, and the 
British government ignored the practice. In 1805, however, the English courts 
decided that the "broken voyage," as it was called, was a breach of neutrality, 
and that ships on such a voyage were liable to capture. The decision was prob 
ably lawful, but the manner in which the British naval authorities carried it 
out was not only exasperating but outrageous. 


The Attack on the Chesapeake. 1807. While off the Virginia 
coast the Chesapeake, a thirty-eight-gun American frigate, was 
hailed by the Leopard, a fifty -gun British frigate. Officers from 
the Leopard went aboard the Chesapeake and demanded the right 
to search her for certain sailors claimed to be English deserters. 
The commander of the Chesapeake refused to allow the search, 
and the British officers departed. In a few minutes the Leopard 
opened fire on the Chesapeake, killing three men and wounding 
others. The American ship, not having her guns mounted, was 
not prepared for battle, and was compelled to strike her flag. 
Four men were then taken from her to the British frigate. An 
investigation afterward showed that three of these men were 
American-born citizens. 

Instead of considering the outrage an act of war and at once 
suspending relations with Great Britain, President Jefferson issued 
a proclamation forbidding British warships to enter American 
ports. The British made no reparation for this attack until 
several years afterward. 1 Moreover, British men-of-war came into 
American ports whenever they pleased, in spite of the President s 

The Embargo Act. 1807. President Jefferson called the Con 
gress together in special session (October, 1807) to take action 
upon the violations by England and France of the rights of the 
United States as a neutral nation. He recommended that an 
embargo act be passed, by which exportation from the United 
States should be prohibited. He believed that England and 
France needed American food-stuffs and other productions, and 
if they could not get them, they would be compelled to make 
favorable terms with us. 

After weeks of debate, the Congress passed the Embargo Act 
(December, 1807). It was stoutly opposed by the Federalists and 
by a few of the Democratic-Republicans, but received a vote of 
about two to one. The act forbade the departure of any American 
vessels to a foreign country. Foreign vessels leaving the ports of 

1 In 1811 Great Britain agreed to make reparation in money to the United 
States for the damage done, as well as payments to the families of the men who 
were killed or wounded in the affair. 


the United States must go without cargo. Vessels engaged in the 
coasting trade had to give heavy bonds as assurance that their 
cargoes would be landed in the United States. 

The Non- intercourse Act. 1809. The embargo certainly hurt 
Great Britain and France, but it hurt the United States more. 
It practically annihilated the great shipping interests of New 
England, and hurt the farmers by depriving them of foreign mar 
kets for their products. For a few months it was endured as 
patiently as possible, but as no good result seemed to come from 
it, a strong demand was made for its repeal or modification. The 
Congress at last consented to modify it, and passed the Non- 
intercourse Act. By this act commerce was allowed with all 
nations except England and France. 

Madison elected President. 1808. Most of the Democratic- 
Republicans, as well as many 
members of the Congress, 
wanted Jefferson to accept a 

third term as President : but, 

like Washington, he declined. 

The Federalists again nominated Charles Pinckney in 1808, and 
again lost the election. James Madison 1 of Virginia was chosen 
President and George Clinton Vice-President. 

Napoleon s Dishonesty. 1810. For some time Madison was 
disposed to follow the peace policy of Jefferson and to avoid hos 
tilities with Great Britain and France, in spite of the fact that 
both countries were continuing their attacks on American com 
merce. Finally, Napoleon offered to stop the seizure of our ships 
and to resume commercial relations with the United States. The 
Non-intercourse Act was repealed, so far as it affected France. 

As soon as peaceful relations had been assured, many American 
merchantmen that were idle, loaded with provisions and sailed 

1 JAMES MADISOX (1751-1836) was born at Port Conway, Virginia. He was a 
graduate of Princeton College. He came into prominence in 1774 as a member of 
the Committee of Public Safety for his county. From that time until his elec 
tion to the presidency he served in public office, notably as delegate to the Con 
stitutional Convention of 1787, as member of the Congress, and as secretary of 
state. He served two terms as President. He was thoughtful and quiet, an ex 
cellent student and politician. 


for French ports. No sooner had they entered French harbors 
than they were seized and confiscated. The loss to the shippers 
was many million dollars. Napoleon s promise had been a trick ; 
he had not revoked his orders, and he had not intended to do so. 
The French troops were much in need of food-stuffs and supplies, 
and Napoleon took this means to obtain them. 

Indian Troubles. 1811. On the western frontier the Indians 
were actively trying to keep settlers out of Indiana Territory. 
William Henry Harrison, governor of the territory, gathered a 
force of regulars and volunteers from the settlements and attacked 
the Indian stronghold on Tippecanoe Kiver. His decisive victory 
made Harrison the hero of the West. The defeated chief, Tecum- 
seh, at once joined the British in Canada, and the Americans 
became confirmed in their belief that the Indian attacks had been 
incited by agents of Great Britain. 

Clay and Calhoun advise War. The search of American ships 
and the impressment of seamen went on as usual, and the British 
authorities ceased even to acknowledge the protests of the United 
States. These indignities finally caused two strong leaders, 
Henry Clay 1 and John C. Calhoun, 2 to advocate armed resistance. 
The Democratic-Republicans had a large majority in the Congress, 
and a strong war spirit prevailed among them. The Federalists 
firmly opposed the demand for war ; but they could not prevent 
its declaration. President Madison became convinced that the 

1 HENRY CLAY (1777-1852) was a native of Hanover County, Virginia. Before 
he was twenty he began to practice law. He removed to Lexington, Kentucky, 
and by that state he was repeatedly sent to the House of Representatives and to 
the Senate. In 1824 he was a candidate for the presidency, but failed of election. 
During Adams s administration he served as secretary of state. He was of a 
peace-loving spirit, devoted to the Union above all personal and party considera 
tions. A power by means of his eloquence and force of will, he was a natural 
political leader. 

2 JOHN C. CALHOUN (1782-1850) was born in Abbeville District, South Carolina. 
He was a graduate of Yale College. For a period of nearly forty years he served 
in the Congress and in the cabinet. Monroe made him his secretary of war, and 
President Tyler appointed him secretary of state. In 1825, and again in 1828, 
he was elected Vice-President. He was in favor of free trade, and a defender 
of the institution of slavery. Webster, who was opposed to him in politics, 
testified to the charms of Calhoun s personality and the nobility of his 



people desired him to support the war policy of the Congress, and 
his conclusion to do so was strengthened by the Henry affair. 

The Henry Affair. 1812. What at first seemed to be a plot 
against the United States, came to light early in 1812. There 
had been a considerable gossip that the Eastern states, then the 
chief stronghold of the Federalists, were planning to withdraw 
from the Union on account of the Embargo Act and other meas 
ures of the Federal government. One John Henry, who said he 
had talked with the leading Federalists in Boston, reported their 
dissatisfaction to the governor- 
general of Canada. To these 
Boston men, however, he had 
declared that he was authorized 
to offer the assistance of the 
British government in any 
movement looking toward seces 
sion, and to propose a union 
with Canada. 

As a matter of fact, Henry 
discovered no real desire for 
secession from the Union among 
the Federalists, although some 
of their leaders had threatened 
it. New England was, how 
ever, deeply discontented on 
account of the disastrous com 
mercial measures. Dissatisfied JoHN c CALHOUN . 
with his treatment in Canada 

and London, in a fit of anger Henry sold all the correspondence 
in the matter to the United States government for $50,000. 
President Madison sent the papers to the Congress with the 
assumption that Henry s evidence proved that Great Britain 
had been intriguing to break up the American Union. It has 
since been discovered that the papers were false. 

The Declaration of War. 1812. The President sent a confiden 
tial message to the Congress, June 1, 1812, recommending that 
war be declared. In his message he said that the chief causes for 


complaint against Great Britain were " the impressment of our 
seamen, her infringement upon our maritime jurisdiction, and dis 
turbance of the peace of our coasts, her paper blockades, 1 unsup 
ported by any adequate force, and her violations of our neutral 
rights." The committee of each house of the Congress made a 
report favoring the declaration of war, and President Madison 
promptly issued a proclamation announcing that a state of war 

The Surrender of Detroit; the Invasion of Ohio. 1812. The 
second war with England known as the War of 1812 because it 
was declared in that year was a war for commercial independ 
ence. The United States had only a small army and a navy quite 
insignificant compared with that of the British, but as the war 
went on, the army arid the navy were greatly strengthened. 

The first aggressive movement of the war was an invasion of 
Canada, which was wretchedly managed, and failed. An army 
of about twelve hundred, under the command of General Hull, a 
Kevolutionary soldier, then governor of Michigan Territory, crossed 
over to Canada from Detroit, but returned in about a month with 
out making an effort to engage the enemy in battle. In August 
following, seven hundred British soldiers and six hundred Indians 
appeared at Detroit to give battle to Hull s force, but, to the sur 
prise of everybody, Hull surrendered Detroit and all of Michigan 
Territory without a blow. 2 

Early in January, 1813, General Winchester attempted to drive 
the British out of Frenchtown, a small village on Raisin River, 
not far from Detroit. Winchester made a good fight ; neverthe 
less, his force was defeated and captured. There being no longer 
an army of defense, the British troops then invaded Ohio, where 

1 A paper blockade is one not supported by a show of force. It is one of the 
principles of international law that if any enemy does not effectually close the 
ports along the coast declared to be blockaded, the assumed blockade may be 
disregarded by neutral ^essels. 

2 It is said that General Hull did not believe he could depend on his troops to 
fight the British successfully, and he therefore surrendered to save useless blood 
shed. He was subsequently tried by court-martial for cowardice and sentenced to 
be shot ; but in consideration of his gallant services in the Revolution, he was par 
doned by the President. His name was stricken from the army roll. 



they had their own way until General William Henry Harrison, 
who had made a forced march from Cincinnati, defeated them at 
Fort Meigs. About the same time Major Croghan repelled a 
British attack at Fort Stephenson. These two battles checked 
the British invasion. 

The Farcical Attack upon Queenston. At the beginning of the 
war, General Stephen Van Rensselaer was ordered to take com 
mand of the New York militia and to proceed to the Canadian 
frontier. The " militia " consisted of less than one thousand men, 
without arms, uniforms, or organization, encamped at Niagara. 


Van Rensselaer provided arms and uniforms at his own expense ; 
the organization he endeavored to get by drill and discipline. It 
was the intention that his force should capture Queenston, join 
General Hull, and proceed to Montreal. The first attempt to 
cross the river to reach Queenston failed, and in subsequent 
attacks the American troops proved themselves too cowardly 
to fight. Van Rensselaer was badly wounded, and threw up his 
command in disgust. 

First Naval Operations. The humiliating failures on land were 
offset, in a measure, by most creditable fighting at sea. Just after 
the declaration of war, on August 13, 1812, the British sloop 
Alert was overhauled by the frigate Essex, in command of Captain 



Porter, and surrendered after an engagement of only eight 
minutes. Six days later, the American frigate Constitution, 
subsequently nicknamed Old Ironsides, commanded by Captain 
Isaac Hull, encountered the British frigate Guerriere in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. The Constitution made her opponent a com 
plete wreck in about half an hour. Very little damage was done 
to the Constitution. 

From the painting by White. 


On October 15 the British sloop Frolic was defeated by the 
American sloop Wasp, off the North Carolina coast. On the 
25th of October the frigate United States, commanded by Captain 
Decatur, engaged the British frigate Macedonia, in the vicinity of 
the island of Madeira. After a fight of a little more than an hour 
the Macedonia surrendered. To finish the year 1812, the Consti 
tution, commanded by Captain Bainbridge, while off the Brazilian 
coast, met the British frigate Java. During a fight of two hours 
the Java lost two hundred and thirty men, and was shot to pieces. 

These gallant naval exploits, and also the capture of hundreds 


of English merchantmen by American privateers, caused un 
bounded enthusiasm in the United States. 

Madison Reelected. 1812. The election of 1812 took the form 
of an expression of approval of the war. The peace faction of 
the Democratic-Republicans chose De Witt Clinton of New York 
as its candidate. Madison was reflected, with Elbridge Gerry of 
Massachusetts as Vice-President. 

Operations of 1813; Perry s Victory on Lake Erie. Another 
invasion of Canada was put into operation by General William 
Henry Harrison, commander of the army of the West. It was first 
necessary to control Lake Erie, on the waters of which floated a 

L /Ms fa^rf Qn^/fct. fsTvWf Ce^rQwuvy 



British fleet of six warships, carrying sixty-three guns. To de 
stroy this fleet and open the lake was the task of Captain Oliver 
Hazard Perry, a young naval officer scarcely out of his teens. 

In a few weeks Captain Perry had gathered, or built out of grow 
ing timber at Presqu Isle, a fleet of nine vessels, with fifty-four 
guns. He then sailed for the western extremity of Lake Erie to 
give battle to the enemy. The two met on September 10, 1813, 
and Perry s flagship, the Lawrence, began the battle by opening 
fire on the British line. The Lawrence, after furious fighting, at 
last became disabled, and Perry transferred his flag to his second 
largest ship, the Niagara. Flag in hand, he jumped into a small 
boat and was rowed through a raking fire to the Niagara. Hoist- 



ing his flag, he immediately sailed down the British line, firing 
broadsides as he went along. The American ships inflicted so 
much damage that the British commander struck his colors and 
surrendered. Perry then sent to General Harrison the famous 
message, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours : two 
ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop." 

The Battle of the Thames and Other Land Operations. 1813. 
After Perry s mastery of Lake Erie, General Harrison crossed to 

From the painting by Chappel. 


Canada, where he defeated the British at the Thames River, on 
October 12. This battle restored to the Americans possession of 
Detroit and the northwestern country. American troops also 
made a successful attack on York, Canada, but followed it by the 
disgraceful act of burning the town. 

Land Operations on the Frontier. 1814. Two years of fighting 
had given officers and men the discipline that enabled them 
to carry on the war more intelligently. Winfield Scott won an 
important fight at Chippewa (July o) on the Canadian frontier, 
and held his ground in a battle at Lundys Lane (July 25) ; these 


engagements enabled him to capture Fort Erie. But the British 
returned in greater force, and drove him away from Fort Erie 
long enough to take the opportunity to sack and burn Buffalo. 
As an act of vandalism this about offset the burning of York. 
A combined land and water victory over the British at Plattsburg, 
on Lake Champlain, put an end to the British plans for an 
invasion of New York by way of the lake. This naval battle on 
Lake Champlain, in which Lieutenant McDonough completely 
routed the British ships, was one of the most noteworthy inci 
dents of the war. 

The Blockade. In the meantime the British had attempted to 
blockade the United States, and war vessels were stationed before 
the harbors of the entire coast. This measure was the result of 
the naval defeats. The British had considered their navy invin 
cible, and the fact that some of their best ships had been easily 
riddled and sunk by American gunners was a disagreeable surprise. 
The British ministry was compelled to take a course of some kind 
or other to satisfy the popular demand, and the coast blockade 
was the plan followed. Sorties were made along the coast, and 
several coast towns were bombarded. 

The Sacking of Washington. 1814. During the summer of 
1814, a British fleet and a land force entered the Chesapeake Bay, 
landed near Havre de Grace, Maryland, and marched to Washing 
ton. A feeble resistance was made at Bladensburg, but the British 
burned the Capitol, White House, and other public buildings, 
destroying in all about $ 2,000,000 worth of property. 

The Hartford Convention. 1814. The Federalists had opposed 
the war from the first, and as it progressed their opposition 
steadily increased. They were stronger in New England than 
elsewhere. A number of their leaders, representing five states, 
assembled at Hartford, Connecticut, and discussed the public 
grievances arising from the war. They were in secret session for 
three weeks. At that time many of the people believed that the 
real object of the Hartford Convention, as it was called, was to 
take the New England states out of the Union. 

As the situation is now understood, those who took part in the 
convention did not wish to secede, but they strongly disagreed 


with the policy of the government and the conduct of the war. 
The convention adopted resolutions demanding a redress of the 
grievances of New England, but the resolutions were not approved 
by a single state. 

Battle of New Orleans. 1815. In December, 1814, a British 
force of twelve thousand men, under General Pakenham, landed 
below New Orleans and began a movement toward that city. 
The American troops at that point were under the command of 
General Andrew Jackson. With less than six thousand men, 
Jackson advanced to meet the British. He made a vigorous 
attack on the enemy, but was forced to fall back. He then took 
up a strong position behind a canal, four miles from New Orleans, 
constructed some intrenchments of sand bags and cotton bales, 
and awaited the coming of the enemy. 

Pakenham soon made an assault on Jackson s lines (January, 
1815). The British charged twice on the intrenchments, but 
they were mowed down by the American artillery and by the 
bullets of the Kentucky and Tennessee sharpshooters. Paken 
ham and many of his leading officers were killed. In less than 
half an hour the battle was finished, the British retreating with 
the loss of twenty-six hundred killed and wounded. 

The Treaty of Ghent. 1814. By the summer of 1814, both the 
United States and England were tired of the war, and saw no 
advantage in prolonging it. Each nation appointed commis 
sioners i to arrange a treaty of peace. The commissioners met at 
Ghent, in Belgium, and agreed on the treaty, which is known as 
the treaty of Ghent. The document signed by the commissioners 
in December 2 did not reach the United States until the following 
February, because of the slow means of communication. The 
treaty was ratified by the Senate. 

It provided for the immediate cessation of hostilities, and for 
the restoration of all property taken by either party during the 
war. It arranged for commissioners to determine the boundary 
between the United States and the British possessions. There 

1 John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russel, and 
Albert Gallatin were the commissioners for the United States. 

2 As a matter of fact it was signed before the battle of New Orleans was fought. 


were other provisions also, but the impressment of American 
seamen was not mentioned in the treaty ; never after this time, 
however, did England claim the right of impressment. 

What the War Accomplished. The war settled none of the 
questions for which it was declared. Its chief result was to 
establish the United States as a nation to be respected. It 
created a stronger national feeling among the people than was 
ever known before. It thoroughly tested the strength of the Fed 
eral union and the authority of the Federal government. Unaided, 
the nation fought the greatest power in Europe, resisted her vet 
eran soldiers, and destroyed her naval supremacy. Thereafter 
the Americans were confident of their ability to defend them 
selves on land or sea from foreign aggressions. England never 
afterward tried to impress American seamen, or to deny to the 
United States her rights on the high seas. 

The Algerine Pirates. During the war closed by the treaty of 
Ghent, the Dey * of Algiers had carried on a piratical warfare 
against American merchantmen cruising in the Mediterranean. 
The Algerine pirates had taken many of our ships, and made 
slaves of the crews. Directly after the war, Commodore Decatur 
was sent to the Mediterranean with a fleet of nine vessels to 
teach the Algerines to respect the American name. Decatur en 
countered an Algerine frigate of forty-six guns near Gibraltar and 
captured it with four hundred prisoners (June 17, 1815). An 
other frigate was captured two days later. Then Decatur sailed 
into the Bay of Algiers and forced the Dey to release the American 
sailors, and to give compensation for the attacks on our commerce. 
Afterward Decatur went to Tunis and Tripoli, and made the sov 
ereign of each country pay roundly for their depredations on 
American ships. 

New Political Divisions. The state of Georgia was at first 
reluctant to give up her claims to lands west of the Appalachian 
Mountains, but in 1802 she ceded them to the national Mississippi 
domain, and they were added to Mississippi Territory, territory; 
which had been established in 1798. Two years later Louisiana 
(1804) the southern part of the Louisiana Purchase was made into 
1 This was the title then given to the governor of Algiers. 



a separate political division and organized as Orleans Territory ; 
in 1812 it was admitted as the state of Louisiana, the eighteenth 
to join the Union. 



WEST TERRITORY, 1790-1810. 

Several changes were also 
made in the Northwest Ter 
ritory. The lower peninsula, 
nowapartofMichi- Michigan 
gan, was then a part and Illinois 
of Indiana. It was territ <> rie s 
separated from the latter and 
made a territory in 1805. In 
1809 Illinois was set off from 
Indiana Territory and made a 
separate territory. A consid 
erable tide of emigration had 
been turned into this region 

and the food-producing power of the land was recognized. 

Financial Conditions in Madison s Administration. The Congress 

had refused in 1811 to renew the charter of the Bank of the 



United States, which was established in 1791 for a period of 
twenty years. Consequently a great number of state banks, more 
than two hundred in all, came into existence. These 
banks differed from the private banks of later years in 
having charters or permits from the respective states in which 
they were established. They were unlike the national banks of 
the present day, inasmuch as they had no permit from the Federal 
government, and they gave no security for the notes which they 

In a way these state banks were a great convenience and a 
necessity. The mint could not provide nearly enough coin for 
the business of the country ; no one who lived in Philadelphia 
could deposit money in the mint or draw from it. For the con 
venience of their customers, the state banks issued bills of vari 
ous denominations, much like the " greenbacks " in use to-day. 
These bills, however, were not money in the real sense ; they 
were promises to pay the holders of them coin to the amount 
designated on the face of the bill. As a substitute for coin the 
bills were very serviceable, and so the banks, although loosely 
conducted, were welcomed by business men. 

During the War of 1812, however, there was trouble over their 
way of doing business. When the British sacked Washington, 
the banks in Baltimore and Philadelphia packed up suspension 
all the coin they possessed, and sent it away where of specie 
the British would not be likely to get it. This pro- P a y ment 
ceeding made the banks elsewhere short of coin. In a few months 
all the banks except those in New England were compelled to 
refuse payment on the paper bills they had issued. This sus 
pension of specie payment, as it was called, brought with it a 
very serious shortage of money; in consequence, cities, business 
firms, and traders issued printed tickets to take the place of small 
coins. Another serious result was the loss of confidence in the 
banks ; in only a few cases would the people take the bank bills 
at face value. A dollar bill issued by a Philadelphia bank, for 
instance, was not likely to be worth much more than ninety cents 
outside the city, and much less than that sum in a distant place 
like Boston or New Orleans. 


The depressed financial condition of the country alarmed the 
business men generally, and inasmuch as there was but little 
The second confidence in the state banks, the matter of a United 
United States bank was again brought into public discussion. 

States Bank j n ^g^g ^ Q second government bank was chartered 
for a term of twenty years. The main institution was located at 
Philadelphia ; branches were established in Washington and sev 
eral Eastern cities. The capital was $35,000,000. 


The election of Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, in 1800, marked 
the decline of the Federalist party. 

Louisiana was purchased from France, in 1803, for $15,000,000. The 
Mississippi was thus opened to navigation, and the United States gained 
the whole Mississippi Valley. 

By the exploration of the Columbia River by Captain Gray (1792), 
the explorations of Lewis and Clark (1805), and the founding of a fur- 
trading post by John Jacob Astor (1811), the claim of the United States 
to the Oregon country was practically completed. 

During Jefferson s first term war was waged against Tripoli in order 
to punish the pirates. 

During Jefferson s second term the importation of slaves was forbidden ; 
a national highway, the Cumberland road, was constructed ; Aaron Burr 
was tried for treason and acquitted ; a plan for constructing a " gunboat 
navy " was partly carried out and then abandoned. 

Hostile relations between Great Britain and France seriously injured 
the commerce of the United States, and American vessels trading with 
either country were subject to capture by the other. 

The Embargo Act forbade the export of all commodities from the 
United States. This being unsatisfactory, the Non-intercourse Act was 
passed, forbidding trade with Great Britain and France. 

During Madison s first term British cruisers confiscated cargoes and 
impressed seamen of American vessels. 

This practice led to a declaration of war against England in 1812. 

In the land operations near the Canadian border the Americans were 
generally unsuccessful. 

The navy captured several British men of war and hundreds of 


During Madison s second term, Captain Perry defeated the British 
naval force on Lake Erie ; General Harrison invaded Canada ; Washing 
ton was sacked by the British ; and Jackson defeated an invading army 
at New Orleans. 

A treaty of peace was signed at Ghent, in 1814. 

Commodore Decatur attacked the pirates of the Algerine coast in 
1815, and put an end to their depredations on American commerce. 

A system of state banks was established. Their method of issuing 
bills proved to be very weak and during the war they were obliged to 
suspend specie payment. 


History of the People of the United States McMaster. Vol. Ill, Chap 
ters XIV, XVIII, XIX. 

History of the United States Schouler. Vol. II. 
History of the United States Scribner s. Vols. II-IX. 



Emigration to the West. During the first twenty-five years of 
national existence there was an industrial development of the 
country, the like of which was probably never before witnessed, 
and the character of the land west of the Appalachian Mountains 
was the main cause of it. East of the mountains the best land 
for agricultural purposes was not to be compared with that of 
the plains west of the mountains. In the New England and 
Middle states the soil of the uplands was a gravelly drift that had 
but little value ; only in the stream valleys was the land fit for 
food crops. In the Southern states, also, it was poor. As a result, 
after the close of the Eevolution, there was a steady stream of 
emigration through the Mohawk Valley and by the Cumberland 
Pass to the level prairies of the Great Central Plain. At first, 
the industrial development had its greatest impetus in the South, 
owing to two things the utilization of the cotton plant and the 
invention of the steam engine. 

The Perfection of the Steam Engine. 1765. Just about the time 
of the War of the Revolution, James Watt, an English mechanic, 
was experimenting with the steam engine, and he succeeded in 
improving the machine to such an extent that its usefulness 
seemed unlimited. English manufacturers soon discovered that 
in the steam engine they possessed a power greater than they had 
ever dreamed could exist. The English makers of textile goods at 
that time practically controlled the industry. In a few years this 
industry began to include the manufacture of cotton goods. 1 But 

1 The cotton industry had been confined mostly to the plains of Hindustan, 
where it probably had originated. The invention of the spinning jenny (1707) 
and the power loom (1785) enabled European manufacturers to take the business 
from the Hindoo cloth makers. 




as India and China were then practically the only cotton-growing 
countries, the English manufacturers had to go to the far East 
for their raw cotton. Carrying the cotton fiber from India to 
England was expensive ; fetching it from China was out of the 

Cotton Cultivation transferred to America. Shortly after their 
independence was established, the Americans began to grow cotton, 
and they discovered that the soil and the climate of the Southern 
states were unequaled elsewhere for the cultivation of cotton. 
From the northern boundary of Tennessee to the Gulf, cotton 
was a good-paying crop. The profits per acre almost equaled 
those of tobacco-farm ing during colonial times ; inasmuch as there 
were comparatively few localities 
where cotton would not grow, the 
aggregate value was many times 
that of the tobacco crop. As a 
result, the area of cotton cultiva 
tion grew enormously until, in 
less than fifty years, it became the 
staple of the South, and the most 
valuable export product of the 
United States. " Cotton was 

Eli Whitney invents the Cotton 
Gin. 1794. For about ten years 
after the beginning of cotton culti 
vation, the profits were small, on 
account of the great difficulty and 
expense, in separating the fiber from the seed. 1 About 1794 Eli 
Whitney, a young man from a Massachusetts family that had long 
been famous, set to work to overcome the expensive process of 

J The fiber of commerce is the natural lint that adheres to the seed. In the 
sea-island cotton, the long fibers do not stick very closely to the seed, and the 
two are easily separated. With the ordinary upland cotton, however, the case is 
different. The short fibers adhere so strongly to the seed that the East Indian 
process of hand picking made the fiber expensive, even though the wages of the 
laborer were only two cents a day. The most expert workman could not seed 
*nore than two or three pounds of fiber per day. 


seeding by hand. Whitney 1 devised a cotton engine, or gin, 
as it came to be called, which would do the work of about one 
hundred men. 2 

Before the invention of the gin, the cotton crop of the United 
States had not reached a total of two hundred thousand pounds 
in any year; in the year following, it jumped to about six million 
pounds. The crop steadily increased until, at the present time, 
it amounts to more than three fourths of the world s crop about 
ten million bales of four hundred pounds each. 

Cotton-growing and its Effects on Slavery. Although negro 
slaves were to be found in practically all the colonies at the time 
of the Revolutionary War, most of them were in the South, where 
only unskilled labor was required ; the few in the North were 
employed mainly as house servants. It became evident that 
negro labor was best adapted to agriculture conducted on a large 
scale, and that it was not profitable in the Northern and Middle 
colonies where agricultural pursuits were chiefly in the hands of 
small farmers. In the manufacturing sections it was impossible 
to use slave labor by the side of skilled free labor. Under these 
conditions slavery had been abolished, by 1804, in all states north 
of Maryland. 

The introduction of cotton growing in the states began very 
quickly to change the conditions then existing. In the South 
white laborers could not well withstand the fierce heat and exces 
sive moisture characteristic of the region; the African was 
adapted by nature to such conditions. With the increase of the 
cotton-growing area, the demand for negro slaves likewise con 
stantly increased. In the course of a few years the money value 
of the good field hand advanced from about $200 to more than 
$1000. The immediate result was the gradual clearance of slaves 

1 Unscrupulous inventors appropriated some of Whitney s ideas, and both the 
courts and the patent laws were too inefficient to give him the protection he 
merited. He consequently lost much of the profits that should have come to him. 

2 The machine consisted of a chamber into which the cotton was fed, and a 
number of saws fixed on a single shaft. The teeth of the saws projected into the 
chamber through slits that were so narrow that the seeds could not pass through 
them. The revolving saws pulled the lint from the seed and then delivered it to 
revolving brushes, which, in turn, discharged it thoroughly clean. 


from the Northern states. From the upper section of the Southern 
states many slaves were transferred to the cotton area, and thus 
slave labor became concentrated in the cotton-growing states of 
the far South. 

The Establishment of Manufactures. During the colonial period 
there had been but little development in the way of manufactures. 
The colonists had discovered that the manufacture of colonial 
clapboards and barrel staves, which were worth from manufac- 
$20 to $100 per thousand, was profitable. The same tures 
was true of building lumber generally. A considerable amount 
of structural iron, such as bars and nail rods, was also made, but 
the material was exported to England. About the only thing 
manufactured that was distinctively an American product was 
the American ship, and this was the best in the world. 

A reason for this condition has already been noted ; the mother 
country would not permit in her colonies the manufacture of any 
thing that could be made in England. 1 Even after the War of the 
Revolution there was no great development of manufactures, and 
practically all the fine textiles, clothing, tools, paper, machinery, 
and domestic wares were imported from Europe. 

The Embargo and Non-intercourse acts (1807, 1809) put a stop 
to the importation of such wares. The people, therefore, were 
compelled either to make these things themselves or The i mpetus 
to go without them. They chose to make them ; and to manufac- 
immediately clubs and societies for the encourage- turin 
ment of manufacturing enterprises were formed in nearly every 
state. Prizes were given for the production of textiles, and 
bounties were freely offered to companies which should under 
take the building of manufacturing plants. In many cases such 
companies were to be exempt from taxation for a number of 
years. Legislatures passed resolutions requesting their members 
to wear garments of homemade cloth, and in some instances 
people who insisted on wearing " European tawdry," as it was 
called, were promptly "put out of society" by their more demo 
cratic neighbors. Shops for the sale of domestic-made wares 
were established in almost every city and town. 

1 See page 100. 



tures in 
the North 


With this very general encouragement 1 it is not surprising that 
a multitude of manufactures came into existence. At that time, 
however, the steam engine was but little used in the 
United States, and, on account of the suspension of 
foreign commerce, such engines could not be purchased 
Falling water, therefore, was about the only available 
power ; the water power existed only where there were abrupt 
slopes chiefly on the New England plateau and the slopes of 

the Appalachian ranges. 
Most of the manufactur 
ing establishments were 
built in localities where 
the falls and rapids of 
streams could best be 
utilized. 2 After a few 
years it was found that 
these establishments sur 
vived chiefly in the New 
England plateau and in 
some of the larger cities, 
such as Philadelphia, 
where there was available 
water power. This was 
mainly for the reason 
that the money formerly 
invested in commerce in 
New England and the 
Middle states became available for manufacturing. Moreover, a 
large proportion of the people who went to New England were 
skilled artisans, cloth makers, machinists, and metal workers, 
while those who went to the Southern colonies were either 
wealthy landowners or unskilled laborers. 

1 In 1816 and in later years the Congress established tariffs for the encourage 
ment of manufactures. See page 252. 

2 About this time the value of the " Fall Line," the line at which the foothills 
and the coast plain meet, was recognized. Many of the great manufacturing 
centers, such as Lowell and Lawrence, in Massachusetts, and Cohoes, in New 
York, were also located on rivers having available water power. 



One Effect of the New Adjustment of Industries. The creation of 
a line between Northern and Southern peoples was one very 
marked effect of the general readjustment of the industries of the 
country. The boundary between them was the line that separated 
the region of the waterfalls from the cotton fields. There came 
to be a distinct North and an equally distinct South. The widen 
ing of the gap between the two sections, in the future, was to 
bring about most lamentable results. 

The Tide of Emigration. Between 1789 and 1814 the population 
of the United States had increased from a little more than three 
millions to more than seven and one half millions ; the thirteen 
states had become eighteen in number ; the national area had grown 
from less than one million to more than two millions of square 

Nevertheless, in about four fifths of this immense territory 
there was scarcely a white man. But when these fertile lands 
were thrown open 
to settlement and 
sold at one dollar 
per acre, a tide of 
emigration from 
the East swept 

westward to oc- rT/HT s <" ==:i!SS S!!ri T ^^^ 

cupy them. An MLffXZI3a^SlJSi 

added attraction 

lay in the pros- 

pect of producing 

food-stuffs which were sure to bring good prices if they could be 
gotten to the Eastern markets. One good crop would sometimes 
pay for the land. 

As a result, three great streams of emigration started about 
1815. From New England and New York, the old Indian 
trails along the Mohawk and thence westward were 
followed. From Buffalo, the emigrants diverged 
through northern Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illi 
nois. The emigrants from the Middle states usually followed 
the Susquehanna Kiver and thence across the Alleghany Kange 


to Pittsburg. From that point down the Ohio Eiver and up 
its various branches, the way was comparatively easy. A third 
route lay from the Southern states westward into Kentucky and 

It is estimated that in fifteen years not far from one million 
people traversed one or another of these routes. The northern 
route, in time, became one of the world s great traffic ways that 
of the New York Central Kailroad. The middle route also became 
a commercial highway of tremendous importance, and is practi 
cally the line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The routes from the 
Southern states were not so well-defined, but one of them became 
the line of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. The selection of 
these routes, even at that time, by the emigrants traveling in 
wagons, demonstrated that commerce must move along lines 
having the fewest obstacles practically over the grades most 
easily surmounted. 

Democracy in America. A spirit of democracy among the 
people was not general before the \Yar of the Revolution. The 
right to have a share in the government to vote or hold office 
depended in some colonies on ownership of land, in others on 
religious belief. But after the war the restrictions rapidly fell 
away. It became apparent to all well-meaning people that in a 
true republic the people themselves are the rulers ; and that all 
good citizens must meet on the same plane in the management 
of it. 

An Epidemic of Socialism. Since the republic was based on 
the theory that all citizens are equal, there soon grew up societies 
aiming at community of interest. One of these was organized by a 
Welshman, Robert Owen. Owen was full of the idea that most 
of the troubles of life arise from the fact that, while a few people 
accumulate very great wealth, the majority are compelled to toil 
in wretched poverty. In order to overcome this, Owen argued 
that people should form communities in which all property should 
be held in common, and the profits of labor be evenly divided. 
Moreover, he held that absolute equality should exist among 
members of the community. Owen s ideas became very popular, 
and Owenite communities were founded in many places, especially 


in the Western states. 1 They very soon failed. Thrifty, ener 
getic men, who are always the real factors in the success of a 
community , did not care to go into an enterprise that compelled 
them to divide their earnings with those who were less capable. 
On the other hand, those who went into such societies were apt 
to be either shiftless or incompetent or both. 

The Mormons. About 1830, another sect, partly religious and 
partly social, came into public notice. One Joseph Smith, living 
in Palmyra, New York, claimed to have received, by divine revela 
tion, a new Scripture. It was alleged to be written on plates of 
gold, which could be read only through miraculous agency. The 
society which Smith formed, called the Mormon Church, was well 
organized and successful from a business standpoint. The Mor 
mons moved from New York to Ohio, next to Missouri, and then to 
Illinois. There they got into trouble with the people, and were 
forcibly driven out of the neighborhood in which they had settled. 
In Utah they founded (1847) one of the most successful business 
societies in the world, which also became a center of political dis 
turbance. More than once the national government has had to 
take measures to prohibit and suppress their practice of polygamy. 
The entire life of the Mormon people, social, religious, industrial, 
educational, and political, was controlled by a powerful priesthood. 

The Question of Transportation ; Steam Navigation. The grow 
ing business of the country, together with the progress of settle 
ment in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, brought the people 
face to face with a question that was difficult to adjust, namely, 
the matter of transportation. At the beginning of the nineteenth 
century no railway built for public purposes was in existence ; 
steam had not been successfully applied to inland navigation; it 
had not been applied to ocean carrying at all. 

There had, however, been some unsuccessful attempts to use 
steam power on inland waters. As early as 1785, James Kumsey 
of Maryland built a small steam-propelled boat for use on the 

1 The most noted of the Owenite communities was established at New Harmony, 
Indiana, in 1825. The high ideals of Robert Owen attracted a group of brilliant 
men and women from various parts of Europe and America, and for a time New 
Harmony was a noted literary, educational, and scientific center. 



Potomac. Three years later John Fitch built a steam packet 
that made regular trips for about two years on the Delaware River. 
Both enterprises failed, however, for want of financial support. 
About the same time, too, John C. Stevens of Hoboken, New 
Jersey, built the steamboat Phoenix, to ply between New York 
and New Brunswick, New Jersey. This venture probably would 
have succeeded, had not the sole privilege of navigating the waters 
cf New York by steam been previously granted to Robert Fulton. 
Fulton had designed a steam-propelled boat, 1 called the Cler- 
mont, which started on her first trip up the Hudson August 

7, 1807, and reached 
Albany in thirty-two 
hours. A few weeks 
afterward she began 
regular trips between 
New York and Albany 
as a passenger and 
freight boat. The fare 
to Albany was seven 
dollars about twice 
the price of a round-trip ticket on one of the fine Hudson River 
day steamers to-day. 

In time steam was applied also to ocean navigation. As early 
as 1819 the steamship Savannah crossed the Atlantic to England, 2 
sailing much of the time by the wind and using steam only when 


1 Fulton s first design was a boat not for transportation, but for carrying 
and discharging explosive torpedoes, such as are now used in naval warfare. 
Having failed in his efforts to induce both American and French authorities to 
utilize his scheme, he made a partnership with Robert R. Livingston, then min 
ister to France, to use his proposed steamboat for commercial purposes ; it was 
through Livingston that he was enabled to get the franchise for navigating the 
waters of New York State. The hull of the Clermont was built on East River, 
New York City ; the engines were made in Birmingham, England. The boat was 
one hundred and thirty feet long and eighteen feet wide. Her paddle wheels were 
fifteen feet in diameter. 

2 Just before the Savannah made her trip to England, an English gentleman 
had published a book in which he believed he had demonstrated by unanswerable 
logic that no steam vessel could ever cross the ocean. On her return trip the 
Savannah carried a copy of the work to America. 



the wind failed her. But inasmuch as about all her freight space 
was required for fuel, the Savannah was not a successful venture. 
The regular steamship lines between America and Europe were 
started about twenty years later. 

The Erie Canal. 1815-1825. At the beginning of the nine 
teenth century there were many settlements scattered along the 
Mohawk Valley, and many others in the vicinity of Buffalo, in 


Showing the line of transportation from Lake 
Erie to New York City. 

New York State. These sent the sur 
plus produce of their farms to New 
York City. There were also some 
very thriving settlements about Pitts- 
burg ; they shipped their goods to and 
from Philadelphia. Early in the century the New Yorkers had 
asked the Congress for an appropriation to build a canal from Lake 
Ontario to Albany, but it was refused; and so the matter lay 
resting for several years. 1 Finally the business men of New York 
put their hands into their pockets for funds and began the con 
struction of the Erie Canal, from Buffalo to the Hudson. The 
work was begun in 1815 and completed late in 1825, at a cost 
of $9,000,000. 

i Incidentally, the New Yorkers were asserted to be " the most persistent 
beggars that came before the Congress." 


Immediately after the construction of the canal the freight on 
a bushel of wheat going from Buffalo to New York was reduced 
from $1.10 to forty cents. 1 Another effect became apparent 
within a few years. Before the building of the canal, Phila 
delphia had a very large foreign trade in comparison with that 
of New York. But most of the vessels bringing cargoes to 
Philadelphia returned to Europe in ballast, because there was 
no certainty of getting a return cargo. After the completion 
of the canal, so much produce was brought to New York City 
by the canal boats that a ship was pretty certain to have a 
paying return cargo. As a result the foreign trade of New 
York grew by leaps and bounds ; from the second city in popu 
lation and the third in commerce, it soon became the metropolis 
of the continent. 

The Pennsylvania Canal. 1826. In 1826, the Pennsylvanians, 
seeing their transit business threatened by the Erie Canal, began 
work on a transportation line from Philadelphia to Pittsburg. 
Many obstacles were encountered in making this line, owing to 
the steep grades and the difficulty in getting the canal boats 
from one level to another. 2 The aggregate lift in the Erie Canal 
from Buffalo to tide water was scarcely more than four hundred 
feet ; on the Pennsylvania Canal between Pittsburg and Harris- 
burg it was about two thousand feet. On account of the great 
lift, the expenses of operating the canal were very large. This 
route, however, in spite of its disadvantage of heavy grades, 
became a great traffic route ; in twenty years time it became the 
line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Railroad Building. 1828-1830. Within a very short time after 

1 In 1900 the freight was a little less than three cents per bushel. 

2 The eastern division of the Pennsylvania route consisted of a canal extending 
from Philadelphia to the town of Columbia. This part of the route was soon 
afterward superseded by a tramway, on which cars drawn by horses were em 
ployed. The central division extended from Columbia to Huntington, but from 
the latter place the canal boats were floated into cribs and carried across the 
Alleghany Range to Johnstown by the Portage Railroad. Even on the canals the 
grades of the route in many places were so steep that locks between the levels 
could not be employed, and inclined-plane railways operated by water power, or 
by horses, were employed in transferring a boat from one level to another. The 
western division of the canal extended from Johnstown to Pittsburg. 



the completion of the Erie Canal, it became apparent that a system 
of transportation more speedy than canal boats must be undertaken 
in order to accommodate the growing trade of the country. Balti 
more, in turn, was alarmed at the threatened loss of her trade, 
which, it was feared, would be diverted to the Pennsylvania Canal. 
In 1828, Charles Carroll, the only surviving signer of the Declara 
tion of Independence, broke ground for a steam railway from 
Baltimore to Ellicott s Mills, in Maryland. The locomotive 
that drew the solitary wagon on this road was built by Peter 
Cooper, and was the first American-built locomotive engine. On 


its trial trip the train distanced a stagecoach with which it 
raced, and there was much rejoicing over the first "rapid 
transit." 1 

Just before the building of Cooper s locomotive, an English- 
made engine was delivered to the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company, to be operated on a short line of coal-mine tramway, 
but it was not successful. In 1830 a railway was opened between 
Charleston, South Carolina, and Augusta, Georgia; during the 
following year, the Mohawk and Hudson line was in operation 
between Albany and Schenectady in New York. 2 

1 This line, the Baltimore and Ohio, opened fourteen miles of railroad in 1830. 
It was the first road built expressly for transporting freight and passengers. 

2 The first rails used were wooden stringers ; these were afterwards topped 
with a strap of iron. All-iron rails were not used for some years, although the 


Coal Mining. The use of mineral coal as fuel was no new 
thing at the close of the War of the Revolution. A hard, anthra 
cite coal that burned with difficulty had been mined at Tiverton, 
Rhode Island, in the middle of the eighteenth century, and for 
many years the shipment of Tiverton coal to New York City was 
a good paying business. When the first settlements were made 
in the vicinity of Pittsburg, bituminous coal was discovered in 
the bluffs back of the river, and it was quite generally used as a 
house-heating fuel. There was also a seam of such excellent coal 
at Richmond, Virginia, that the product of the mine was shipped 
to Philadelphia, where it retailed (1789) at eighteen pence (about 
thirty-six cents) per bushel. 

Anthracite coal was discovered at Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, 
in 1790, but the cost of getting it to Philadelphia was so great 
that shipments were not made for some twelve years afterward. 
Not until canals were constructed for the purpose of transporting 
did coal become a regular commodity. The mining of the coal 
at once began to encourage the use of steam power ; it likewise 
marked the beginning of iron manufacture on a large scale. 


The perfection of the steam engine led indirectly to cotton textile 
manufactures in England, and to the extensive cultivation of the cotton 
plant in the Southern states. 

The invention of the cotton gin and the general use of negroes in the 
cotton fields made cotton cultivation very profitable. 

The stopping of commerce through the Embargo and Non -intercourse 
acts and during the War of 1812 resulted in the establishment of manu 
factures in the New England states. 

A distinct North and an equally distinct South were created, as 
industrial and political sections of the United States. 

The opening of Western lands caused a tide of emigration along three 
routes from the East to the food-producing lands of the West. 

T-rail was invented by Robert L. Stevens in 1830. A part of the driving wheel 
of the " De Witt Clinton," the first locomotive used on the road, is now in the 
possession of the Transportation Club, New York City. 


The settlement of these lands created a demand for better facilities 
for the transportation of crops. The Erie and the Pennsylvania canals 
and railroad lines were constructed. 


History of the People of the United States McMaster. Vol. Ill, 
Chapter XXII; Vol. IV, Chapter XXXIII. 

History of the United States Scribner s. Vol. I, Chapter I; Vol. Ill, 
Chapter IX; Vol. IV; Vol. VII, Chapter XV; Vol. IX, Chapters 

History of the United States Schouler. Vols. I-IV. 



Monroe elected President. 1816. The period beginning with 
the close of the War of 1812 was one of great political as well as 
of business activity. At the election in November, 1816, James 
Monroe l of Virginia was the successful candidate. Daniel Tomp- 
kins of New York was chosen Vice-President. The election was 
a decided victory for the Democratic-Republicans ; they carried 

sixteen states, while the Federal 
ist candidate, Rufus King of New 

York, carried but three. The 

questions on which the federalist 

party had made its stand were practically settled before the elec 
tion, and that party soon ceased to have an existence. 

The Fishery Treaty. 1818. A fishery treaty, signed in London 
(October, 1818) by commissioners of the United States and Eng 
land, gave the fishermen of the United States the right to enter 
British-American harbors to procure water and fuel, to repair 
their vessels, and to seek shelter. Prior to 1818, American fishing 
vessels had no right to enter British- American harbors for any 
purpose. This treaty was regarded as in the interests of humanity 
rather than a question of international politics. 

The Accession of Florida. 1819. During the War of 1812, the 
Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama had been trouble- 

1 JAMES MONROE (1758-1831) was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He 
studied at William and Mary College. He fought in the Revolution. After the 
close of the war he was in turn member of the Congress, United States senator, 
minister to France and to Great Britain, governor of Virginia, secretary of 
state, and secretary of war. In 1816 he was elected the fifth President, and, at 
the expiration of his term, was reflected. 



some l and had been driven by General Andrew Jackson to Florida, 
where also lived the Seminole tribes. At that time Florida was a 
Spanish possession, and therefore the Americans had no right to 
follow the Indians farther. Taking advantage of this circum 
stance, the Indians were in the habit of sending pillaging 
parties across the border, murdering or kidnapping people and 
carrying off live stock. When, at last, the trouble became in 
tolerable, General Jackson and his troops crossed the boundary 
into Florida and administered a punishment that forever broke 
the power of these Indians. 

The act, though necessary, was clearly unlawful ; and it brought 
matters to a crisis. Spain opened negotiations and a treaty was 
made (1819) by which she sold her possessions in Florida to the 
United States for the sum of $5,000,000. The United States also 
assumed the claims of her own citizens against Spain. 

The Southwestern Boundary. By the treaty of 1819 wi% Spain, 
the line between the Louisiana Purchase and the Spanish posses 
sions to the west and southwest was agreed upon, commissioners 
were appointed to locate it, and the survey was completed 
in 1821. 2 

The Northern Boundary. When the territory of Louisiana was 
purchased, no definite line was set as its northern boundary ; this 
boundary, therefore, could be settled only by an agreement with 
Great Britain. In 1818, representatives of both governments 
met in London, and the two parties agreed that " the forty-ninth 
parallel of latitude from a point either due north or due south of 
the northwest corner of Lake of the Woods, westward to the Stony 
[Rocky] Mountains" should be the boundary between the two 

1 The Creeks attacked Fort Mimms in Alabama and killed more than five 
hundred persons (August, 1813). At Horseshoe Bend, on a branch of the Alabama 
River, Jackson completely defeated them (March, 1814). 

2 This line follows the Sabine River from its mouth to the thirty-second paral 
lel of north latitude, thence due north to the Red River ; up the Red River to the 
one hundredth meridian; north on this meridian to the Arkansas River; up the 
Arkansas to its source; thence due north to the forty-second parallel, and west 
ward on this parallel to the Pacific. It was thus that Spain surrendered her 
claim to Oregon. 


This agreement left the boundary between Oregon and Canada 

still unsettled, and inasmuch as both Great Britain and the United 

States claimed the greater part of the territory, it was 

agreed that the two should occupy it jointly for a 

period of ten years. By the treaty between Spain and the United 

States (1819), the forty-second parallel of latitude was made the 

boundary between the Louisiana territory and Oregon. 

In the meantime the Emperor of Eussia informed the United 
States that the Russian government claimed the fifty-first parallel 
as the southern boundary of Alaska, then a Russian 
possession. As the Russians had already established 
a colony in California, President Monroe judged that 
Russia intended to prevent the United States from having pos 
session of any territory on the Pacific coast. The President at 
once made a vigorous protest, informing the Emperor of Russia 
that Ewopean nations had no right to plant colonies on the 
American continent. The raising of this question brought about 
a very important policy on the part of the United States. 

The Monroe Doctrine. 1823. Hardly had President Monroe 
raised this question of Russian colonization when a similar ques 
tion presented itself from a different source. The rulers of Russia, 
Prussia, and Austria had formed (1815) what was 
Alliance^ called the Holy Alliance, and it was suspected that 
the Alliance was about to attempt to restore to Spain 
her South American colonies which had revolted and formed 
independent republics. The United States had formally recog 
nized these new governments, and had sympathy for them in 
their efforts to maintain themselves as republics. 

The secretary of foreign affairs for England proposed (1823) 
to the American minister at London that the United States 
should join with England in a protest against any interference 
of the Holy Alliance with the South American republics. The 
protest was to state that, while neither power desired any territory 
in South America, they would not permit the interference of any 
other country. So the question was laid before President Monroe, 
The President did not think it would be proper to join with 
England in the proposed protest, but it was determined to declare 


a policy in language that could not be misunderstood. President 
Monroe asked Madison and Jefferson their opinion in the matter. 
They both advised that we use all possible means to prevent 
the interference of any foreign power in the affairs of South 

It was under these circumstances that Monroe, in his message 
to the Congress (December, 1823), announced the 

doctrine which bears his name. It contained three The Monroe 

propositions : 

First, free and independent American countries were not in future 

to be colonized by any European power. 
Second, the monarchical system of Europe was not to be extended 

to the western hemisphere. 
Third, there was to be no intervention by any foreign power in 

the political affairs of the Spanish- American republics. 

An attempt to violate any of these propositions was to be con 
sidered as an act of hostility to the United States. 

President Monroe intended to announce this doctrine as a policy 
with which to govern his own administration, but it has governed 
all subsequent administrations. The doctrine was enthusiasti 
cally approved by the people of the United States. Daniel Web 
ster declared that it formed " a bright page in our history." It 
became an official notice to the nations of the Old World to keep 
their hands off the feeble republican governments of the New 
World. It was a bold declaration on the part of a nation less 
than fifty years old and with no more than ten million people, but 
it was effectual. 

The Alliance never attempted to interfere with Spain s revolted 
colonies ; and from 1823 to the beginning of our great Civil 
War, no foreign power ever openly disregarded the Monroe 

New States admitted. 1816-1821. The settlement of the 
Western lands had a far-reaching political effect. The i ndiana> 
lands of the territory northwest of the Ohio were Mississippi, 
settled mainly by people from the Northern states. "Ja bama 
Perhaps the greater number of the people were from Maine, 
New England ; certainly New England ideas of politi- Missouri 



cal affairs prevailed. When General Jackson broke the Indian 
power in the Southwest, a large area of land, including most of 
Mississippi and Alabama, was thrown open and rapidly settled. 
The people were mainly from the South, and Southern ideas of 
political affairs prevailed. In a very short time the settlers of 
these lands, both North and South, discovered that the safety 
of their lives and property depended on a better political organi 
zation than that afforded by territorial government, and so they 


demanded to be admitted as states. In-five years, six states 1 
joined the Union Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817), Illinois 
(1818), Alabama (1819), Maine (1820), and Missouri (1821). 

Three of them were slave states and three were free states. 
The former stood for free trade with foreign countries, the latter 
were in favor of a protective tariff. Up to 1820 the 
number of slaves states and free states was the same. 
In the senate, therefore, the two sides were evenly 
represented. But when Missouri asked to be admitted, at once 

1 They were respectively the nineteenth, twentieth, twenty-first, twenty-second, 
twenty-third, and twenty-fourth states. 

Slave and 
free states 


the question arose as to whether there should be any more slave 
states in the Union. 

The Missouri Compromise. The admission of Missouri to the 
Union was preceded by an exceedingly bitter controversy leading 
to an agreement known as the Missouri Compromise. Missouri 
was part of the Louisiana Purchase, and had been organized as a 

From the painting by Rothcrmel. 


territory ; in 1818 it applied to the Congress for admission as a 
state with a constitution allowing slavery, which -institution had 
always existed in that territory. During the consideration of the 
bill proposing the admission of Missouri, an amendment was 
offered forbidding the further introduction of slavery and declar 
ing that children born of slaves in the state after its admission 
to the Union should be free. 

The proposed prohibition of slavery in Missouri aroused great 


excitement, and produced the first important struggle between 
the North and the South upon the slavery question. At this 
time the Northern states had abolished slavery, but in the South 
ern states slave labor was deemed necessary for the cultivation 
of cotton. The South was firmly united in the defense cf slavery 
and would not tolerate any restriction of it by the Federal govern 
ment. Most of the members of the Congress from the free states 
favored the prohibition of slavery in Missouri ; those from the 
slave states did not deny the right of the Congress to prohibit 
slavery in a new state, but they declared that such action was 
despotic and hurtful. 

Finally, through the efforts of Henry Clay and other conser 
vative members of the Congress, a compromise bill was passed 
(March, 1821) that temporarily settled the question. As a matter 
of fact, however, it satisfied no one. The act provided that 

Missouri should be admitted as a slave state, being offset by 
Maine which came into the Union as a free state. 

Slavery w s as to be forever prohibited in that part of the Louisiana 
territory north of latitude 36 30 , and west of Missouri. 

Monroe reflected ; the Era of Good Feeling. 1820. There was 
no organized opposition to President Monroe, and he was elected 
for a second term in 1820. The Federal party had dissolved, 
and the political affairs of the country were controlled by the 
Democratic-Republicans. 1 Tompkins was reflected Vice-President. 
At this time there was general prosperity all over the country, and 
the period was called " the era of good feeling." 

The Tariff of 1816; a Tariff for Protection. In 1816 the Con 
gress passed a new tariff act especially intended to give protection 
to the manufacturers of the United States. During the war with 
England foreign goods had been shut out of the American mar 
ket, and in consequence there had been a great deal of home 
manufacture. But when the war had closed, the country was at 
once flooded with foreign goods, much to the distress of the 

1 A New Hampshire elector had cast a vote for John Quincy Adams for Presi 
dent, and the vote prevented Monroe s election from being unanimous. He 
alleged in explanation that he desired that no one but Washington should receive 
the honor of a unanimous vote. 


American manufacturers, who were not able to compete with 
those of Europe. The American manufacturers, therefore, de 
manded a higher tariff, which would increase the price on such 
imported goods as competed with those made in this country. 
The Congress complied with the demand. 

The tariff of 1789 l was intended mainly for the purpose of 
raising a revenue sufficient to meet the expenses of the Federal 
government; that of 1816 brought to public notice the question 
of the protection of American industries. That the new tariff 
prevented the closing of many manufacturing establishments 
cannot be doubted ; it was, therefore, a blessing to thousands of 
workmen who otherwise would have been thrown out of employ 
ment. On the other hand, it hurt seriously the Southern cotton 
planter, who did not live in a manufacturing locality and was 
compelled to pay higher prices for his supplies. 

The Tariff of 1824. The tariff of 1816 did not satisfy the 
manufacturing interests of the country, and for several years 
unsuccessful attempts were made to induce the Congress to give 
greater protection to American manufactures. There were angry 
discussions of the principle of protection to manufactures, which 
at last resulted in the passage of the tariff act of 1824, by a small 

The Southern states were firmly opposed to any increase of the 
tariff ; having no manufactures, they gained nothing by it, while 
they were compelled to pay still more for their necessary supplies 
as the tariff was increased. With an increased tariff, they claimed 
that all the profits in cotton growing would be taken from them. 

The Northern and Western states, where were located most of the 
manufacturing establishments, strenuously urged a higher tariff, 
on the ground that their manufacturers could not compete with for 
eign manufacturers under the rates fixed by the law of 1816. As 
a result, not a little bitterness was added to the already unpleasant 
feeling that had grown up between the two sections of the country. 

Adams elected President, 1824. As there was practically but 
one party in the United States in 1824, the election in November 
of that year was a personal contest between John Quincy Adams 

1 See page 191. 


of Massachusetts, William H. Crawford of Georgia, Henry Clay 
of Kentucky, and Andrew Jackson of Tennessee. John Quincy 
Adams 1 was the successful candidate for President. 2 John C. 
Calhoun was elected Vice-President. 

Party Lines re-formed. During President Adams s administra 
tion, party lines were again formed. Various political questions, 
such as the protective tariff and the right of the Federal 
government to improve highways, rivers, and harbors, 
were discussed with a great deal of feeling, and in 
consequence the Democratic-Eepublican party was divided. Aftei 
a time the friends of the President formed a new party called the 
National Republicans. The National Republicans were believers 
in the loose construction of the Constitution which characterized 
the old Federal party. ^ 

They were in favor of 5 0H/^ *+ x^vxx^ J^^ c^Y^^^ . 

a high protective tariff, " 

T i i -, ,i_ , , , - . -, THE AUTOGRAPH OF ADAMS. 

and held that the Fed 
eral government should make any internal improvements that 
were for the benefit of the country. 

The followers of Andrew Jackson united to continue the old 
Democratic-Republican party organization, but they were known 

thereafter simply as Democrats. They were strict 

,. . , ,, ,. ,. Democrats 

constructiomsts ; they opposed the protective policy as 

unconstitutional ; and they denied the right of the Federal gov 
ernment to make internal improvements. 

The Tariff of 1828. The revision of the tariff to give greater 
protection to American industries occasioned an intensely bitter 

1 JOHN QUINCY ADAMS (1767-1848) was the son of John Adams and, like his 
father, a son of Massachusetts and of Harvard. He served as minister to the 
Netherlands and to Prussia, as United States senator from Massachusetts, as 
professor at Harvard, as minister to Russia and to England, as secretary of state, 
and finally as President, 1825-1829. His real laurels, however, were won later as a 
member of Congress, where, undaunted by opposition, he showed great ability 
and eloquence. He died, in harness, as the phrase is, in the House of Repre 

2 It was commonly called the scrub race for the presidency. There was not a 
majority of votes in the electoral college for any one of its four candidates ; so, 
under the Constitution, the House of Representatives elected the President from 
the three candidates receiving the greater number of electoral votes. 


feeling. Higher duties on iron and the manufactures of -wool 
and cotton were especially demanded in the North and as hotly 
opposed in the South. After a discussion lasting for weeks, the 
Congress passed (May, 1828), by a small majority, a new bill 
raising the tariff rates. 

The people of the South were very indignant at its passage 
and called it the Bill of Abominations. In some of the leading 
Southern cities mass meetings were held, and the act was de 
nounced in violent language. The assertion was made that, under 
the new tariff, the South would be heavily taxed for the sole 
benefit of the Northern manufacturers. In South Carolina and 
Georgia resolutions were passed declaring the tariff act unconstitu 
tional, and urging that it be nullified, that is, disobeyed by the 
Southern states. 

Jackson elected President. 1828. The revision of the tariff 
stirred up so much feeling throughout the country that the elec 
tion in 1828 was hotly contested. 
President Adams was nominated 

by the National Republicans. 
THE AUTOGRAPH OF JACKSON. TQ defeat the papty \ u pQwer 

was the purpose of the Democrats, and they succeeded. Andrew 
Jackson 1 was elected President and Calhoun was again made 

The Hayne-Webster Debate. 1830. In a session of the Con 
gress during Jackson s administration there occurred the memo 
rable debate in the Senate between Eobert Y. Hayne of South 
Carolina, and Daniel Webster 2 of Massachusetts. The debate 

1 ANDREW JACKSON (1767-1845) was a native of Waxhaw Settlement. Xorth 
Carolina. He received little education except such as he picked up in irregular 
study. He distinguished himself as a soldier, and became a national hero in the 
war against the Creeks and in the War of 1812. He served as governor of Florida 
Territory, and as United States senator from Tennessee. His administration as 
President was a stormy one. He inaugurated the theory that "To the victors 
belong the spoils." Rough, bold, persistent, and strong of character, " Old 
Hickory," as he was called, ranks prominently among American heroes. 

- DANIEL WEBSTER (1782-1852) was a native of Salisbury, New Hampshire. He 
graduated from Dartmouth College. In 1813 he entered public life as member of 
the Congress from New Hampshire. In 18 % 2o he was sent to the Congress from 
Massachusetts, and thenceforth he served continuously in the Congress and the 


cane about indirectly from the hostility of the South to the tariff 
of 1828. There had been threats from the Southern states to 
nullify the act, but no open attempt to do so had been made. 

The debate was occasioned by a resolution limiting the sales 
of public lands. Senator Hayne criticised the conduct of the 
manufacturing trtatri, and Webster s reply displeased him. The 
following day Hayne repeated his criticism of New England 
and advocated state rights namely, that a state had the right 
to nullify the tariff act, or any other law of the Congress which it 
believed to be unconstitutionaL 

Webster dgMi^d the right of any state to annul a Federal law 
or to interfere with its operations, whether the law in question 
was constitutional or not. Hemain- 
:,v.::r : -:.:.- :. ----- :. I .-. L :::v 
to interfere with the exercise of 
r "-: " r -"..- r - .-: .- _ "-: :....--:.- 
The Supreme Court of the United 
States alone, he said, was the final 
authority to decide what laws could 
be made by the Congress under the 
< ;:-.?::: ;-: : . 

:.-:- .= : :..- :. ... :- ~ "; 
discussion among the great party 
leaders about either the tariff or 
the right of a state to nullify an 
act of the Congress, but the teeach 
which had been formed between 
the Northern and the Southern states was materially widened. 

The Tariff again Bfciisei 1832. The Congress revised the 
tariff again in 1832; removing most of the features criticised in 
the tariff of 1828. but the duties were stm high. Since the Con 
gress refused to abolish the protective tariff, there was intense 
excitement in the Sooth, and talk of nullification was once more 
heard in that section. The people of South Carolina displayed a 

m repl v to Bxjmc m JS39. 




deep feeling about the matter. They had protested against the 

act while it was under consideration, and they determined to take 

steps to resist its enforcement in the state. 

The Reelection of Jackson. 1832. The Democrats renominated 

President Jackson for a second term. The National Republicans 

put in nomination their great leader, Henry Clay. Jackson was 

elected by a large majority. Martin Van Buren of New York 

was made Vice-President. 

The Nullification Controversy. 1832-1833. The advocates of 

state rights and nullification called a convention at Columbia, South 
Carolina, and this convention adopted (November, 1832) 

Mhfication ^ e ce l e brated Ordinance of Nullification. It declared 
that the Congress had exceeded its power in enacting 

protective tariffs. The tariff act of 1832 was pronounced " null 

and void " and not binding 
upon South Carolina. It was 
ordered that no tariff duties 
should be paid after Febru 
ary 1, 1833, and if the Federal 
government should attempt to 
enforce their payment, South 
Carolina would no longer re 
main in the Union, but would 
set up an independent govern 
ment. The state legislature 
confirmed the ordinance, and 
passed the necessary laws to 
give it effect. 

President Jackson therefore 
issued a proclamation urging 
the people to obey the Federal 
laws, and stating that " the 
laws of the United States must 
be executed." Shortly after 

issuing his proclamation, the President sent troops and ships of 

war to Charleston to be ready for any forcible opposition to the 

collection of the tariff. 


The controversy excited the whole country. The President s 
proclamation was heartily approved by the Northern people, 
Democrats and National Republicans alike. In many states the 
people passed resolutions endorsing the position of the President 
and promising military assistance, should it be needed. In the 
South there was a division upon the question. The legislatures 
of North Carolina and Tennessee denounced nullification, and 
declared firmly for the Federal government. Even in South 
Carolina there was a " Union party," resolved to take no part in 
the schemes of the nullifiers. 

Military preparations were begun in South Carolina immediately 
after the adoption of the Ordinance of Nullification, and were 
continued for some time. The state legislature Attitude 
ordered the enlistment of a force of volunteers, which of South 
was to be held in readiness to take the field, and the Carolma 
large cities of the state had much the appearance of military 
stations. It was generally believed that the first attempt to 
enforce the tariff law would be the beginning of a civil war. 

At the head of the nullifiers were Robert Y. Hayne, then 
governor of South Carolina, and John C. Calhoun. Calhoun had 
resigned as Vice-President of the United States for caihoun- 
the express purpose of being elected senator from Webster 
South Carolina, in order that he might become the 
champion of nullification in the Senate. Calhoun made several 
powerful speeches in defense of the doctrine, and Webster an 
swered them, claiming that the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and not the state of South Carolina, must decide whether 
or not an act of the Congress was right or wrong. 

The Force Bill. 1833. In the meantime the Congress passed 
an act giving the President the power to enforce the tariff act, if 
need be, by the army and navy of the United States. This act was 
popularly called the Force Bill. President Jackson threatened 
to arrest Calhoun for treason if he counseled further resistance 
to the collection of duties. 

Henry Clay brings about a Reduction of the Tariff. 1833. At 
this time Henry Clay, the leader of the protectionists, introduced 
a bill in the Congress for a gradual reduction of the tariff. The 



reduction was to extend through nine years, until the rates 
reached the point at which they should exist as a tariff for revenue 
only. Clay had always been a strong advocate for protection, but 
now he saw that a gradual reduction of the tariff would avert the 
danger of a civil war. He believed that his compromise measure 

would satisfy South Carolina 
and the other Southern state s> 
and would restore harmony to 
the country. At the same time 
the slow reduction of the tariff 
rates would enable the manu 
facturers of the North and the 
West to arrange their business 
so as to avoid disaster from 
sudden competition with foreign 

The nullifiers decided that 
they would not resist the col 
lection of the tariff at that time, 
but would w r ait until after the 
Congress adjourned. Before 
that time, however, the compro 
mise tariff had become a la\v 
by a large majority of votes. 
South Carolina accepted the 
compromise and repealed the 
Ordinance of Nullification. 

Rotation in Office. During 
President Jackson s two terms, 
a great many officeholders, such 
as revenue collectors, land 
agents,, postmasters, and depart 
ment clerks, were removed from office for political reasons, and 
their places were given to what were known as " Jackson men." 
The system of rotation in office was thus established. It was 
thought to be a very democratic system and beneficial to 
the country, because it gave to every citizen a chance for 



office. 1 In accordance with this idea, the subordinate offices 
of the government were generally bestowed as compensation for 
political services. Every President from 1829 to 1883 followed 
this plan in filling the offices. In the latter year the present 
method of selecting candidates by competitive examinations, called 
the civil service system, came into use. 

Jackson and the United States Bank. 1831-1836. The bank 
of the United States had been rechartered by the Congress in 181G 
for a term of twenty years. 2 Jackson did not believe in The power 
a national bank and, knowing that the charter would of the 
soon run out, he determined to do all that he could to bank 
weaken the bank. By skillful management the bank had become 
the most important financial institution in the United States. It 
had become not only a financial power, but a tremendous political 
factor as well, and it was said that " great financiers, merchant 
princes, eminent statesmen, were its fawning servants, ready to do 
its bidding"; certain it is that it had become a public scandal. 
All the funds of the Federal government were held and disbursed 
by it, and it acted in all financial matters as the government s 
agent. Jackson, like most other Democrats, believed that the 
bank had grown corrupt from its great authority, that it was a 
danger to the country on account of its power, and that it should 
be put out of existence. He therefore determined to curb it, and 
carried out his purpose so well that he caused its destruction as 
a government institution. 

In 1831 application was made to the Congress for a renewal 
of the charter for fifteen years. The Democrats were generally 
opposed to a government bank, but the National Re 
publicans favored the idea. For five months the two ar 

parties in the Congress fought over the rechartering 
of the bank. In the Senate, Clay and Webster did all they could 
to aid the bank, while Thomas Benton of Missouri led the oppo 
sition to it as the President s champion. In spite of the earnest 
efforts of the Democrats, an act to recharter the bank was passed, 

1 Critics have called it the " spoils system " from an expression in a speech by 
Senator Marcy, " To the victors belong the spoils of the enemy." 

2 See page 230. 


but it was vetoed by the President. The friends of the measure 
could not muster the vote of two thirds which was necessary to 
pass it over the President s veto. The reelection of Jackson was 
regarded as the popular approval of his policy. 

In a message to the Congress the President urged that an 
examination of the bank s affairs be made. He expressed doubts 
as to the safety of the government s money in the bank, then 
amounting to about $10,000,000, and recommended that the money 
be removed. The Congress would not order an investigation ; the 
President therefore (1833) ordered the secretary of the treasury 
to remove the government deposits from the bank. The secretary 
refused, and Jackson removed him from office and appointed Roger 
B. Tariey in his place. Secretary Taney complied with the order. 

The government then gradually drew its money from the bank 
to pay its current expenses. All future deposits, instead of being 
made in the bank, were to be placed in certain state 
discontinued ^ )an ^ :s which came to be known as pet banks. The 
bank of the United States therefore ceased to be a 
government institution after its charter had expired in 1836. It 
became a state bank under a charter from the state of Pennsyl 
vania, but its political power was broken, and in 1840 it ended 
its existence. 

Van Buren elected President. 1836. The Democratic candi 
date for President in 1836 was Martin Van Buren 1 of New 
York. At this time the National Republicans nominated General 

William Henry Harrison of Ohio. 
Van Buren was elected, with 

Richard M. Johnson of Kentucky 

as Vice-President. 

Party Platforms. 1836. The National Republicans of New 
York had vigorously protested against President Jackson s action 

1 MARTIN VAN BUREN (1782-1862) was born at Kinderhook, New York. He 
began his study of the law at the age of fourteen, and was speedily admitted t 
the bar. He was in succession United States senator, governor of New York, 
secretary of state, and Vice-President. In 1837 he became the eighth President. 
He furthered the establishment of the independent treasury system. His last 
years were spent in travel in Europe and in retirement at Kinderhook. He pos 
sessed in a remarkable degree the power of winning personal trust and influence 


in the bank matter, and had likened him to the English king, 
George the Third, whom the American Whigs of Revolutionary 
days had fought. They assumed the name of Whigs 
because they opposed Jackson, who, they declared, 
was a kind of tyrant. The name pleased the National Republi 
cans throughout the country, and was soon adopted by the party. 
The Whigs favored the old Federal party s loose construction 
of the Constitution, a protective tariff, a government bank, and 
internal improvements by the government. Upon the various 
questions concerning slavery, which were then beginning to agi 
tate the public, they were about evenly divided, like the Demo 
cratic party. 

The Democrats were true to the Jeffersonian principles. They 
insisted that the Constitution should be construed by the very 
letter of the law, in order that the national government 
should not have too much power and thus be danger- Democrats 
ous to the people. They approved of the President s 
action in the matter of the bank, and disapproved a protective 
tariff and of internal improvements by the government. They 
believed that the states should make their own canals, highways, 
and other improvements, and not expect the general government 
to do the work. 

Public Funds loaned for State Improvements. 1836. In 1836 
it was announced that the public debt had been virtually paid, 
and that there were surplus funds in the national treasury amount 
ing to about $35,000,000. In consequence, the Congress enacted 
that all the surplus in excess of $5,000,000 should be loaned to 
the states to aid them in their development. The loan was to 
be recalled only by an act of the Congress. During 1836-1837 
$28,000,000 were distributed among the states. None of this 
was ever recalled. 

The Independent Treasury Plan. 1840. The independent treas 
ury plan, now in use by the national government, was first pro 
posed by President Van Buren. A dreadful financial panic in 
1837 caused a demand for relief measures by the government. 
The Whigs clamored for another national bank. Van Buren 
thought the government should be its own banker, a.nd he recorn- 


mended the adoption of an "independent or snbtreasury plan," 
by which the government was to have a main treasury at Wash 
ington and subtreasuries in other cities. All the government 
money was to be deposited in these treasuries, and not in the 


state banks, as was then the practice. According to Van Buren s 
plan, an independent treasury was established in 1840. 1 

New States. 1836-1837. During Van Buren s administra 
tion two new states were added to the Union, the first in the 
fifteen years that had elapsed since the Missouri 
Arkansas, Compromise. Arkansas, the twenty-fifth state, was 
admitted in 1836 ; Michigan, the twenty-sixth state, 
was admitted in 1837. The former was a slave, the latter a free 

The Election of Harrison and Tyler. 1840. The election of 1840 
was one of the most exciting ever known in the United States. 
The Democrats renominated President Van Buren. Van Buren s 
administration had been marked by financial troubles due to the 
closing of the United States Bank and to the establishment of 
worthless banks all over the country. He and his party were 
therefore in great disfavor. William Henry Harrison 2 of Ohio 

1 The subtreasuries were established in Boston, New York, Charleston, and St. 
Louis. The mint was at Philadelphia. 

2 WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON (1773-1841) was born in Charles City County, 
Virginia. He represented the Northwest Territory as delegate to the Congress, 


was the candidate of the Whigs. An anti-slavery candidate was 
nominated by a party that was rapidly growing in numbers. 
General Harrison was a plain 
farmer, whose good hard sense 
had brought him to the front ; 
he had shown himself a great THE AuTOGRAPH OF HARRISON. 
soldier and a good statesman. As 

the " log-cabin " candidate of the farmers he received almost uni 
versal support, and the Democrats were defeated after being 
nearly forty years in power. 

Harrison died after he had been in office only one month, and 
Vice-President Tyler * then became President. 

National Bank Acts Vetoed. Early in President Tyler s admin 
istration, the Whigs succeeded in passing an act for the establish 
ment of a national bank, somewhat like the former bank of the 
United States, but the President, believing that a national bank 
was unconstitutional, vetoed the measure. A second bill in dif 
ferent form was also vetoed, and could not be passed over the veto. 
The President s action angered the party leaders, and all the mem 
bers of his cabinet except Webster resigned. Webster remained 
until the settlement of treaty negotiations with England and then 

withdrew. President Tyler was 
promptly " read out of the 
party." The Whigs had to aban 
don the project of a national bank, 
THE AUTOGRAPH OF TYLER. &nd it hag never been revivetL 

The Tariff. 1842-1861. By the terms of the Compromise Act 
of 1833, 2 which settled the nullification storm, the tariff rates on 

and was governor of Indiana Territory. He defeated the Indians in the important 
battle of Tippecanoe (1811), and served as major-general in the War of 1812, win 
ning the victory of the Thames. He was in turn representative and United States 
senator from Ohio. In 1840 he became the ninth President by a large majority. 

1 JOHN TYLER (1790-1802) was born at Greenway, Virginia. He was educated 
at William and Mary College. Shortly after his admission to the bar, he entered 
upon a political career which saw him member of the Congress, governor of 
Virginia, United States senator, and, in 1840, Vice-President. On the death of 
President Harrison, he became, by virtue of his office, the tenth President. In 
1861 he was a member of the peace conference at Washington, and was elected to 
the Confederate Provisional Congress. 2 See page 259. 


July 1, 1846, were not to exceed twenty per cent, which was con 
sidered below the point which gave protection to manufactures. 
But when the time came for the revenue tariff to be reduced to 
twenty per cent, it was found that such a low rate would not pro 
duce revenue enough to pay the expenses of the government. 
Therefore a new tariff was necessary. The Whigs passed the 
Tariff Act of 1842, which raised the rates to an average of thirty 
per cent ; but four years afterward the Democrats repealed the act 
and enacted in its place the Walker Tariff Act, under which the 
rates ranged from five to one hundred per cent. The revenue from 
this tariff was large, and in some years it was more than was 
required. In 1857 the tariff was revised and many reductions 
were made; then in 1861 the outbreak of the Civil W T ar put 
an end to the matter for several years. 

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty. 1842. The long-standing dis 
pute about the northeast boundary of the United States, as laid 
down in the treaty of 1783, at the close of the Revolutionary War, 
was settled in 1842. A treaty was negotiated at Washington by 
Secretary of State Daniel Webster, and Lord Ashburton, com 
missioner for Great Britain. The boundary, as finally agreed 
upon, gave some additional territory to New York and New Hamp 
shire, and took some away from Maine. 

Polk elected President. 1844. The presidential election of 1844 
resulted in a victory for the Democrats. James K. Polk T of Ten 
nessee and George M. Dallas of Pennsylvania were elected over 
Henry Clay of Kentucky and Theodore Frelinghuysenof New York. 

Florida Admitted. 1845. Florida, the twenty-seventh state, was 
admitted into the Union on the last day of President Tyler s 

The Oregon Country. As has been previously noted, 2 the treaty 
of 1818 left the territory of Oregon to be held jointly by Great 

1 JAMES KNOX POLK (1795-1849) was born in Mecklenburg County, North Caro 
lina. He was a graduate of the University of North Carolina (1818). He under 
took the practice of law in Columbia, Tennessee. His life was largely devoted to 
politics ; he was member of the Congress from Tennessee for fourteen years, and 
governor for three years. In 1844 he was chosen the eleventh President. Not 
brilliant, but eminent, just, and upright, he won the respect even of his opponents. 

2 See page 248. 


Whitman , 
the settle 
ment of 

Britain and the United States ; another agreement in 1827 con 
tinued the same arrangement for an indefinite time, either party 
having the right to end the agreement on a year s notice. Being 
north of the line of 36 30 all the domain was free soil, according 
to the Missouri Compromise. 

Early in the 30 s some Indians of the far West journeyed to 
St. Louis in search of a Bible, about which they had learned 
through Jesuit missionaries. This interesting fact 
having become known, a number of missionaries of 
various denominations made their way to Oregon. 
Among them was Marcus Whitman. Reports of the 
country that were sent back by the missionaries were 
so promising that many people in search of good farms were per 
suaded to settle in the Oregon country. Indeed, so many came 
that the English fur traders 
were alarmed, and they in 
turn arranged to have an 
English colony go to the ter 
ritory. Whitman saw that 
nothing but prompt action 
would save the territory to 
the Americans, and therefore 
crossed the continent in mid 
winter in order to interest 
the leaders at Washington. 
Whitman convinced the lead 
ing congressmen that the 
Oregon country was worth 
the struggle to hold it. He 
created so much public in 
terest in the matter that in the next few years the population 
of the region increased to more than ten thousand. 

As a result, in 1846, the United States and Great Britain made 
a new treaty in regard to the boundary of Oregon. ^^ 
The United States had always claimed the region as established 
far as the Alaska line, latitude 54 40 north, but the 
English had disputed the claim and asserted that the Columbia 



River was the right boundary. All north of the river was claimed 
as British possessions. In the presidential campaign of 1844 the 
Oregon dispute had been a political issue, and the Democrats had 
used the rallying cries of, " Fifty-four forty or fight," and " The 
whole of Oregon or none, with or without war with England." 
By the treaty made in Washington in June, 1846, the Oregon 
boundary was fixed at the forty-ninth parallel. That part of 
the region which passed to England was named British Columbia. 
Oregon was made a territory in 1848 ; out of it were subsequently 
created the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. 


During Monroe s administration the United States bought Florida 
from Spain, in 1819, for $5,000,000. 

The northern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase was determined by a 
treaty with Great Britain, from the Lake of the Woods west to the Rocky 
Mountains, and the southern boundary by a treaty with Spain. 

The Monroe Doctrine, set forth in 1823, declared that American coun 
tries were neither to be colonized nor to be conquered by European 

In 1820 the Congress adopted the Missouri Compromise, which forbade 
slavery north of the parallel of 36 30 and west of Missouri. 

The tariff, originally passed in 1789 to raise a revenue for government 
expenses, was increased in 1816, and again in 1824. 

During John Q.uincy Adams s administration, the tariff was again in 
creased in 1828 ; the act was termed the Bill of Abominations. 

During Jackson s first term, the tariff was slightly reduced. During 
his second term, the people of South Carolina, in opposition to the tariff, 
passed the Ordinance of Nullification. Henry Clay kept peace by an 
act gradually reducing the tariff. 

President Jackson withdrew the public funds from the United States 
Bank and prevented the renewal of its charter. 

During Van Buren s administration, the surplus of public funds was 
apportioned among the states for public improvements. The plan of 
subtreasuries for the deposit and payment of public funds was 

During the first month of his administration, President Harrison 
died, and Vice-President Tyler became President. The tariff was in- 


creased in order to raise a revenue sufficient for the expenses of the 

During Folk s administration, the forty-ninth parallel was made the 
boundary between Oregon and British America. 


History of the People of the United States McMaster. Vol. IV, 

History of the United States Schouler. Vol. Ill ; Vol. IV. 



Slavery Agitation. After the Missouri Compromise of 1820 
the slavery controversy in the Congress was settled for a time. 
But it was only a period of lull before a great storm ; 
hi Illinois ^ ie advocates an( l tne opponents of slavery were or 
ganizing and gaining strength. In the free state of 
Illinois at one time it looked as if the institution of slavery might 
be legalized by state action. Every free negro in Illinois was 
required to have a certificate of freedom from the clerk of the 
county in which he lived. If he were without this document, he 
could be seized as a runaway and sold into service for one year. 
On account of the lawless character of free negroes, many of 
whom were living in idleness, some such law was necessary ; but 
it was shamefully abused. Unfortunately, many peaceful and 
industrious negroes were thus seized and rushed across the river 
into Missouri, where they were sold into slavery. Many others 
were kept indefinitely in servitude after their terms had expired. 
Indeed, actual slavery was practiced in open violation of the law. 

When the slaveholders of Illinois discovered that the best 
negroes were being carried over the river into Missouri, they 
attempted to make Illinois a slave state, pure and simple. This, 
the antislavery party said, could not be done because the Ordi 
nance of 1787 forbade slavery in the Northwest Territory. In 
reply to this, the proslavery party pointed out that southern 
Illinois had been a part of Virginia, and when the lands were 
ceded to the Federal government, it was agreed that the settlers 
"should have their possessions confirmed to them." Slaves, 
they declared, were lawful possessions ; therefore the constitution 






50 1C 20 ) 300 401) 500 



of Illinois might be amended so as to make it a slave state. 
The question was submitted to a popular election, and the anti- 
slavery party won by a small plurality. 

By this time, a wave of antislavery sentiment had inflamed 
the whole country. Antislavery parties were formed all over 
the North ; the proslavery friends met the movement 
with firm opposition. An antislavery paper, the nt , ls ****? 
Liberator, edited by William Lloyd Garrison at Boston, 
achieved national reputation. Another, the Observer, published 
at Alton, Illinois, so angered the proslavery party that a mob 
wrecked the office and murdered Elijah Lovejoy, the editor. 




In the Congress a hostile feeling grew up. The Congress was 
besieged with petitions to abolish slavery in the District of 
Columbia, where it then existed. Finally the discus 
sion became so bitter that a rule was passed (1836) R ^ e ag 
forbidding any petition relating to slavery to be re 
ceived. This rule was commonly known as the Gag Kule ; in 
a strict sense it violated the Constitution, 1 but it seemed to be 
necessary to prevent Congressional business from being blocked 
by the reading of numberless petitions. It was adopted by each 
succeeding Congress for a number of years. 

1 See Constitution, Article I of Amendments. John Quincy Adams, who had 
just begun his congressional career (1831), vigorously defended the constitutional 
right of petition. Thousands of antislavery petitions were seut to him for presen 
tation to Congress. 


Texas secedes from Mexico. The proslavery party had been 
looking for an opportunity to extend the slaveholding area, and 
The owner- * ne vas ^ country of Texas offered an inviting field, 
ship of For a number of years prior to 1845, the proposed an- 

Texas nexation of the republic of Texas to the United States 

was a matter of not a little political discussion. The immense 
country of Texas then had an area of more than three hundred 
thousand square miles. It had been claimed by the Americans as a 
part of the province of Louisiana, which the United States pur 
chased from France in 1803. Spain always declared, however, 
that Texas belonged to her colony of Mexico ; and so (1819), after 
lengthy negotiations, the United States gave up the region to 
Spain, and took in exchange the Spanish possession of Florida. 1 

The Spanish authorities of Texas, desirous of peopling the fer 
tile region, invited immigration from foreign countries, including 
the United States, and as a result several colonies were 
colony established in the Texan coast district. The largest of 

these colonies was composed of settlers from the United 
States. It was established by Stephen F. Austin, whose father 
had received an extensive land grant from the Spanish authorities 
but had died before making a settlement. The son carried out 
the father s plans, and the Austin colony grew so rapidly that 
it soon had twenty thousand inhabitants. Thus it came about 
that the settlers in Texas were mainly American ; they came from 
the Southern states and brought their slaves with them. 

The Mexicans revolted against Spanish rule, and (1821) finally 
became an independent republic consisting of a number of states 
The joined in a federation something like that of the United 

republic of States. The Spanish provinces* of Coahuilaand Texas 
Mexico were united an( j formed one of the states of Mexico. 2 

In 1834 another revolution began in Mexico, and General Santa 
Anna, a famous Mexican soldier who called himself the "Na 
poleon of the West," placed himself at the head of the government 
as dictator. 

1 See page 247. 

2 In 1824 the Mexican Congress forbade the importation of slaves, and in 1829 
abolished slavery altogether. 



The people of Texas would not submit to the usurpation of 
Santa Anna, and declared that resistance to such tyranny was a 
duty. They raised an army to defend their rights, and The inde . 
issued a formal declaration of independence. To main- pendence 
tain their independence, the Texans formed a volun- Texas 
teer army, commanded by Sam Houston, which was reen forced by 
many good fighting men from the United States. 

The Mexicans attacked the town of San Antonio and for two 
weeks attempted to capture 
it, but without success, al 
though less than two hun 
dred Texans defended it. 
The defenders occupied an 
inclosure called the Alamo. 
Several thousand Mexican 
troops, led by Santa Anna, 
made a furious assault on 
the Alamo. In the third 
charge they mounted the 
walls and entered the in 
closure. The Texans fought 
until every one was slain. 
Another battle occurred near 
Goliad, in which about three 
hundred Texans were mas 
sacred after surrendering. 
Finally, the armies met at 
the San Jacinto River 
(April, 1835) in a decisive 
battle. The Mexican army 
was almost annihilated. 

The Republic of Texas. 1836-1845. After the battle of San 
Jacinto little effort was made by Mexico to reconquer Texas. 
General Houston was chosen president of the republic, and the 
government was thoroughly organized. The constitution of Texas 
recognized slavery, and its code on that subject was borrowed from 
the slave codes of the Southern states. Texas was formally recog- 


nized by the United States and by European powers. Mexico, 
however, would never recognize it, but always maintained that it 
was merely a rebellious Mexican state, which would eventually be 
subdued. The people of Texas became desirous of annexation to 
the United States, but there was so much opposition to this pro 
posal in many parts of the North and the West that it failed, 
mainly because Texas had established slavery. 

The Annexation of Texas. 1845. In the latter part of Tyler s 
administration the matter of annexation was 
again urged, and with a successful result. 
At this time John C. Calhoun, the leader of 
the proslavery party, was the secretary 
of state. Calhoun was earnestly in favor 
of annexation, for Texas was a slave- 
holding republic, and he believed that 
several slave states might be formed out of 
it. If this could be brought about, it would 
greatly increase the power of the South in 
THE LONE STAB " FLAG national affairs. 

OF THE REPUBLIC OF Calhoun frankly stated that his chief 
object in annexation was to advance the 

interests of slavery and to extend its influence. He believed, 
Ar uments moreover, that if Texas were not taken into the 
forannexa- American Union, it would speedily form an alliance 
tlon with Great Britain, and such an alliance would be 

a detriment to the United States. So President Tyler secretly 
negotiated a treaty of annexation with the authorities of Texas, 
and (April, 1844) presented it to the Senate for ratification. 

The Senate discussed the annexation treaty for some time, but 
finally rejected it. It was very generally favored by the South- 
Arguments ern senators, but the senators from the free states, 
against Whigs and Democrats alike, opposed it. Some thought 
annexation ^ would bring on a war with Mexico; others were 
opposed to the extension of slavery. Many objected to the treaty 
because the question of annexation had sot been submitted to 
the ordeal of public opinion, and it was deemed unwise to ratify 
the treaty before the popular sentiment had been ascertained. 


It was freely declared, moreover, that the President had exceeded 
his authority in making the treaty of annexation. 

The presidential election of 1844 turned largely upon the annexa 
tion of Texas. The Democratic party demanded annexation, and 
the success of their candidate for President, James K. 
Polk, was taken as an expression of public opinion in 
favor of annexation. Therefore, when the Congress 
met, resolutions for the admission of Texas as a state of the 
Union under certain conditions were passed. President Tyler 
signed them the same day only three days before the expiration 
of his term of office. 

Texas admitted to the Union. 1845. The Congress of Texas 
promptly assented to all conditions imposed by the United States. 
A people s convention adopted 
a state constitution (July 4, <^/L<--*~^ oc^. 

1845) and took the steps neces- -"^ ^g^r- 

sary to become a member of THE AuTOGRAPH OF PoLK . 

the American Union. Texas, 

the twenty-eighth state, was admitted to the United States 
(1845), after having been an independent republic for nine years. 
It then had a population of more than two hundred thousand. 1 
It was the last slave state admitted to the Union. 

Mexico declares War. 1846. Soon after Texas had been ad 
mitted to the Union, the Mexican minister at Washington notified 
President Polk that Mexico considered the annexation a most 
unjust act and a cause for war. He then demanded his passports 
and left the country. A few weeks afterward -the American min 
ister to Mexico, finding that he could not transact business with 
the Mexican government, returned to the United States. 

1 In the resolutions for admission it was provided that the state of Texas was 
to be formed subject to the adjustment by the United Spates of all questions of 
boundary that might arise with other governments. It was also provided that 
new states, " not exceeding four in number," might be formed out of the original 
state, with its consent, and thereafter admitted to the Union. The states so ad 
mitted, lying south of the so-called Missouri Compromise line, 36 30 , were to have 
slavery or not as their people might decide ; and in those states lying north of the 
line slavery was to be forever prohibited. In entering the Union, Texas ceded to 
the general government a narrow strip of land in the " pan handle," north of the 
parallel of 36 30 . This subsequently became a part of Oklahoma. 


As an invasion of Texas was threatened by Mexico, ships of 
war and an army, in command of General Zachary Taylor, were 
sent to the Gulf of Mexico. General Taylor estab- 
lished his troops at Corpus Christi, on the Nueces 
River. From the Nueces River to the Rio Grande, a 
distance of more than a hundred miles, the territory was in dis 
pute. Both Texas and Mexico claimed it. President Polk en 
deavored to negotiate with the Mexican government for a peaceful 
settlement of the trouble, but an envoy sent to the City of Mexico 
could accomplish nothing. 

Mexican troops began to gather near the Rio Grande ; therefore 
the secretary of war ordered General Taylor to take a position 
on the Rio Grande, opposite Matamoros in Mexico, 
hostilities ^ ie troops were met by Mexican officials, who pro 
tested against the occupation of what they called the 
" soil of Mexico." General Taylor paid no attention to the protest, 
and in a few days it was proclaimed by Mexico that, unless the 
Americans retired from the Rio Grande within a specified time, 
the occupation would be considered an act of war. The Americans 
did not retire, and hostilities were begun (April, 1846). Shortly 
afterward battles were fought at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, 
in which the Mexican army was defeated. General Taylor 
crossed the Rio Grande and captured Matamoros. 

The Wilmot Proviso. 1846. Realizing that the United States 
would probably acquire territory from Mexico, Representative 
David Wilmot of Pennsylvania introduced in the Congress a 
measure forbidding slavery in any territory that might be 
gained from Mexico, inasmuch as Mexico (1829) had already 
abolished slavery. The discussion of the Wilmot Proviso, as it 
was called, reopened the whole question of slavery. The measure 
passed the House "but failed in the Senate. The real effect of 
the bill was not expected either by its author or by its opponents. 
It started a current of thought in the North that resulted in the 
formation of the Free-Soil party, which proposed that the 
territories should be open only to free persons. 

General Taylor invades Mexico. 1846-1847. For nearly two 
years the war with Mexico continued. After the American occu- 



pation of Matamoros, the Mexican army, ten thousand in number, 

fell back to Monterey, a strongly fortified city. General Taylor 

laid siege to the city. The troops soon carried the outer works, 

and then, step by 

step, fought their 

way into the city 

and compelled its 

surrender. By the 

close of 1846 the 

Americans held good 

positions in the 

enemy s country. 

In the following 
year General Taylor 
encountered a Mexi 
can army of twenty 
thousand, c o m- 
manded by General 
Santa Anna, in the 
mountain pass of 
Buena Vista. As the Mexicans greatly outnumbered the Ameri 
cans, Santa Anna sent word to Taylor that he had better surrender 
without fighting. For an answer Taylor began battle immediately. 
All day long until past nightfall the armies contended. At mid 
night Santa Anna withdrew his troops. 

The Occupation of New Mexico and California. 1846. A body 
of troops, the Army of the West, was organized and placed in 
charge of General Stephen Kearney. It was composed chiefly of 
volunteers from the Western states, and had been formed for the 
purpose of taking New Mexico and California, which were at that 
time a part of Mexico. Kearney advanced with his army from 
Fort Leavenworth (Kansas), and after a toilsome march of a 
thousand miles arrived at Santa Fe, the capital of New Mexico, 
in August. The Mexican troops abandoned the city when the 
Americans approached, and Santa Fe was taken without the 
firing of a gun. Kearney left troops to hold the territory, and 
then started for California with six hundred men. 





But California was already safe. When the American settlers 
there learned that war had been declared, they began to organize, 
fearing they might be attacked. A quick, 
concerted movement was made, and the 
Americans declared California an inde 
pendent republic. At Monterey, they 
hoisted a flag on which had been stained 
a picture of a grizzly bear ; and the bear is 
an emblem of California to this day. Cap 
tain John C. Fremont and Commodore 
Stockton were both in California at the time, 
and they supported the Americans. When General Kearney 
reached California, the work cut out for him had been done. 

Scott captures Vera Cruz and occupies the City of Mexico. 1847. 
General Winfield Scott began an invasion of Mexico in March, 
1847. He landed near Vera Cruz with an army of about twelve 
thousand men and invested the city, which was fortified so 
strongly that the Mexicans believed it impregnable. The Ameri- 

can commander demanded the 

surrender of the city, and when 
the demand was refused began a 
furious bombardment. In a few 
days (April 29, 1847) the city 

General Scott marched toward 
the Mexican capital. At Cerro 
Gordo, Santa Anna with a large 
army gave battle, but was routed. 
Jalapa and Perote were captured, 
and shortly afterward La Puebla 
surrendered without resistance. 
The army, eleven thousand strong, 
made an assault on Contreras 
/ and soon occupied it. Then San 

Antonio and the heights of Cherubusco were carried after desperate 
fighting. Molino del Eey and the castle of Chapultepec were also 
captured. Then the Mexican army abandoned the City of Mexico, 



and (September 14, 1847) General Scott and his men marched into 
the city. 

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. 1848. The capture of the 
Mexican capital practically ended the war. On February 2, 1848, 
a treaty of peace was signed at the Mexican town of Guadalupe 
Hidalgo. It was agreed that the Rio Grande and the Gila River 
should be the boundary between the United States and Mexico. 

For the land relinquished by Mexico, 1 the United States agreed 
to pay $15,000,000, besides assuming debts of $3,500,000 due from 
Mexico to American citizens. On the 4th of July, 1848, peace was 
proclaimed by President Polk. The military achievements of the 
Mexican War reflect credit upon American soldiers ; but the 
diplomacy that forced the war upon Mexico was not commendable. 
Fremont explores the American f Desert and reaches California. 
Long before the Mexican War, Lewis and Clark had explored the 

region about the headwaters of the 
Missouri and the Columbia, 2 and 
Captain Bonneville had reached the 
headwaters of the Colorado. Public 
interest centered about the south 
western country, and John C. Fre 
mont, then a lieutenant of the regular 
army, was ordered in 1842 to find 
an available route of travel through 

Fremont set out from Kansas City 
(1842), crossed the level plateau 
still known as the Plains, and made 
his way through the gap in the Rock- 
ies now called South Pass. He 
thence proceeded to the Great Ameri 
can Desert, which he found to be far 

less formidable than had been supposed. He returned within a 
year and was ordered to undertake further explorations. 

1 The area acquired from Mexico comprises the present states of California, 
Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, and portions of New Mexico, Colorado, and 
Wyoming. See map following page 270. 2 See page 210. 


On his second trip- Fremont crossed to Great Salt Lake, turned 
northward to the present site of Walla Walla, Oregon, descended 
the Columbia River to the Dalles and Fort Vancouver, and then 
threaded his way through the Willamette Valley southward to 
Sacramento, California. He visited Slitter s sawmill in Coloma, 
where afterward James W. Marshall found gold. By this time the 
relations between the United States and Mexico had become much 
strained. Fremont remained in California until the declaration 
of war gave him the opportunity to win California for the United 
States. He was well named the " Pathfinder." 

Taylor elected President. 1848. In the presidential election 
of 1848, the Free-Soil party, an organization composed largely 
of anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, made itself felt. The 
formation of the new party came about because the annexation 
of Texas threatened in time to add several slave states to the 
Union. This would break the equality between the slave and 
free states, which had thus far been preserved in the Senate. 
In the House of Representatives, where representation is in pro 
portion to the population of the various states, the equality had 
long since been lost, because the free states had grown in popula 
tion more rapidly than the slave states. The Free-Soil candidate 
was ex-President Van Buren ; the Democratic candidate was Lewis 
Cass of Michigan. In the cam 
paign a great deal of enthusiasm 

was shown for General Zachary // 

m i i xv TTTi- j i t. THE AUTOGRAPH OF TAYLOR. 

Taylor, 1 the Whig candidate. On 

account of his services in the Mexican War he was a favorite, 
and was elected. This brought the Whigs again into power. 

The Nicaragua Ship Canal and the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. 1849. 
In April, 1849, an agreement known as the Clayton-Bulwer treaty 2 

1 ZACHARY TAYLOR (1784-1850) was born in Orange County, Virginia. Enter 
ing the army as first lieutenant in 1808, he began his long and triumphant career 
as a soldier. He fought in the War of 1812, was assigned to the chief command of 
Florida (1838), and later of the Southwest, and fought in the Mexican War. His 
soldiers called him "Old Rough and Ready," and it was by this name that he 
was hailed enthusiastically by all his countrymen. In 1849 he became the twelfth 

2 The treaty was several times withdrawn for amendment, and it was subse- 



was negotiated in Washington by John M. Clayton, secretary of 
state, and Sir Henry Bulwer, British minister to the United 
States. The treaty related to a proposed ship canal across 
Nicaragua, in Central America, which should connect the Atlantic 
and the Pacific oceans. Neither party to the treaty was to 
obtain exclusive control of the canal, erect fortifications com 
manding the same, or exercise dominion in Central America. 
The project was dropped, however, for the time being. After 
the Spanish- American War in 1898, it became evident that the 
United States ought to undertake the construction of an inter- 
oceanic canal. 

Gold in California. 1848. The discovery of gold at Coloma, 
in the foothills of the Sierras, by James W. Marshall, caused 

throngs of people 
to emigrate to that 

region - 1 1)uring the 

first year of the 
gold discovery mil 
lions of dollars of 
the precious metal 
were obtained, and 
year by year, to the 
present time, there 
has been a large 
production. In one 
year (1852) the gold 
product was valued 
at $81, 000,000. The 
rush of gold seekers 
increased the population, not only of California, but of other 
Pacific coast territory as well. In 1848 San Francisco was a 
settlement of about four hundred people ; in 1850 it had thirty 


quently learned that the treaty which the Senate ratified was not the form agreed 
upon by the commissioners. 

1 Gold had been obtained in southern California in 1839. Marshall s discovery 
at Sutter s mill, however, was the event that led to the emigration to California. 
Marshall was afterward pensioned by the state. He died in 1893. 


thousand, and in the whole Pacific region there was a population 
of nearly two hundred thousand. 

The Death of President Taylor. 1849. On July 29, 1849, 
President Taylor died suddenly 
in the Executive Mansion at 
Washington. He had been Pres- 
ident only one year and four THE AUTOGRAPH OF FILLMORE. 

months. Vice-President Fillmore 1 immediately assumed the 
office of chief executive. 

The Slavery Question Again. The doctrine of popular sover 
eignty was brought forward in 1850 by Lewis Cass, in a speech 
in the Senate. The doctrine, in effect, was that the 

Congress should have nothing further to do with p P ular 

slavery in the territories, but should leave the people 

of each territory to decide whether or not they should have 
slaves. The adoption of such a plan, of course, would nullify 
the Missouri Compromise. 

When the Congress attempted to organize New Mexico as a 
territory, the antislavery members had demanded that the Wil- 
mot Proviso prohibiting slavery should be added to the act, while 
the advocates of slavery extension had strenuously insisted that 
the territory should be allowed to have popular sovereignty. 

Among the matters which produced political excitement was 
the application of California, then under a government organized 
by the settlers themselves, for authority to become The 
a state, in 1850. The Northern states favored the balance in 
application, but in the South there was a determined the Senate 
opposition to it, because California, having adopted a constitution 
forbidding slavery, would become a free state. Following the 
admission of Texas, two free states had come into the Union, 
Iowa in 1846 and Wisconsin in 1848. There were then thirty 
states in the Union, fifteen free states and fifteen slave states, 

1 MILLARD FILLMORE (1800-1874) was a native of Cayuga County, New York. 
He began his practice of the law in Aurora, New York. He was chosen member 
of the Congress, comptroller of the state of New York, and in 1848 was elected Vice- 
President. On the death of President Taylor he became the thirteenth President. 
He made Daniel Webster his secretary of state. 


and therefore the North and the South were equally repre 
sented in the Senate. This equilibrium had been maintained for 
many years, and it was argued that no other free state should be 
admitted until there was a chance to admit a slave state also. 

Another matter which was discussed in a passionate manner 
was a demand from the North that slavery should be abolished 
Slavery in in ^ ne District of Columbia, the seat of the national 
the District government. It was argued that, although the Con- 
of Columbia gregs m i ght not h ave t h e constitutional right to inter 
fere with slavery in a state, it certainly had the right to abolish 
it in the district over which it had sole control. The abolition 
ists were constantly gaining in power. They wanted slavery 
prohibited in all territories and in the states as well, if that were 
possible. They were trying to create sentiment against slavery 
throughout the country and sent their pamphlets broadcast over 
both South and North. 

Still another matter of controversy was the proposal to enact 
a more stringent fugitive-slave law. The slaveholders 

had found that the law f 179 3 l gave them V6r y little 
protection, and they were demanding a new law. 

Many slaves escaped from the South to the free states, and it 
was hard to get them back again. 

The Omnibus Bill. 1850. In the congressional debates upon 
the questions touching slavery there was much angry feeling, and 
threats of secession from the Union were frequently made by the 
Southern congressmen. To aid in quieting the threatening storm, 
Henry Clay, who had retired from public life, returned to the 
Senate and devoted himself to the restoration of harmony. He 
advocated concessions arid patience, and finally introduced a 
measure which he believed would harmonize the serious differ 
ences between the two sections. 

The Clay compromise consisted of a series of bills for various 

things, which were jointly known as the Omnibus 
C romfse m " Bil1 The com P romise was strongly opposed at first, 

and it took many weeks of debate and skillful manage 
ment before an agreement was reached. Finally it was found neces- 

i See page 198. 




sary to act upon each of the bills separately ; but by the last of 
September, 1850, the whole measure was passed by the Congress. 
It has been called the Clay Compromise of 1850. It was accept 
able to a large majority of the people, who believed that it would 
prevent disunion. The measure provided 

The admission of California to the Union as a free state. 

The organization of the remainder of the Mexican cession into the 

territories of Utah and New Mexico, without restriction as 

to slavery. 

The abolition of trade in slaves, but not of slavery, in the District 

of Columbia. 
The payment of $10,000,000 to Texas for territory ceded to the 

Federal government. 1 
A more stringent fugitive-slave law. 

The Fugitive-Slave Law. 1850. The Fugitive-Slave Law (1850) 
gave to slaveholders the right to pursue fugitive slaves into the 
free states, just as the law of 1793 had done ; but in addition it 
imposed a fine upon a marshal or other officer who refused to 
comply with the law, and also made him liable for the value of 
the slaves escaping from his custody. To obstruct the arrest of a 
slave or to attempt to rescue him from an officer was punishable 
by fine and imprisonment. These and other stringent provisions 
of the law made it very obnoxious to the Northern people. They 
fiercely denounced it, and did all they could to evade it. In 
some states laws called personal liberty bills were passed in 
order to give freedom to fugitive slaves. 2 

The Lopez Expedition. 1849-1851. In 1851 General Lopez, a 
Cuban, organized in the United States an expedition to aid the 
Cubans in a revolt against Spain. A few days after landing 
in Cuba the four hundred and fifty members of the expedition, 
who were mostly Americans, were attacked by a body of Spanish 
troops, and a bloody and disastrous conflict ensued. Lopez and 
about fifty of his followers succeeded in escaping to the coast, 

1 Texas had claimed as her own territory all that part of New Mexico lying 
east of the Rio Grande. 

2 These personal liherty bills were regarded hy the South as a violation of the 
Constitution, Article IV, Section 2. 


where they obtained boats and escaped to sea. They were inter 
cepted, however, by a Spanish warship, taken to Havana, tried 
by a military court, and speedily executed. 

There was a feeling in Europe that the United States had 
meditated the annexation of Cuba at an early day. This feeling 
The proposed was undoubtedly caused by the Lopez expedition, 
annexation which had been aided by Southern political leaders, 
and by the apparent desire in the Southern states for 
the possession of Cuba. England and France therefore proposed 
a " Tripartite treaty " with the United States, in which the three 
contracting parties should pledge themselves by the treaty to make 
no attempt to acquire Cuba. President Fillmore declined to join 
with England and France in any such treaty, but assured those 
powers that the American government " entertained no designs 
against Cuba, but, on the contrary, should regard its incorporation 
into the Union as fraught with peril." 

Pierce elected President. 1852. In the campaign preceding 
the election of 1852, both the Whigs and the Democrats tried to 
ignore the slavery question in the interests of peace. The ques 
tion could not be dropped, however, and many voters united with 
the Free Soil party, whose candidate was John P. Hale of New 

Hampshire. The Whigs nomi- 
nated General Winfield Scott. 

The Free Soil P art J drew so 

THE AUTOGRAPH OF PIERCE. mai ^ votes from the Whigs that 

Franklin Pierce, 1 the Democratic 

candidate, was elected. He carried every state except Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Massachusetts, and Vermont. 

The Know Nothings. 1852. A secret political party, named the 
Native American party, but commonly called the Know Noth 
ings, came into being in 1852. The purpose of the new party 

i FRANKLIN PIERCE (1804-1869) was born at Hillsborough, New Hampshire. 
He was a graduate of Bowdoin College. He studied at the law school in North 
ampton, Massachusetts, and in 1827 was admitted to the bar. His political in 
stincts soon declared themselves ; he was first elected member of the Congress from 
New Hampshire and then United States senator. Later he played a conspicuous 
part as a general in the Mexican War. In 1853 he became the fourteenth Presi 


was to exclude foreign-born persons and Roman Catholics from 
the city, state, and national offices, to keep the Bible in public 
schools, and to prevent foreigners who had not resided long 
enough in the United States from becoming citizens. 1 For a year 
the party had a considerable following, but it very soon fell into 

The Gadsden Purchase. 1853. In the first year of President 
Pierce s administration, there was trouble with Mexico in refer 
ence to the Mesilla Valley, south of the Gila River, which the 
United States had claimed as a part of country purchased in 
1848. Mexico had resisted the claim, and sent troops to occupy 
the valley. After lengthy negotiations, General James Gadsden, 
the American minister to Mexico, succeeded in purchasing the 
disputed region for $10,000,000. This region comprises the 
southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico. 

The Kansas-Nebraska Bill. 1854. In. 1854 a bill was offered 
in the Senate by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, a conservative 
Democrat, for the organization of two territories from the area 
now included in Kansas and Nebraska. No one objected to the 
organization of the territories ; but excitement was caused by a 
clause in the bill which practically repealed the Missouri Com 
promise, by submitting the question of slavery to the people of 
those territories which were north of the compromise line. 2 

The intent of the bill, it was claimed, was not to establish 
slavery by law in any territory, nor to exclude it therefrom, but 
to leave the people free to regulate their affairs in their own way. 
This was in accord with the idea of popular sovereignty. 

The bill was debated for several months, with a great deal of 
earnestness. There was bitter feeling among the antislavery 
element of the North, and Douglas was severely criticised for 
advocating a measure which meant the repeal of the compromise 
line. Many of the Northern Democrats and Whigs who had 
never expressed antislavery opinions were also opposed to the 

1 All members of the party took an oath to vote for no candidate for office 
who was not a native American and a Protestant. The name " Know Nothing" 
had been given to it because its members usually said, when asked about the 
organization, " I know nothing." 

2 See page 251. 


measure. But despite all opposition, the bill passed both houses 
of the Congress by large majorities, and was signed by President 
Pierce (May 30, 1854). The passage of the bill and the annul 
ment of the Missouri Compromise caused great rejoicing among 
the people of the Southern states ; for in the new territories of 
Kansas and Nebraska they saw the opportunity for the growth 
of the slave power. 

The Struggle in Kansas. 1854-1861. The attempt to carry 
slavery into Kansas was the beginning of a fierce and bloody 
struggle. Emigrants from Missouri poured into Kansas, and 
staked out land claims. At the same time an emigrant aid 
society, formed in the North, also sent thither many men. Few 
of either party, however, were genuine settlers. Both sides made 
pretense to keep within the law, but neither party hesitated 
to use violence, whether lawful or not. For the five years pre 
ceding 1859, this sort of work went on ; and such wretched work 
was done there that the territory, received the name of Bleeding 
Kansas. The proslavery men were in possession of that part 
of the territory along the Missouri River ; the Free Soilers were in 
the valley of the Kaw, or Kansas River. 

When the election for a legislature was held (1855) ; a small 
army of men crossed from Missouri, voted, and returned home ; 
as a result, nearly every member of the legislature was 
elections 1 a P ros l avei T man. The legislature met and adopted 
slave laws. The Free Soilers, however, repudiated 
these proceedings, called a meeting at Topeka, and adopted a 
free-soil constitution. This was submitted to a popular vote and 
was adopted. The proslavery party considered the second election 
illegal and refused to vote. Thus there were two rival govern 
ments, and a reign of bloodshed continued until the beginning of 
the Civil War. Which of the two was the lawful election was a 
question that was not decided. 1 

The Republican Party. After the election of 1852 the 
Whig party had dissolved, and a new political organization 

1 It was during this period that John Brown came first into notice. During 
the struggle, Brown and his men were responsible for not a little bloodshed. 
Their motive was an intense hatred of slavery. See page 291. 


grew out of the public feeling caused by the passage of the 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the repeal of the Missouri . Com 
promise. It was named the Republican party, and included 
those members of the other parties who were antislavery in 
sentiment. Many Whigs united" themselves with the Republi 
cans ; the Free Soil party was dissolved, and most of its members 
became a part of the new organization ; and the abolitionists con 
tributed a small but vigorous element to the new party. The 
Republicans opposed the extension of slavery ; they favored a 
protective tariff and a loose construction of the Constitution. 

Buchanan elected President. 1856. The new Republican party 
held its first national convention at Philadelphia in June, 1856, 
and nominated John C. Fremont of California for President. The 
platform denied that the Congress had authority to give legal 
existence to slavery in any territory of the United States. 
The Democratic candidates in the presidential election of 1856 
were James Buchanan of Penn 
sylvania for President, and 

John C. Breckinridge of Ken- 


tucky for Vice-President. The 

election was earnestly contested, and aroused great popular en 
thusiasm. Buchanan 1 and Breckinridge were elected. 

The Dred Scott Decision. 1857. A decision of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, on March 6, 1857, in reference to 
the case of Dred Scott, a negro slave of Missouri, added to the 
sectional bitterness then prevailing. 

Scott had been taken by his master to Illinois, and later to 
the Northwest. Upon his return to Missouri, he began suit in 
a state court for his freedom, claiming that his temporary resi 
dence on free soil had made him a free man. The case finally 
reached the Supreme Court of the United States. The decision 
of this court, as declared by Chief Justice Taney, was that Scott, 

1 JAMES BUCHANAN (1791-1868) was born at Stony Batter, Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania. He served as member of the Congress, minister to Russia and to 
England, United States senator, and secretary of state. In 18f>7 he was elected the 
fifteenth President. His administration, falling as it did on the eve of the Civil 
War and vacillating in its dealings with the seceders, was severely criticised. He 
published a defense of his administration. 


being a negro, was not a citizen of the United States, and there 
fore could not bring suit for any purpose in a Federal court. It 
was declared that 

Negroes, whether free or slaves, could not become citizens of the 
United States. 

The Missouri Compromise and all other acts passed by the Con 
gress prohibiting slavery in any of the territory of the United 
States were unconstitutional, and therefore null and void. 

The question of Scott s freedom was a matter for the Missouri 
courts to decide. 

The Dred Scott decision was very gratifying to the Southerners, 
who regarded it as settling the contention about slavery in the 
territories. It greatly incensed the antislavery people of the 
North, who believed that the decision was unjust and were un 
willing to abide by it. 

The Lincoln and Douglas Debates. 1858. The questions con 
nected with the slavery issues were discussed in seven joint de 
bates between the two candidates for the senatorship in Illinois, 
Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. Douglas defended 
popular sovereignty, asserting that the settlers in a territory had 
the right to allow or prohibit slavery in that territory. Lincoln 
argued that, regardless of the Dred Scott decision, the Congress 
had the right to legislate concerning slavery in a territory, although 
it could not interfere with slavery in a state. Douglas was elected 
senator, but Lincoln won the prominence that made him the leader 
of the Republican party. 

The Bitterness of Slavery Agitation. Throughout the adminis 
tration of President Buchanan .the slavery question kept the 
country continually in a state of turmoil. There were many 
passionate controversies in the Congress and in the state con 
ventions. The abolitionists strenuously urged that slavery be 
abolished. Between the North and the South there had de 
veloped a sectional bitterness which plainly indicated the prob 
ability of disunion. The Southern people discussed secession 
openly and in strong language. They claimed that any state 
had the right to withdraw from the Union whenever it pleased. 
Unless the North should cease to interfere with slavery, it was 



declared that the South would secede and set up an independent 

John Brown s Raid. 1859. The political excitement was 
immensely increased by a raid made into Virginia by John 
Brown, an abolitionist. Brown was a resident of New York, 
who had been for some time in Kansas aiding the free-soil 
people in their efforts to make an antislavery state. In the 
fall of 1859, with a 
force of only twenty- 
two men, he entered 
the village of Har 
pers Ferry (West 
Virginia), seized the 



United States Ar 
senal, and endeavored 
to incite the slaves in 
that region to take 
arms and begin an 


The slaves would not join Brown s party, and the audacious 
affair ended in the capture of the raiders. Brown was tried, 
convicted, and hanged for treason by the Virginia authorities. 
Brown s raid set the whole country aflame with discord. It led 
the South to believe that in the North there had been a general 
plan to create a slave insurrection, and that the only safety 
was in secession and independence. 

Lincoln elected President. 1860. For the presidential election 
of 18GO, the Republican party nominated Abraham Lincoln 1 of 

i ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1801M865) was a native of Hardin County, Kentucky. 
His parents were plain, unlearned, hardworking people, and his early home 
was a log cabin. He received only one year s regular schooling. Beyond this, 
his teachers were the Bible, Jisop s Fables, " Pilgrim s Progress," and whatever 
other books he could obtain. He early left his father s home, and found employ 
ment as farm laborer, salesman, merchant, and surveyor. In 1837 he began the 
practice of law at Springfield, Illinois. He was elected from Illinois as a rep 
resentative to the Congress. Later, as candidate for United States senator, he 
attracted the attention of the country by his vigorous stand against the institu 
tion of slavery; and in 1860 he was elected the sixteenth President. Thenceforth 
the history of his life is one with that of the Civil War. He had entered upon 


Illinois. The Democrats had two presidential tickets as the 
result of a disagreement in the nominating convention. The 
delegates from the North, believing in popular sovereignty, 
nominated Stephen A. Douglas, while the Southern Democrats 
chose John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky to champion their views 
on the slavery question. 1 The Constitutional Union party (before 
known as the National American party) nominated John Bell of 
Tennessee. After an exciting campaign the election resulted in a 
victory for the Republicans. They carried every Northern state 
except New Jersey. President Lincoln and Vice-President Ham- 
lin were sworn into office, and the Republican party entered into 
control of the national government, which it retained for twenty- 
four years. 

The platform of the Republican party held that 

The decision of the Supreme Court concerning the Dred Scott 

case should be repudiated. 
Kansas should enter the Union as a free state, and that slavery 

should be excluded from all the territories. 
It was not the intention of the Republican party to interfere with 

slavery in the slave states. 

The platform of the Southern faction of the Democratic party 
was equally radical. It held that 

Neither the Congress nor the legislature of a territory had the 
power to abolish slavery in any territory. 

The government was bound to protect slavery wherever its author 
ity extended. 

Cuba should be acquired by the United States. 

Both platforms called for a railway to the Pacific coast of the 
United States. 

his second term as President, and the war was almost at an end, when, in 
Ford s Theater, Washington, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. He is 
universally honored as one of the foremost American leaders. 

1 These views had been presented in the Senate by Jefferson Davis of Mississippi 
in February, 1860. His resolutions declared that each state in the Federal Union 
had the full right to manage its own home affairs, that slavery was recognized 
and protected by the Federal Constitution, and that the Congress had no right 
to prohibit slavery in the territories. The resolutions were adopted (May 25, 



Conditions of Living in 1840. Before the year 1840 there were 
very few miles of steam railway in the United States ; neither 
was there a telegraph, a sewing machine, a reaper, a rubber, shoe, 
a good friction match, a postage stamp, a street car, a sleeping 
coach, nor a coal-oil lamp. For illuminating purposes gas was 
used in New York and several of the larger cities ; people living 
in the larger towns lighted their houses with whale oil or with 
"camphene " a mixture of alcohol and turpentine ; in the coun 
try tallow " dips " were generally employed, inasmuch as a good 
candle was unknown. There were crude stoves for burning coal, 
but most people burned wood in box stoves or in fireplaces. In 
1840 Burke and Adams opened an express service between New 
York and Boston by way of Springfield, Massachusetts ; at first 
two " carpet bags " were sufficient for the business. In the cities 
there were a few paved streets and sidewalks, but there were 
scarcely a dozen miles of well-paved country road in the whole 
United States. 

Labor. The day laborer, who may now live almost as comfort 
ably as did a king two hundred years ago, had a rather hard time 
before 1850. A day s work was from " sun to sun " ; that is, from 
sunrise to sunset. A dollar a day was considered very fair wages 
for skilled labor; ten dollars a month with board and lodging 
was a very common price for farm labor. It was not until 1830 
that a ten-hour working day was adopted. It was adopted first 
in Baltimore ; afterward ten hours was ordered by President Van 
Buren (1840) to be a day s work in the various government estab 
lishments. The introduction of machinery in the various fields 
of labor tended at first to throw workmen out of employment ; 
this, however, was followed by a readjustment that not only enor 
mously increased old fields of labor, but created new ones. 

The Electric Telegraph. In 1836 Samuel F. B. Morse con 
structed a working model of a magneto-electric telegraph machine. 
During the following ten years, he and his associate, Alfred Vail, 
improved the instrument, finally producing an instrument that is 
substantially the same in principle as that used to-day. The first 



The ocean 

f -_ 

operator was William *B. Lascell. 

The first working line was opened 

between Baltimore and Washing 

ton in 1844 ; in the following 

year a line was opened between 

Jersey City and Philadelphia, the 

messages being carried across the 

river to New York. The Western 

Union Telegraph Company was 

organized in 1856. 

In 1854 Cyrus W. Field of New 

York City began to direct the 
work of laying a tele- 
graph cable under the 
Atlantic Ocean from 

Newfoundland to Ireland. The cable was laid in 1857 ; one or 

two messages were sent, and then the line ceased to work. 

Another cable was laid in the 
following year, but it failed to 
transmit messages after about a 
month of use. In 1866 cable 
laying was made successful, and 
at the close of the century two 
companies were operating about 
twenty cable wires between the 
United States arid Europe. 

Ocean Steamship Navigation. 
We have seen that the first steam 
ship to cross the ocean, the Savan 
nah in 1819, did not prove a 
successful undertaking. Eighteen 
years afterward (1837) the Sirius 
and the Great Western, English 
steamships using coal for fuel, 
made successful trips between 

Liverpool and New York. The Cunard Line was put into opera 

tion in 1839. At first it was assisted by money from the English 



government in order to meet the increased expense of operating 
its vessels by steam. The Collins Line, the first successful 
American enterprise, was founded in 1850, and between these two 
lines the rivalry became so strong that great improvements in 
steamship building resulted. The time between New York and 
Liverpool was reduced from three weeks to less than two. The 
substitution of the propeller for the paddle wheel was a great 
improvement ; the use of steel instead of iron in the boilers was a 
still greater improvement. As a result of the many changes in 
steamship construction, the Atlantic Ocean, which a century ago 
was six weeks wide, is now less than six days wide. 

Food Production and its Readjustments. At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century most of the food-stuffs used in the region east 
of the Appalachian Mountains were grown in that wheat 
region and such was the condition of affairs until growing in 
about 1840. Even in the gravelly uplands of the New the East 
England plateau not a little wheat was grown on the small farms. 
The wheat was cut usually by a " cradle," bound by hand, and 
threshed out by means 
of a flail. Except in 
Pennsylvania and 
some of the Appa 
lachian valleys, the 
crop was light, rarely 
exceeding twenty 
bushels per acre. Much 
of the flour was then 
made at Wilmington, 
Delaware, and Balti 
more, and the price 
per barrel varied from 
$10 to $12. 

The completion of 
the Erie Canal 1 opened 

the Eastern markets to the prairies of the Mississippi Valley. It 
was immediately apparent that wheat could be grown far more 

I See page 241. 




he c or- 
mick reaper 

successfully in the prairie lands than on the small farms of the 
East. On the prairie farms, however, harvesting the large crops 
with the " cradle " was out of the question. It was 

^ o ^ un ^j_ 1841 that McCormick was able to persuade a 

Cincinnati firm to make the reaper that he had in 

vented some years before. Once in use, however, the reaper 
quickly demonstrated its value, and to-day nearly a quarter cf 
a million harvesting machines are sold yearly. 

One result of the invention of the reaper was to increase notably 
the emigration to the wheat-growing regions of the West. Another 
The Western resu ^ was the transfer of the flour-making industry, 
wheat first to Rochester, New York, and then to cities farther 

industry west. A still more important matter was the building 
of many thousand miles of railway within the region of possible 
wheat growth. The most notable result of all, however, was 


&^- v ; ""- / ^plffl 

vm \,r ^sprj nll| ^fo^-yFl 
S|a V ; Jif ^/l^f"tr^^L^ 

>lk ; / 111 IP p^r^-c 

Wheat area shown thus F -V! : . : . :| 


the change that came in the methods of planting and harvesting 
the grain crops. 

The low price at which the farmer could purchase land encour 
aged the idea of large instead of small farms ; moreover, the rich 


soil yielded crops far greater than had been produced in the East. 
These geographic conditions compelled the farmer to employ more 
speedy means of planting and harvesting, and so the combination 
reaper, binder, and threshing machine came into use. In time, 

This single machine cuts, threshes, winnows, and sacks wheat while in motion. 

these improved methods of growing grain compelled speedier 
methods of handling the grain between the farmer and the mills, 
and so the grain elevator resulted. The modern elevator, its belt 
armed with scoops revolved on a swinging leg, handles a carload 
of grain in a few minutes. 


Texas seceded from Mexico, and for about nine years was an indepen 
dent republic. In 1845 it was annexed by the United States. 

The Republic of Mexico declared war against the United States be 
cause of the annexation of Texas. 

An attempt of the Mexican army to invade Texas failed. General 
Taylor crossed the Rio Grande, and at Buena Vista defeated the Mexicans. 

General Kearney invaded and occupied New Mexico. American set 
tlers in California declared that country an independent republic. 

General Scott marched from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico and 
captured it. 

A treaty of peace was signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. 

The agitation of popular sovereignty brought about the passage of 
Clay s Omnibus Bill of 1850 and a more stringent fugitive-slave law. 


The Free Soil party was organized to prevent the extension of slavery. 
The dissolution of the Whig and Free Soil parties was followed by the 
organization of the Republican party. 

The provision for organizing Kansas and Nebraska as territories, per 
mitting the slavery question to be decided by the people themselves, led 
to a bloody struggle. 

The Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court of the United States 
declared that a negro had none of the legal rights of citizenship, and 
that the Missouri Compromise act was null and void. 

"Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, was elected President 
in 1860. He declared that it was not his intention to interfere with 
slavery where it legally existed. 

Important events were : in Folk s administration Fremont s explo 
ration of the West; in Taylor s and Fillrnore s administrations the 
Nicaragua Canal treaty, the discovery of gold in California, and the 
Lopez expedition against Cuba; in Pierce s administration the Gads- 
den purchase; in Buchanan s administration the John Brown raid and 
the beginning of secession. 


Popular History of the United States Scribner s. Vol. IV. 

The United States Andrews. Vol. II. 

Advanced Civics Forman. Chapter IX. 

Building the Nation Coffin. (For popular reading.) 

Uncle Tom s Cabin Stowe. (For popular reading.) 



| Union States 

I I 


Territory Contr 
by federal Go 


I I Border States | | Confederate.States 

255,0 190 200 300 400 500 


The Matthews-N( 



The Causes of Sectional Feeling. Sometimes one hears an ex 
pression of surprise that the people of the two great sections 
into which the United States had separated should have reached 
a crisis that could be settled only by a civil war. That such a 
condition of affairs ought never to have existed, most people will 
readily admit ; that it did come about, and that the struggle cost 
nearly a million of lives, are sorrowful facts. 

That much of the bitter feeling between the two sections grew 
out of the question of slavery cannot be denied. Unfortunately, 
neither side could look at the situation through the The south- 
eyes of the other. In the South, slavery had been a em view 
recognized institution for four generations; moreover, ofslaver y 
it was a recognized institution in other parts of the world, and 
the slaveholder could see nothing wrong about it. The slaves 
were well cared for, and rarely was one ill-treated; their 
masters were generally humane and, moreover, the slave repre 
sented too much value to be abused. The negro was far better 
off as a slave in the South than ever he had been in Africa. 

The Southern cotton planter therefore could not understand at 
all why there should be any objection to slave labor, or wjiy there 
should be any greater objection to carrying a slave into Massachu 
setts than to taking a span of horses there. Neither could he 
understand why it was more objectionable to recover a runaway 
slave from New York, than to get a stray cow under similar 
circumstances. Unfortunately, the cotton planter was shut off 
from the great lines of traffic through which the world exchanges 



its knowledge, and he did riot perceive that all over the world 
there was growing a hatred of human slavery. 

There was also a business side to the matter. Cotton growing 
was the great industry of the South, and cotton could not be 
grown without negro labor. Furthermore, the cotton planter 
firmly believed that the staple could not be successfully grown 
without slave labor, and to interfere with the latter was to crip 
ple, or perhaps to destroy, the greatest industry in the world at 
that time. Climate and topography had made the South the 
world s area of cotton supply. The planter was naturally in 
dignant that any one should attempt to interfere with an institu 
tion which the laws of the land had sanctioned for more than a 

The question of state rights also figured largely in the discus 
sions at this period. In the South it was generally held that a 
state had supreme rights that is, a state might do 
anything which the Constitution of the United States 
did not forbid. The latter did not forbid a state to withdraw 
from the Union, the Southern leaders held, therefore a state had 
a right to take such a step. 

Behind the question of slavery there was also the matter of 
the tariff. The manufacture of cotton textiles was carried on 
almost entirely in the North. The tariff, therefore, 
question ^ not ^ enent tne Southern people ; it compelled them 
to pay higher prices for everything they purchased, 
while they enjoyed none of the benefits resulting from the con 
sequent increase of manufactures in the United States. This was 
an additional source of aggravation. 

In the North, on the other hand, at least two generations were 
living who knew nothing about slavery except what they read 
in emotional fiction and in the newspapers that were 
sentiment opposed to such an institution. The town meeting of 
toward New England had had the effect of instilling a knowl 
edge of the rights of the individual, and the right 
of personal liberty had always been emphasized. Never having 
owned slaves, the generation then living could not understand 
why one person should be the property of another. Looked at in 


any possible light, the idea of slavery was to them atrocious; 
therefore many Northern people regarded it as an imperative 
duty to aid runaway slaves, and to do everything within their 
power to put an end to the institution of slavery. For more than 
a score of years prior to 1860, societies for the abolition of 
slavery had been established in various parts of the North, and 
"underground railways" 1 had helped to land runaway slaves in 
Canada. Moreover, Northern people believed that a tariff for 
the protection of their manufactures was just as essential to their 
prosperity as was slave labor to the cotton planters. 

Another cause that contributed to the sectional feeling was the 
absence of communication between the two sections. There were 
not many trunk lines of railway in the United States 
at that time, and most of these were in the North. Intercourse 
With practically the single exception of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, these lines extended east and west, because the 
great markets of commerce were either east or west of the 
Atlantic seaboard. There was not much intercourse, either social 
or commercial, between the North and the South. Each section 
knew only the unpleasant characteristics of the other. 

The Beginning of Secession. 1860. During the presidential 
campaign of 1860 there was a growing inclination on the part of 
the Southern people to leave the Union should the south 
Republican party be successful in the national elec- Carolina 
tion. After the election of Lincoln, the first step in secedes 
this direction was taken by South Carolina. A convention at 
Charleston repealed the act by which the state had adopted the 
Constitution of the United States and announced that the union 
between South Carolina and the United States was dissolved. 
On December 24 Governor Pickens issued a proclamation 
announcing South Carolina to be a separate and independent 

1 An " underground railway " consisted of a chain of men living at distances 
of ten or fifteen miles apart, extending from a slave state to Canada. A 
runaway slave was piloted by one member to the next, and so on, until he 
reached a place of safety. There were many of these " railways " in opera 
tion. They were in violation of the law, but public opinion in the North favored 





Passed unanimously at 1.15 o clock. P. W.. December 
gO/A, I860. 


To dittolre the Vnian bttu*en the State of South Carolina and 
other State* united vAth Her wider the compact entUted The 
Constitution of the United States of America. * 

We, iVs People of At Stale of Sburt CoroUna, in. CcnvenAon tumbled, Jo declare and ordaa, Mi 
it it Hereby declared and ordained, 

Tbtt ths Ordinance idopled by as in Convention, oo iba twenty-third At] of Hay, la (b* 
year of our Lord one Ihoueand aereo hundred tod eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of tin 
Unikd SUte* of America was ratified, And Iso, a Acts ud prta of AcU of the Oenenl 
Assembly of this Stale, ratifying amendments of (ha said Constitution, are hereby repealed ; 
od that the union DOW tubeutiag between South Carolina tad other SUM, unJer lie oam of 
"Tie United States of.Amenca," u hereby dissolrad. 



ir H! 




The Confederate States. The withdrawal of South Carolina 
from the Union was speedily followed by the secession of six 
other Southern states. During January, 1861, seces 
sion ordinances were passed by the states of Mis- 
sissippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana, 
and on February 1, by Texas. Delegates from the seven seceding 
states assembled at Montgomery, Alabama, on February 4, and or 
ganized a pro visional con 
gress. This assembly, 
in turn, adopted a pro 
visional constitution 
modeled after the Con 
stitution of the United 
States with some impor 
tant changes, such as the 
recognition of slavery 
and the prohibition of 
protective tariffs. The 
provisional government 
was styled the Confed 
erate States of America. 
Jefferson Davis of Mis 
sissippi was unanimously 
elected president, and 
Alexander H. Stephens 
of Georgiavice-president. 

The states of Virginia, 
Arkansas, North Caro 
lina, and Tennessee 
subsequently joined 
the Confederacy. In 
March, 1861, the eleven states, which had declared themselves 
free and independent of the Federal government, adopted a 
permanent constitution and made the provisional government 
permanent. Davis and Stephens were again elected as president 
and vice-president. The headquarters of the government were 
established at Richmond. 


Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, the " border 
The border states," did not leave the Union, although each had a 
states considerable population in favor of secession. 

In the mountainous parts of the South the sentiment against 
secession was strong. In these regions but little cotton was 
grown, and there were no vast plantations requiring a 
Virginia large force of slaves. So far as business was concerned, 
the people could see no advantage, but many dis 
advantages, in secession. For this reason the people in the 
western part of Virginia were strongly opposed to leaving the 
Union, and this part of Virginia was recognized by the Federal 
Congress as the state of Virginia (1862). 

No Coercion. No interference with the Confederates was offered 
by President Buchanan. In a message to the Congress (1860) he 
declared that the Southern states had no right to secede, but he 
could not find in the Constitution any power by which a state 
could be coerced into submission to the Federal government. 
He argued that the President could use force only to protect the 
public property and to defend the government from assault. 

Propositions for a Compromise. During the winter of 1860-1861, 
the Congress discussed several propositions for a compromise of 
The the national trouble. John J. Crittenden of Ken- 

Crittenden tucky offered an amendment to the Constitution, pro- 
Compromise viding that s ] av ery should be forever prohibited in 
all the country north of the parallel of 36 30 , and permitted 
in all the country south of it, to the west of Missouri. The 
Crittenden Compromise, as it was termed, was considerably dis 
cussed, but was finally rejected in bath houses of the Congress. 

An amendment to the Constitution was proposed by Stephen A. 
Douglas of Illinois, which, after a great deal of debate, was agreed 
The to. It provided that the Congress should have no 

Douglas power to abolish or to interfere with the domestic in- 
amendment stitutions of a gtate? i lic l u di n g that of slavery. The 
Douglas amendment was presented to the legislatures of the 
states for ratification, but was ratified by the legislatures of Mary 
land and Ohio only ; consequently it came to nothing. 

Early in January, 1861, the Virginia legislature invited all the 



states to send delegates to a conference to be held in Washington 
(February 4) for the purpose of arranging a peace 
able settlement of the national controversy. Fourteen conference 
free states and seven slave states were represented in 
the conference. But the conference did not approve the proposed 
amendments, and 
therefore it was of 
no avail. 

Preparations for 
Conflict. The se 
ceded states then 
began to seize the 
forts, arsenals, 
navy yards, custom 
houses, and other 
Federal property 
within their bor 
ders. Neverthe 
less, no resistance 
to these seizures 
was made by Pres 
ident Buchanan. 
More than two 
thousand guns had 
been transferred 
from the Northern 
arsenals to those 
the Southern 


states a few months 
before the Confed 
erate government 
was formed, and thus the North was partly disarmed. 

The regular troops of the United States, numbering about 
eighteen thousand men, were stationed mainly at far Western 
and Southern posts, and the ships of the small navy were nearly 
all in foreign seas. Many of the army and navy officers, who 
were born in the South, resigned and joined the forces of the 


Confederate States. In the South there was an immediate prepa 
ration for war ; in the North also it was recognized that a grave 
crisis was at hand. Such was the condition of affairs when the 
Republicans entered into power. 

The Inauguration of Lincoln. 1861. A great multitude repre 
senting many states saw President Lincoln take the oath of office 
at Washington on March 4, 1861, and assume the control of the 
government. In his inaugural address the President declared 
his intention to enforce the law and to do all he could to preserve 
the Union. He said that the people of the Southern states seemed 
to fear that under a Republican administration their peace and 
property were endangered. He declared that he had no inten 
tion of interfering with slavery in the states where it existed, and 
he believed that he had no lawful right to do so. He held, how 
ever, that the Union was perpetual, and therefore that no state 
could lawfully withdraw from it. 1 

The Confederate Commissioners. 1861. In March, two Confed 
erate commissioners sent a communication to the secretary of state, 
informing him that they desired to enter into negotiations with 
the Federal government "for the adjustment of all questions grow 
ing out of this separation." Secretary Seward felt that he could 
not recognize them as diplomatic agents or hold communication 
with them, and so the commissioners returned. This act closed 
the possibility of further negotiations looking for peace. 


Fort Sumter Bombarded. April 12, 1861. At the time when 
Lincoln became President, all the forts in Charleston Harbor, 

1 " lit your hands, my dissatisfied countrymen," he said, "and not in mine, 
are the momentous issues of civil war. The government will not assail you. 
You can have no conflict without yourselves being the aggressors. You have 
no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I have the most 
solemn one to preserve, protect, arid defend it. . . . We are not enemies, but 
friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must 
not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from 
every battlefield arid patriot grave to every living hearthstone all over this broad 
land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely they 
will be, by the better angels of our natures." 



except Fort Sumter, were occupied by the Confederates. Fort 
Sumter was held by Major Robert Anderson and seventy artillery 
men of the United States army. Supplies had been sent to Fort 
Sumter on the Star of the West, but the vessel had been fired upon 
by the Confederates ajid driven away. 

The Confederates demanded the surrender of the fort, and when 
that was refused, declared that the sending of supplies would be 
considered as a declaration of war. President Lincoln announced 
his intention of supplying the fort " at all hazards," and dis 
patched vessels from the Brooklyn navy yard to reen force and 
provision the beleaguered stronghold. 


About seven hundred Confederates, in command of General 
Beauregard, a distinguished soldier of the Mexican War, had 
assembled at Charleston and erected batteries on the shore. 
When the Confederate authorities learned that Fort Sumter 
was to be relieved, General Beauregard was ordered to bombard 
it and force its capitulation. He summoned Major Anderson to 
surrender, and when the latter refused (April 12, 1861), all the 
Confederate batteries and forts opened fire on Fort Sumter. For 
thirty-four hours there was a terrific bombardment. On the after 
noon of April 13th, the fort, which had been nearly consumed 
by fire, was compelled to surrender for want of ammunition. No 
lives were lost on either side. 

The Country Aroused. The bombardment of Fort Sumter 


aroused both the North and the South. A remarkable military 
spirit was displayed. The North sprang to arms without distinc 
tion of party to defend the Federal Union ; the South enthusi 
astically rallied to the support of the Confederacy. President 
Lincoln issued a call for seventy-five thousand volunteer troops 
to serve for three months, and called the Congress in special session. 

In response to the President s call, thousands of men came for 
ward to enroll. These were enlisted as rapidly as possible and 
hurried to the front. About forty thousand were 

^sifed ordered to the vicinity of Washington. While pass 
ing through Baltimore, the Sixth Massachusetts regi 
ment was assailed by a street mob and several soldiers were killed. 
This was the first bloodshed of the war. 1 

Military Organization. In May President Lincoln called for 
forty thousand more volunteers to serve for three years ; he also 
increased the regular arrny to forty thousand, and strengthened 
the navy by eighteen thousand additional men. By the end of 
June the enlistments had reached a total of more than one hun 
dred and eighty thousand men. The Confederate States also had 
raised and equipped a large army. 2 

Practically none of the rank and file of the troops on either 
side had seen active military service, nor had the officers, with 
exception of the few veterans of the Mexican War. The number 
of officers, therefore, who were competent to create the required 
military organization, was very small. Both armies were without 
experience. General Winfield Scott, a veteran of two wars, was 
in nominal command of the Federal forces. Scott was very old, 
however, and the active command was held by General Irwin 
McDowell. General P. G. T. Beauregard was in command of the 
Confederate forces in the East. 

1 As a strange coincidence, it occurred on the anniversary of the skirmish at 
Lexington (April 19) under circumstances that were somewhat similar. 

2 At the time of the Civil War both armies had the following organization : 
Ten companies, each nominally containing one hundred men, formed a regiment; 
three regiments formed a brigade ; three or more brigades made a division ; three 
or more divisions made an army corps, and several army corps constituted an 
army. Any large body of troops operating as a unit was styled an army. Thus, 
there was the Army of the Potomac, the Army of Tennessee, etc. 



The Scene of Operations. The line of military operations ex 
tended from Norfolk, on the Atlantic seaboard, nearly to the 
western boundary of Texas. In the East it lay along the Potomac 
and across Virginia ; the middle part extended through Kentucky ; 
in the West it stretched across the state of Missouri. The Con 
federate armies had the advantage of position, for they were 
fighting on their own ground. 

Operations in West Virginia. The first movement in the East 
was conducted by General George B. McClellan of the Federal 
army. By a series of clever maneuvers, 
McClellan drove Beauregard out of West 
Virginia. A Confederate force was sent 
into the valley of the Kanawha for the 
purpose of retaking it, but it was routed 
at Carnifex Ferry by General Rosecrans. 

The Battle of Bull Run. When Beau- 
regard left West Virginia, he took a 
position at Manassas Junction, a station 
of the Southern Railroad near a small 
creek called Bull Run. It was an excel 
lent position. At this point he was ^NERAL MCCLELLAN. 
within easy reach of supplies ; he could also make a rapid advance 
upon Washington, thirty miles away. 

In the meanwhile there grew a popular clamor demanding that 
an attack should be made on Richmond before the Confederate 
Congress assembled there. To this clamor General Scott unwisely 
yielded, and General McDowell started southward from Washing 
ton with thirty thousand troops. A few days later (July 21, 
1861) he encountered General Beauregard w r ith some twenty-nine 
thousand Confederate troops, and the battle was on. At first the 
Confederate forces were driven back, and victory seemed to fall 
to the Federal troops. The Confederate lines were more than 
once broken and again reformed. 1 At the critical moment, when 

1 The example of General Thomas J. Jackson caused General Bee, a Confed 
erate officer, to exclaim to his command : " Look at Jackson standing there like 
a stone wall!" Thereafter Jackson was everywhere known as "Stonewall" 



the Confederate lines were wavering, General Johnston arrived 
with reinforcements from the Shenandoah Valley. The Federal 
troops were checked and then driven back. Their retreat became 
a panic, and they fled toward Washington in hopeless confusion. 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 

The M.-N. Works 


The Confederate troops did not follow them. About five thou 
sand men were killed and wounded in this battle. 

Making Preparation for War. The battle of Bull Eun con 
vinced the Northern people that a conquest of the South was not 
an easy task. The Southern people, for their part, were not un 
duly elated, for their victory had been won at a heavy cost. It 
was apparent to the Federal authorities that a great deal of 


energy must be given at once to the organization of the army. 
General Scott was retired at his own request and General McClel- 
lan was placed in command. The Congress voted $500,000,000 
and authorized the President to call for five hundred thousand 
men. During the rest of the summer but little was done in 
the East except to train the troops and make the army a good 
fighting machine. 

The most notable affair of the summer was the defeat of a 
reconnoitering force of two thousand Federal troops who had 
crossed the Potomac at Balls Bluff (October 21, 1861). 
The force was cut to pieces, losing half the men. 1 

Operations in the Southwest. Active operations had begun in the 
southwest as well as in Virginia, In Missouri General Nathaniel 
Lyon gained a victory over a Confederate force at Boonville 
(June, 1861), and the next month General Franz Sigel had an 
engagement with the Confederates at Carthage, but was com 
pelled to fall back. A little later (August 10) Lyon and Sigel, 
with five thousand men, made an attack on twenty thousand of 
the enemy under Generals Price and McCullough, at Wilsons 
Creek, near Springfield. General Lyon was killed, and the Federal 
force was defeated. General Lyon, however, had thwarted the 
plans of those who were seeking to take Missouri out of the Union. 

The military operations in Kentucky were of much the same 
character as those in Missouri, and were designed to prevent the 
state from seceding. 

Operations against the Coast. In August an expedition of naval 
and land forces, in command of Commodore Stringham and 
General Benjamin F. Butler, captured the forts at Hatteras 
Inlet, North Carolina, after a bombardment of two days. Another 
combined expedition, commanded by Commodore Dupont and 
General Sherman, went to the coast of South Carolina and 
captured the forts at the entrance to Port Royal Sound. The 
Confederates then abandoned most of the defenses they had 
seized on the coast. Port Royal thereafter became the chief 
supply station in the South for the Federal authorities. 

1 Colonel Baker, United States Senator from Oregon, was among those killed 
at Balls Bluff. 


The Trent Affair. By the fall of 1861 England, France, Spain, 
and Portugal had recognized the Confederate States as having 
the same rights of war as the Federal government. In November, 
John M. Mason and John Slidell, Confederate commissioners to 
England and France, sailed from Havana, Cuba, for Europe on 
the British mail steamer Trent. The Trent was stopped on the 
high seas by the United States warship San Jacinto, commanded 
by Captain Charles Wilkes, and Mason and Slidell were forcibly 
removed from the British vessel, taken to Fort Warren in Boston 
Harbor, and held as prisoners of war. The British government 
was indignant over the forcible search of a neutral British ship 
in neutral waters, and demanded that Mason and Slidell be given 
up, and that reparation for the act be made. Inasmuch as 
Captain Wilkes s action was an unfriendly act, President Lincoln 
ordered that the two envoys be surrendered without delay. A 
diplomatic apology for the occurrence was also made. 1 

The Situation at the End of the First Year of the War. At the 
close of the first year of the war the Confederate forces had 
possession of most of the forts and arsenals in the South. The 
Federal government had reenforced Fort Pickens, a very strong 
fortification on the Florida coast, and had not lost Fortress Mon 
roe, which guarded the entrance to Hampton Roads and James 
River, Virginia. Port Royal and the earthworks at Hatteras 
Inlet had been gained, and most of the Southern ports had been 
blockaded in order to prevent them from receiving food supplies 
and from shipping their cotton. The states of Maryland, Mis 
souri, and Kentucky had been prevented from seceding. 

Kansas admitted to the Union. 1861. After the election of 
President Lincoln the struggle in Kansas became a matter of 

1 The United States had always denied the right of the search of neutral vessels 
during a time of war, but the British government had always insisted upon it. In 
1812 the Americans had declared war against Great Britain almost expressly to 
maintain this freedom from forcible search and the right to sail the high seas un 
molested. In view of all this President Lincoln decided that to uphold Captain 
Wilkes would be inconsistent. Moreover, by demanding the return of Mason and 
Slidell, Great Britain became committed to the American principle of freedom 
from search. Fortunately for the Americans it established a precedent, and 
therefore was a diplomatic victory. 

4lle n M J^ d * < 

H kLacolal K^Cl^v^ B J-? 



General GRANT thus: ,^_^ General BUELL thus: 

General. BRAGG thus: General HOOD thus: - 
G UL F -O F \MtmCO General THOMAS thus: __ _ General SMITH thus: -ft+rW- , 



minor importance and was almost forgotten for the time. In 1861 
the people applied for admission, however, and Kansas was 
admitted as the thirty-fourth state. The Civil War being in 
progress, there were no congressmen from the seceded states to 
contend for slavery ; Kansas therefore came in as a free state. 

JANUARY, 1862, TO MAY, 1862 

The Federal Plan of Campaign. 1862. At the beginning of 
operations in 1862 the Federal army consisted of about five hun 
dred thousand men ; the Confederate forces numbered about three 
hundred and fifty thousand. The blockade of Southern ports, 
begun in 1861, had become fairly effective, and an attempt to 
run the blockade was pretty apt to result in the capture of the 
vessel. The operations of 1862 had three things in view : 

The strengthening of the blockade along the Southern coast. 
The capture of Richmond. 
The opening of the Mississippi. 

Of these, the last named was perhaps the most important. With 
the control of the Mississippi in the hands of the Federal forces, 
the Confederate territory would be cut in twain, and their 
food-stuffs and the supply of cotton with which the Confederates 
expected to raise money would be greatly diminished. In order 
to achieve this result, however, it was necessary to break or de 
stroy the Confederate line that stretched east and west through 
Kentucky. Accordingly the first operations were directed against 
this line. 

The Battle of Mill Springs : Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. The 
first breach in the Confederate lines was made by General Thomas, 
who attacked the Confederates at Mill Springs, Kentucky (Janu 
ary 19, 1862), and defeated them. General Zollicoffer, the com 
mander of the Confederate troops, was killed. The result of the 
battle was the capture of Cumberland Gap and thereby an open 
way into eastern Tennessee. 


In the meantime, a flotilla of iron-clad river boats had been 
constructed at St. Louis by Captain Eads, 1 and these were placed 
under the command of Flag-officer Foote. With this flotilla, 
Foote made his way to Fort Henry, which guarded the lower 
part of the Tennessee River. The capture of the fort was quickly 
accomplished, but the Confederate troops escaped to Fort Donel- 

son, which guarded the 
&"**-& Cumberland River. Gen 
eral U. S. Grant 2 had 
already started with his 
command from Cairo, Illi 
nois, to cooperate with 
Foote. He moved his 
troops toward Fort Donel- 

son, and Foote also pro- 
AN IRON-CLAD RIVER BOAT. ceeded thither with his 

flotilla. A fight of three days convinced General Buckner, the 
Confederate commander, that further resistance was hopeless. 3 
He surrendered (February 14), and fifteen thousand prisoners 
and a large quantity of arms and military stores were yielded to 
the Federal commander. 

The capture of these forts was the chief step in breaking 
the Confederate power in the West. The Tennessee and Cum- 

1 These boats, about a dozen in number, were built in the incredibly short 
time of sixty-five days. 

2 ULYSSES S. GRANT (1822-1885) was a native of Clermont County, Ohio. He 
was a graduate of West Point. He fought in every battle of the Mexican War 
except Buena Vista, and was twice promoted for bravery and efficiency. He left 
the army to take up farming, and later, with his father, in Illinois, the leather 
business and saddlery. On the outbreak of the Civil War, he reentered the army. 
In March, 1864, he was made commander of all the Union armies. By his swift 
arid skillful action he conducted the war to a successful termination. Upon the 
death of Lincoln he was generally regarded as the foremost American, and in 
1868 was elected the eighteenth President. He served two terms. The writing 
of his "Memoirs," just before his death, at a time of acute suffering, for the 
benefit of his wife, was a most heroic action. He was a generous conqueror, 
without pettiness, a man of action and of a high and modest nobility. 

3 General Buckner asked General Grant what terms of surrender would be 
given. Grant replied : " No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender 
can be accepted. I propose to move immediately on your works." 



berland rivers were thus opened, so that the gunboats of the 
river flotilla commanded a large part of western Kentucky and 
Tennessee. The Confederate forces thereupon got away from 
Bowling Green and Columbus, and took a new position at Corinth, 
an important railway junction. Federal troops immediately en 
tered Nashville, and the Federal lines were extended almost to 
the northern boundary of Mississippi. The capture of Fort Don- 
elson was the greatest military achievement that had taken place 
on the American continent up to that time. 

The Battle of Shiloh. Shortly after the Tennessee River was 
opened, Grant moved his army up the river to Pittsburg Landing, 
near Shiloh Church in Tennessee, and General Buell was ordered 
to join him. General Albert Sid 
ney Johnston, in command of the 
Confederate forces at Corinth, 
attacked him (April 6) and drove 
him steadily back. By morning, 
however, General Buell had ar 
rived. In the second day s fight, 
the Federal troops won a great 
victory. General Johnston 1 was 
mortally wounded and the Con 
federate forces, with General 
Beauregard in command, re 
treated to Corinth. In his of 
ficial report Grant attributed 
to General Sherman the success 
of the battle. The slaughter 
was dreadful, about twenty-five 
thousand being killed. 

The Capture of Island Number Ten. The islands of the lower 
Mississippi River, from the junction of the Ohio to New Orleans, 
are numbered in the order of their occurrence. Island Number 
Ten had been fortified by the Confederates, and it guarded a 

1 Johnston was one of the most capable officers in the Confederate army. He 
was also a most noble character. While lying on the field, he sent his surgeon to 
attend to a wounded Federal prisoner, and in the meantime bled to death. 



long range of the Mississippi. After a siege lasting nearly a 
month, General Pope and Commodore Foote captured it, securing 
several thousand prisoners and a large amount of arms. The 
The Missis ca pture of this stronghold opened the Mississippi as 
sippi open far south as Memphis, and that city was shortly af ter- 
to Memphis ward in the possession of the Federal troops. By 
this time (June 4) the Federal troops were in control of western 
Kentucky and Tennessee, so that their line stretched from 
Memphis to Chattanooga. 

General Bragg breaks the Line; Perryville; Murfreesboro. The 
Federal forces held this territory for several months without oppo 
sition ; then for a time they were put on the defensive. Early 
in the fall of 1862 the Confederate forces, under General Bragg, 
succeeded in breaking the line, and Bragg himself crossed Ten 
nessee into Kentucky, intending to reach Louisville. For a short 
time he had things his own way ; but General Buell finally headed 
him off and defeated him at Perryville, Kentucky (October 8, 
1862). Bragg again attempted to move northwest, but he was 
met by the same forces, then under General Kosecrans who had 
succeeded Buell in command, and was so badly defeated at 
Murfreesboro (December 31) that all further attempts of the 
Confederates to regain ^Kentucky were given up. 

Corinth and luka. While General Bragg was raiding Kentucky, 
the Confederates made another attempt to extend their front, but 
they were headed off at luka by General Eosecrans. Immediately 
afterward the two Confederate armies, the one under Price and 
the other under Van Dorn, fell on General Eosecrans near Corinth, 
but they were defeated and driven back forty miles. 

Operations West of the Mississippi; Pea Ridge. West of the 
Mississippi Eiver the Confederate lines reached a point within 
the Missouri border, and their forces held the state of Arkansas. 
Early in March (1862) General Curtis, in command of the Federal 
forces, moved upon the Confederate lines. The two armies met 
at Pea Kidge, where a hard battle was fought. The Confederates 
were defeated and forced south of the Arkansas Kiver. 

New Orleans Occupied. There were a number of engagements 
in the southwest for the purpose of opening the Mississippi Eiver 



to communication, but of these the occupation of New Orleans 
was the most important. In April (1862) an expedition of naval 
and land forces, commanded by Commodore David G. Farragut 
and General B. F. Butler, appeared at the mouth of the Mississippi 
with the intention of taking New Orleans. 

The Confederate forts and batteries at the river s mouth were 
bombarded for six days with but little effect, and Commodore 
Farragut decided to sail his flotilla past 
them. The obstructions in the river, con 
sisting of dismantled vessels and logs 
connected by chains, were broken and 
swept away ; and the forty vessels of the 
flotilla began their extraordinary voyage. 
After a terrific artillery battle they suc 
ceeded in forcing their way up 
the river to the Confederate 
squadron near New Orleans. 
The Confederate squadron was 
destroyed or captured, and then the 
course of the flotilla was clear as far as New Orleans. On the 
1st of May, the Federal troops were landed, and General Butler 
quickly occupied the city. Farragut afterward took part in 
opening the rest of the lower Mississippi. 

Of the Mississippi River only the stretch from Port Hudson 
to Vicksburg remained in the control of the Confederate forces. 

opens the 
lower Mis 


JANUARY, 1862, TO JULY, 1863 

The Plan of Campaign. In the East, the capture of Kichmond, 
the capital of the Confederate States, was the great object of the 
war. Concerning this, all were agreed. As to the manner of 
doing it there was a division of opinion. Popular sentiment 
and the Federal authorities in Washington desired that General 
McClellan should inarch his army southward from Washington, 
so that it would always have a position between Washington 



and the Confederate army. General McClellan insisted on 
approaching Eichmond by way of the James Eiver. The result 
was a compromise and, like most compromises, it proved a 
failure. 1 


The plan of operations in the East as finally decided on. involved 
the following movements : 

The occupation of the Shenandoah Valley by G-eneral Banks in 

order to protect Washington from the West. 
A forward movement upon Eichmond by General McDowell. 
An invasion of the peninsula between the York Eiver and the 

James Eiver by General McClellan. 

1 Military students have generally agreed with McClellan s views. The route 
which the government authorities desired him to take involved the crossing of 
many rivers, every one of which could have been made a Confederate stronghold. 
There were also extensive forest-covered swamps, across which it would be 
almost impossible to transport the supplies. Indeed, it is now conceded that the 
plan was just as unwise as that forced on Burgoyne in 1777 (see page 158). 



Campaign of 1868: 

Campaign of 1868:"- ~ SS 
lu n of 18 64 tlius: 

Campaign of 1864^85>V. confJdLte 



The first of these movements was carried out in part ; the second 
failed because McDowell was called away to the Shenandoah 
Valley in order to head off Stonewall Jackson ; the third became 
the chief effort of the campaign in the East. 

McClelland Peninsular Campaign ; Fair Oaks. By March, 1862, 
General Halleck had superseded General McClellan as commander- 
in-chief of the Federal forces, and the latter was made commander 
of the Army of the Potomac. 1 McClellan landed his troops at 
Fortress Monroe, and from that point 
advanced to the peninsula where, 
eighty years before, Lord Cornwallis 
had been penned by Washington. 
Yorktown was held by a Confeder 
ate force under General Magrude^. 
After a siege lasting nearly a 
month, Magruder was driven to 
William sburg with his army badly 
crippled. Then he withdrew his 
troops to Richmond. McClellan 
followed until the Army of the 
Potomac was within a few miles 
of the city. 

The Confederate Congress ad 
journed and the principal officers 

of the government left Richmond 


expecting an immediate attack ; but 

none was made. Shortly afterward General Joseph E. Johnston 
made a fierce attack on McClellan s forces at Fair Oaks (May 21, 
1862), but was driven back to Richmond with a heavy loss. 

The Strategy of General Lee and Stonewall Jackson. In the 
meantime General McDowell had advanced nearly to j ackson s 
Fredericksburg with forty -five thousand troops, intend- Valley earn 
ing to join McClellan. The Federal General Banks paign 
was holding the northern Shenandoah Valley while General Fre- 

1 The Army of the Potomac was a Federal army which was trying to take 
Richmond. The Army of Northern Virginia was a Confederate army defending 





mont was occupying West Virginia. It fell to Stonewall Jackson 
to prevent McDowell, Banks, and Fremont from sending reen- 
forcements to help McClellan near Richmond. Jackson made a 
sudden dash down the Shenandoah Valley from Staunton to Win 
chester, where he defeated Banks, driving him over into Maryland. 
He then went south and met Fremont, 
who had just crossed the Alleghany 
Mountains ; in a fierce battle at Cross 
& j| Keys he drove Fremont back. Imme 

diately he crossed the Shenandoah Eiver 
and defeated at Port Eepublic a portion 
of McDowell s army, which had been sent 
to stop Jackson s mad career. In thirty- 
five da^s Jackson had cleared the Shen 
andoah Valley of Federal troops. This 
valley was "the back door to Washing 
ton " and Lincoln appreciated the danger 
of leaving the capital unprotected. He 
therefore ordered McDowell back to defend Washington. 

McClellan was thus left unaided to fight his Peninsular cam 
paign. In the meanwhile, the Confederate commander, General 
The Seven 3. E. Johnston, had been wounded and General Robert 
Days E. Lee 1 had been put in command of the Army of 

Northern Virginia. On being joined by Jackson, Lee 
began a series of bloody battles the Seven Days battles, they 
are called. At Malvern Hills, the last of the series, Lee was 
driven back. It was the opinion that McClellan might have cap- 

1 ROBERT E. LEE (1807-1870) was a native of Virginia, and a son of "Light- 
Horse Harry" Lee, the Revolutionary cavalry leader. He was graduated from 
West Point, and served gallantly in the Mexican War. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War, President Lincoln offered him the command of the United States 
army, but he answered that he could not take up arms against his state, his 
home, and his children. He was appointed major-general of the Virginia forces 
in 1861 ; for the last three years of the war he was commander of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. He showed real military genius, and more than once out 
generaled Grant before his surrender at Appomattox. He held the lasting 
devotion of the men who served under him and the high regard of all who 
knew him. From 1865 until his death he was president of Washington College 
in Virginia. 


tured Richmond had he followed up his advantage, but he did 
not make the attempt. 

Lee invades the North; Second Battle of Bull Run; Antietam; 
Fredericksburg. After the failure to take Richmond, General 
Halleck was made commander-in-chief of the Federal army, and 
McClellan was ordered to join General Pope in northern Virginia. 
But before he could do so, Lee and Jackson started north. They 
fell on Pope at Bull Run, and defeated him (the second battle 
at that place), and then pushed northward into Maryland. It 
was a bold movement ; General Lee had expected to increase his 
army by recruits from Maryland but none came. 

Then Pope and McClellan joined forces. They fell on Lee 
at Sharpsburg, near Antietam Creek, in Maryland, and there was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the war (Sep 
tember 17, 1862). The Federal forces were about Antietal 
seventy thousand strong ; Lee had about forty thou 
sand. Nevertheless, Lee escaped into Virginia. McClellan was 
censured for not following Lee and destroying his army. 

The command of^the Army of the Potomac was then given to 
General Ambrose E. Burnside. If McClellan was overcautious, 
Burnside was certainly too rash. In the middle of December he 
threw his army against Lee at Fredericksburg. Lee was strongly 
intrenched, and the result was a foregone conclusion. Burnside 
was defeated with terrible losses. 

Because of the meddlesome advice of influential officials in 
Washington the operations in the East have sometimes been called 
a "politicians campaign." Whether this criticism is deserved or 
not, it is certain that the result was discouraging to the Federal 
troops and encouraging to the Confederates. Nothing had been 
accomplished, while more than fifty thousand brave lives had been 
sacrificed. After the battle of Fredericksburg, both armies went 
into winter quarters, watching each other across the Rappahannock. 
During the temporary lull of fighting, the pickets of the opposing 
forces became friendly toward each other, and many a pipeful of 
tobacco slipped across the river between " Reb " and " Yank." 

Emancipation of the Slaves. When the war began, there was no 
intention on the part of the Federal authorities to liberate the slaves 



in the seceded states. No other purpose was known than to restore 
and preserve the Union. The antislavery sentiment grew, however, 
and men of both parties in the North began to feel that the slaves 
in the seceded states should be liberated as a necessity of .war. 

The Thirty-seventh Congress passed an act abolishing slavery 
in the District of Columbia, and President Lincoln signed the act 
(April, 1862), which was to take effect at once. Compensation 
amounting to nearly $1,000,000 was paid to the owners of the 

slaves. A short time afterward 
other acts were passed emanci 
pating the slaves in the territories 
and also all slaves who escaped 
into the lines of the Union armies. 
President Lincoln finally decided 
that the emancipation of the 
slaves in the seceded TheEmanci . 

states would be a war pationProc- 


measure ot great prac 
tical utility, o Therefore (Septem 
ber 22, 1862) he proclaimed that 
after January 1, 1863, " All per 
sons held as slaves in any state 
or designated part of a state, the 
people whereof shall be in rebellion 
against the United States, shall be 
then, thenceforth, arid forever 
free." The seceded states did not 
return to the Union, and so, at the 
designated time, the slaves were 
emancipated ; but the proclama 
tion actually freed only those slaves who could escape to the 
Federal lines. The emancipation was declared to be " warranted 
by the Constitution as a military necessity." 

The proclamation of President Lincoln did not apply to the 

slave states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and 

abolished 10 Missouri, as these states had not seceded ; it did not 

apply to the western part of Virginia nor to such 



parts of the Southern states as were within the Union lines. 
Furthermore, it did not abolish slavery at all. The abolition of 
slavery throughout the country could be accomplished only by 
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States. The 
Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery in the United States 
was finally submitted to the states by the Congress early in 1865. 
During the year it was ratified by twenty-seven states, the neces 
sary three fourths of the entire number. 

Up to this time Great Britain, although acknowledging the 
Confederate States as a belligerent power, had not recognized 
their independence. The British ministry, however, The attitude 
was nearly ready to do so. The emancipation of the of Great 
slaves turned the sympathy of the great mass of the 
English people in favor of the North, and so the independence 
of the Confederacy was not recognized. 

Lee again invades the North ; Chancellorsville ; Gettysburg. At 
the opening of the spring of 1863, General Lee was in readiness 
for the movement that became the turn 
ing point of the war a second invasion 
of the North. In the meantime, General 
Joseph Hooker had been made com 
mander of the Army of the Potomac, 
and had advanced to the rough, wooded 
region known as " the Wilderness." 
Hooker had more than one hundred 
thousand men ; Lee had about sixty / 
thousand. The two armies met at 
Chancellorsville (May 2), with the re 
sult that Hooker was badly defeated. 

Stonewall Jackson, a braver man than whom never donned a 
uniform, fell in the fight, unfortunately killed by his own men, 
who fired upon a part of his command mistaking them for Federal 
troops. General Meade was next put in command of the Army 
of the Potomac. 

As soon as was possible, Lee started down the Shenandoah Valley, 
crossed the Potomac, and entered Pennsylvania. He hoped to cap 
ture Baltimore or Philadelphia, and to make the captured city 



Lee s plans 


his base for further operations. He had been led to believe that 5 
m possession of an important Northern city, the Confederacy 
might persuade the leading European powers to recog 
nize its independence. Moreover, the reverses to the 
Federal army had caused a feeling of depression in the North, 
and he thought the possession of a large Northern city might 
lead the Federal government to recognize the independence of 
the Confederate States. 

General Meade at once started to intercept Lee, and the two 
armies met at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lee found 
Meade s army drawn up on a series of hills called 
Cemetery Ridge, with Gulp s Hill and Cemetery Hill at one 

extreme and Round Top and 
Little Round Top at the 
other. The battle raged for 
three days (July 1-3, 1863), 
and was the most stubbornly 
contested fight of the war. 
Each army was about sev 
enty-five thousand strong. 
After two days of fighting, 
the Confederates succeeded 
in taking Gulp s Hill, but 
they were soon dislodged. 
Then a terrific assault was 
made on the Federal center 
at Cemetery Hill ; Pickett s 
troops actually reached the 

top of the hill, but were driven back by the Federals under General 
Hancock. Lee was defeated, but he made a very skillful retreat 
and got to a safe position south of the Potomac. The total losses 
were more than fifty thousand killed. The battle of Gettysburg 
is generally regarded as the turning point of the war. Thereafter 
the Confederate operations were almost wholly defensive in char 
acter. General Lee never again attempted to invade the North. 

West Virginia admitted as a Separate State. 1863. West Vir 
ginia was admitted as the thirty-fifth state, on June 19, 1863, 



The new state was formed out of the part of Virginia that lay 
north and west of the high summits of the Appalachian Moun 
tains. The constitution and organization of the state forbade 

JANUARY, 1863, TO JULY, 1863 

The Capture of Vicksburg. July 4, 1863, The fact that the 
Mississippi from Yicksburg to Port Hudson was in the control of 
the Confederate forces prevented any great amount of communica 
tion along the river. Moreover, of all the places along the river 
held by the Confederates, Vicksburg was the most important. 
During the fall of 1862, General Grant had begun plans for the 
capture of the city and had established a depot of supplies at 
Holly Springs, a station of the Illinois Central Railroad that 
could be reached easily from either Memphis or Jackson. Inas 
much as the fortifications of Vicksburg were on a bluff so 
high that the guns of the river flotilla could not destroy 
thenij it was necessary to plan the attack by land as well as 
by water. 

Admiral Porter and General William T. Sherman had been 
sent down the river to take a position near Vicksburg ; Grant 
himself was preparing to move his army by rail. , * 
But during the time of Bragg s raid into Kentucky, 1 plies at 
the Confederate cavalryman, General Van Dorn, Holl y 
made a quick dash upon Holly Springs and destroyed 
all the supplies stored there. Their cash value was about 
$1,500,000, but their value for the particular occasion was 
beyond estimation. To add to the discomfiture of Grant, Con 
federate troops under General Forrest destroyed the only railway 
by which the supplies could be renewed. At that very moment 
(December 29, 1862) Sherman s troops were wading through the 
swamps, charging the Confederate earthworks on the high bluffs 
at Chickasaw Bayou, five miles from Vicksburgo The attack 
was barren of results. 

1 Sec page 316. 



of Vicks- 

The city of Vicksburg is situated on the east bank of the 
Mississippi, opposite an oxbow of the river. A high bluff back 
The location ^ tne G ^y commands a long and broad sweep of the 
river and its approaches. About ten miles north of 
the city, on the Yazoo, is Haines Bluff. This bluff 
was fortified as strongly as earthworks and guns could make 

it. East and south 
of the city the land is 
high ; west and north 
it is low and swampy. 
Sluggish bayous flow out 
of the river and, after 
forming a network of 
swales, flow into the 
river again farther down. 
During the spring nearly 
all this bottom land is 
covered at times with 
the overflow of the river. 
General Grant s efforts 
to capture the city lasted 
from January to July, 
and they constitute a 
remarkable event of 
military history. He 
could not hope to make an assault upon the city from the river ; 
The dim- the n tilla could not train its guns against the earth- 
cuitycf works, while it could be reached by a destructive 
fire. The plans, one after another, devised by 
his superiors in office proved of no value. 1 Then Grant took 


1 Between January and the middle of May, four plans were tried : 1. Williams 
"canal" was dug across the loop opposite the city, in order to divert the river. 
A freshet in the river destroyed the canal. 2. It was planned to take the gunboats 
by way of Red River up through a network of bayous, opening through Lake Provi 
dence into the Mississippi. The engineers were clearing this channel when the 
plan was abandoned. 3. The levee at Yazoo Pass was blown up, and a channel 
down the Yazoo was cleared halfway to Vicksburg. The Confederate earthworks 
at Fort Pemberton put a stop to this plan. 4. Work was begun on a similar 



matters in his own hands. The supplies were put on transports, 
and Admiral Porter ran them down the river past the batteries, 
through a terrific fire. By the end of March, Grant had marched 
his entire army down the west side of the river to Bruin sburg, 
where Porter had landed the supplies. 

At that point Grant crossed the river and defeated the Confed 
erates at Grand Gulf. Cutting loose from the supplies and depend 
ing on the surrounding country for provisions, Grant 
and Sherman then headed for Jackson, Mississippi. 
From Jackson they fought their way westward along 
the line of the railroad, until they had driven the Confederate 
army into Vicksburg. For the next forty-five days it was simply 
a matter of waiting and of 
keeping the Confederates 
closely shut within the city. 
And the same day (July 4, 
1863) that General Lee turned 
backward into Virginia after 
the terrific fight at Gettys 
burg, General Pemberton 
surrendered the famine- 
stricken city of Vicksburg 
to Grant. It was the great 
est military capitulation of 
modern warfare up to that 

Port Hudson. While 
Vicksburg was suffering the 
pangs of starvation, General 
Banks was besieging Port 

Hudson, some miles down the river. After the fall of Vicksburg 
the Confederate garrison at Port Hudson, which had withstood 

channel through the Big Sunflower Bayou, which offered a possible passage. 
The Confederates blocked this passage also. In the main these plans were pre 
pared by politicians and amateur "generals " at Washington. The plan finally 
followed was disapproved at Washington, but Grant had taken the precaution to 
destroy the telegraph Hues, and did not receive his orders until Vicksburg was 



two attacks and a siege of six weeks, saw that further resistance 
was hopeless. The place was surrendered on July 9th. 

Results of the Campaign. The capture of Vicksburg and Port 
Hudson had effects that were very far-reaching. The winning of 
these two places gave to the Federal authorities the control of 
the Mississippi from source to mouth. It cut the Confederate 
States in twain. It shut off a large part of the cotton crop that 
had furnished much of the revenue to the Confederate govern 
ment. The moral effect on the Northern people was very great. 
The long list of reverses had created a feeling of depression, and 
for the first time the condition of affairs began to look hopeful. 
The Southern people did not lose confidence, however. 

JULY, 1863, TO JULY, 1864 

The Situation in 1863. After the battle of Murfreesboro l 
(December 31, 1862) there were no decisive military operations 
in Tennessee and Georgia for six months. Both armies had been 
terribly weakened by the dreadful slaughter of battle, and all 
troops that could be spared were sent to strengthen the forces in 
Virginia or in the Mississippi ,Valley. 2 In Tennessee there was a 
Confederate stronghold of great importance Chattanooga. The 
position of the city is such that it commands the one natural 

1 See page 316. 

2 By this time the problem of getting men fit for service had become a serious 
one. In the North the authorities had already resorted to conscription, and every 
county of each state was required to furnish its quota, or proportion, of troops. 
In New York City, where there was a large foreign population controlled by un 
scrupulous demagogues, serious riots occurred and more than twelve hundred 
rioters were killed. The Federal authorities enlisted about one hundred eighty 
thousand negroes, and they made good soldiers. In the South the conscription 
was also employed, and it finally included all able-bodied men between the ages 
of eighteen and forty-five years. Loss of troops by capture crippled the Confed 
erate fighting force far more than it hurt the Federal army. The condition of 
the Southern prison camps was horrible. The Confederate authorities refused to 
exchange white soldiers for negroes ; as a result, it became necessary to estab 
lish great prison pens for captives of war on both sides. 


highway between Tennessee and Georgia ; it was at that time the 
chief railway center of the South. 

Chickamauga. September 19, 1863. In June General Rose- 
crans advanced from Murfreesboro and began a series of move 
ments that forced General Bragg to leave Chattanooga and take a 
new position at Chickamauga Creek, Georgia, a few miles south 
of Chattanooga. General Rosecrans fol 
lowed him. and gave battle (September 
19). One wing of the Federal army 
was driven back during the second day ; 
the other wing, commanded by General 
Thomas, one of the great characters of 
the war, held firm and prevented a 
disastrous defeat. 1 As a result of the 
battle the Federal troops were penned 
in Chattanooga by General Bragg and 
cut oft from communication with the 
rest Of the army. GENERAL G. H. THOMAS. 

Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain. Novem 
ber, 1863. Two high cliffs, Missionary Ridge and Lookout 
Mountain, where the Tennessee River breaks through the 
southern Appalachian ranges, overlook the city of Chattanooga. 
General Bragg s troops held them, and for a time it seemed 
likely that the Federal army in the city would be starved into 
surrendering. 2 

In the meantime, General Grant saw the serious condition of 
matters and took command, summoning troops from east and 
west. By the last week in November he had succeeded in getting 
food and ammunition into the city and was ready for attack. 
Sherman and Thomas made an attack on Missionary Ridge, and 
the latter captured it by a hand-to-hand conflict. At the same 
time General Hooker assailed Lookout Mountain, and at its crest 
was fought the famous " battle above the clouds " (November 24, 

1 For his skill and gallantry that day Thomas won the title " the Rock of 

2 Several thousand horses and mules actually starved to death. There was but 
a single road open to the Federal lines and this was practically impassable. 



1863). These terrific assaults broke Bragg s strength and de 
stroyed the strength of his army. With the remnant he retreated 
to Dalton, Georgia. By the capture of Chattanooga, the Federal 
army had gained practically the remainder of the Mississippi 

Final Plans. There remained only two Confederate forces of 
importance General Johnston s army at Dalton and General 
Lee s in Virginia. Early in the spring 
plans for the final campaign were arranged 
by General Grant, to whom had been 
given command of the entire Federal 
army, with the rank of lieutenant-general. 
Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia were 
the only remaining states held by the 
Confederacy. It was determined that 
Sherman should force a passage eastward 
across Georgia to the coast, while Grant 
should march upon Lee and hold him at 
Richmond until Sherman could reach the 
Confederate capital from the south. 

The Campaign in Georgia. Early in May, 1864, with about 
one hundred thousand men, General Sherman moved against the 
Confederate forces at Dalton, and drove them step by step toward 
Atlanta. There were hard-fought battles at Resaca, 
at Dallas, and at Kenesaw Mountain. In handling his 
army, General Johnston displayed great skill, but circumstances 
were against him. The Confederate authorities replaced him by 
General Hood, and the latter made several savage attacks upon 
Sherman only to suffer defeat. Sherman took possession of 
Atlanta, and gathered his forces there. 

When ready for his long march, Sherman left General Thomas 
to take care of Hood s army, and started for Savannah (Novem- 
Sherman s ^ er 12). His army moved in four columns, covering a 
march to path sixty miles in width. In order to prevent any 
Confederate force from following, he burned bridges 
and destroyed the railways and everything else that might be 
used against him. It was a cruel thing ; but it was war. By the 





middle of December he had captured the outposts of Savannah. 
A week later he captured the city itself, with a large store of 
ammunition and twenty-five thousand bales of cotton (Decem 
ber 21). There Sherman went into winter quarters. 


In the meantime General Thomas had followed Hood into 
Tennessee and the two armies came together at Nash 
ville in a desperate battle (December 15, 1864). Hood s 
army was cut to pieces and was practically wiped out of existence. 


MAY, 1864, TO APRIL, 1865 

Battles of the Wilderness. May, 1864. By this time General 
Lee had gathered all the troops that could be mustered, and they 
were ready for the final campaign before the Confederate capital. 
Early in May of 1864, General Grant crossed the Rapidan and 
entered the Wilderness. 1 Almost from the moment he began 

1 It was the same region in which the battle of Chancellorsville had been fought 
just about a year previous. 


his march, there was bloody fighting, and for a time it was inces 
sant (May 5-7). The timber and the undergrowth prevented 
anything like the strategic movement of troops; the opposing 
forces simply mowed each other down with a most deadly fire. 
Just at a time when his staff officers thought that a retreat across 
the Rapidan was inevitable, Grant ordered a forward movement 
and advanced to Spottsylvania. 

Spottsylvania ; Cold Harbor ; Petersburg. May to August, 1864. 
General Lee stubbornly resisted every attempt on the part of the 
Federal army to move forward, and five days of desperate fight 
ing about Spottsylvania gave to neither side any material advan 
tage. Then the Confederate forces moved back to Cold Harbor, 
where there were strong intrenchments. General Grant tried to 
take the fortifications by a direct attack, but his troops were 
repelled with a terrible slaughter (June 3). Then, by a flank 
movement, he hurried his army past Richmond to Petersburg, an 
outpost a few miles south of the Confederate capital. But Lee 
moved his army even more rapidly, and was behind the fortifi 
cations at Petersburg before Grant reached the place. 

From that time the campaign became a siege. The two 
armies had lost each about fifty thousand men, and there had 
been practically no gain oil either side. The war had reached 
a stage of desperation, and human life counted for but little. 
During the siege before Petersburg, a mine had been dug under 
a Confederate fort and the latter was blown up. The explosion 
of the mine was followed by an assault by the Federal troops, 
but fearing that the ground in front of them was mined, they 
hesitated for a moment when they reached the breach or " crater " 
made by the explosion. At this, the Confederates concentrated a 
most deadly fire upon them, with the result that about four 
thousand of the Federal force were slain (July 30). 

Early s Raid in the Shenandoah Valley. About this time Lee 
sent General Jubal Early down the Shenandoah Valley to threaten 
Washington. Early made a brilliant dash, and at one time was 
within six miles of the city. He also crossed into Pennsylvania 
and burnt the city of Chambersburg. In. the meantime, he helped 
himself liberally to cattle, horses, provisions, and everything else 



that was needed by his troops. The object of the raid was to 
divert General Grant s attention from the siege of Richmond. 
This it accomplished. Grant detached General Philip H. Sheridan 
from the forces before Kichmond and sent him to the Shenandoah 
Valley with orders to destroy everything that could possibly be 
used for the support of Early s troops, thereby preventing his 
stay in the valley. After the work was accomplished, a crow 
could hardly have lived there. 

Cedar Creek ; Sheridan s Ride. During the maneuvers of the 
two armies, Sheridan defeated Early at Winchester (September 
19) and again at Fishers Hill. Then 
Early got reinforcements and fell on 
the troops at Cedar Creek while Sheri 
dan was absent at Winchester (October 
19). The Federal troops were thrown 
into confusion, and began a retreat that 
was almost a rout. Sheridan heard 
the firing and guessed what was taking 
place. In two hours he galloped his 
horse from Winchester, twenty miles 
distant, turned the retreating soldiers, 
reformed his lines, and began a most 
vigorous attack. Early s force was 
defeated and routed. In that brief 
campaign more than thirty thousand men gave up their lives. 
Smoking ruins and burnt fields were all that was left of the 
beautiful Shenandoah Valley. 

The Fall of Richmond. April, 1865. By the beginning of 1865 
the Confederate government was in a desperate situation. Alex 
ander H. Stephens, vice-president of the Confederacy, met Presi 
dent Lincoln on board a United States warship at Hampton 
Roads with the hope of obtaining terms of peace. The terms 
which President Lincoln offered were the surrender and disband 
ing of the Confederate army and the abolition of slavery. To 
these terms the Confederate government refused to agree. 

General Grant had now closed in upon Petersburg. The siege 
of Petersburg, which was virtually the siege of Richmond, was 



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carried on for several months without advantage to either side. 
In the meantime, Grant s generals were carrying out his plans. 
Sherman had crossed the Carolinas, and had captured and destroyed 
Columbia (February 17). He had defeated General Johnston at 
Averysboro and Bentonville, in North Carolina. Sheridan had 
inflicted a heavy blow at Five Forks, Virginia, capturing the Con- 


federate artillery. Early in April the main part of the works at 
Petersburg were carried ; immediately afterward Lee evacuated 
Petersburg and Richmond (April 3, 1865), and the Federal troops 
took possession of the Confederate capital. 

Lee s Surrender. April 9, 1865. It was Lee s hope to break 
through the Federal lines and join Johnston s forces in North 
Carolina. Grant pursued him closely, however, and cut off his 
retreat. His army was without food, and there was but one thing 
he could do surrender. At Appomattox, April 9, 1865, Grant 
received the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Vir 
ginia. 1 He returned to General Lee his sword. Then he ordered 
five days rations issued to Lee s soldiers and sent them off to 
their farms. Those who had horses or mules were permitted to 
keep them. There were a few minor conflicts elsewhere in the 
South ; then the Civil War was ended. 

As soon as Richmond was evacuated, the officers of the Con 
federate government fled in various directions toward the coast, 
hoping to escape by vessels. Jefferson Davis, the president, went 
into Georgia and was captured at Irwinsville (May 10). He was 
taken to Fortress Monroe, Virginia, and there confined until 1867. 
Subsequently, he was released on bail, but neither he nor the 
other officers of the Confederacy were ever prosecuted. 2 


1801 TO 1805 

The Navies, Federal and Confederate. When the Civil War 
began, the total number of vessels constituting the United States 

1 Seventeen days after Lee s surrender General J. E. Johnston surrendered his 
forces to Sherman, and within the next month the few scattered forces elsewhere 
surrendered. The statistics of the War Department give twenty-eight thousand 
as the number of Lee s army that surrendered at Appomattox ; according to Con 
federate statistics the number was somewhat smaller. There was an entire absence 
of animosity on the part of the soldiers of the two armies. 

2 The keeper of the military prison at Andersonville, Georgia, was court- 
martialed for the inhuman treatment of Federal soldiers who were captives of war. 
He was convicted and hanged. 


navy, available for immediate use, was thirteen seven steam 
vessels, one tug, and five sailing vessels. There were seventeen 
ships in foreign ports, but to recall them required weeks and 
even months. All vessels were at once summoned home, however, 
and additional vessels were purchased or were built. Including 
the craft designed for service on the rivers, a fleet of about four 
hundred vessels were fitted, armed, and put into service during 
the war. 

The Confederacy was as badly off; not only were the war 
authorities without ships, but there were no shipbuilding plants 
or the machine shops necessary for their construction. The 
Southern states grew about five million bales of cotton each 
year, however, and if this could be delivered to England and 
other European markets, it would bring to the Confederate 
treasury many million dollars yearly. With the proceeds of the 
cotton the Confederate authorities could purchase all the muni 
tions of war they might need. 

The Blockade. To prevent this trade, therefore, was an im 
portant object of the Federal authorities. In April, 1861, Presi 
dent Lincoln proclaimed a blockade 1 of the coast of the Confederate 
states, and armed cruisers were stationed about the various ports 
from Virginia to Texas. All foreign vessels were forbidden to enter 
or to leave these ports under penalty of confiscation. The blockade 
became effective in a short time ; nevertheless, it did not deter 
adventurous sailors from undertaking the very risky enterprise of 
attempting to run the blockade. If successful, it was tremen 
dously profitable. Because of the blockade, cotton was worth 
from five to eight cents a pound in Wilmington, North Carolina ; 
in Liverpool, it brought from fifty to sixty cents, and sometimes 

The Blockade Runners. The blockade runners were built espe 
cially for the business. They were of light draught, and could 
easily thread their way through channels too shallow for their 

1 The right to proclaim a blockade is recognized among nations and in inter 
national law. To be effective, however, there must be an actual and not merely 
a " paper " blockade. Vessels entering or leaving a blockaded port do so at their 
own risk. Either one of two powers at war may search a suspected vessel on the 
high sea, and seize munitions of war destined for the other. 


pursuers ; they could also ride safely over obstructions that might 
hinder other vessels. Their low freeboards were painted a dirty 
gray, which made them almost invisible at a distance of a few 
miles ; and to make them less easy to be seen, the smokestack was 
removed when the danger zone was reached. They burned smoke 
less coal, so that there was no tell-tale smoke band to mark the 
vessel s track. They were also speedier than the blockading 

The vessel s run was timed so as to reach the port of destina 
tion at high tide, in the dark of the moon. Then, if not captured 
or sunk, she would make a dash for the port, sell her cargo, take 
one of cotton in return, and watch her chance to escape. 1 The 
profitable character of the business is evident from the fact that 
more than fifteen hundred blockade runners were captured or 

The Confederate Commerce Destroyers. The Confederate authori 
ties succeeded in inflicting a great deal of damage on the com 
merce of the United States during the war, and the greater part 
of it was accomplished by steamships built in Liverpool. They 
were probably the best vessels ever built for the purpose up to 
that time. 2 Several of them were superior in speed to the best 
ships of the Federal navy. 

The Sumter was one of the first of the destroyers to go into 
commission. She cruised about the Gulf of Mexico, and destroyed 
a score of merchant ships. She was finally chased from the Gulf 
of Mexico into the harbor of Gibraltar, where she was sold in 
order to escape capture. 

1 Because of their convenient position, the Bahamas became naturally the 
center of the blocade-running business, and most of it was carried on from Nassau, 
the port and chief town of New Providence Island. To this port merchandise 
or even munitions of war might be lawfully sent from any other place without 
risk. It was Great Britain s duty to see that none of the munitions should be sent 
from Nassau to either belligerent, but she did not do so. Nassau is within easy 
reach of the Gulf and the South Atlantic ports; to Wilmington, North Carolina, 
then a very important Confederate port, the distance was about five hundred 
miles less than two days run. 

2 There were about twenty of these destroyers. Three of them, the Georgia, 
the Tallahassee, and the Tacony, captured or destroyed about fifty merchant- 


Her master, Semmes, then took command of the Alabama. 
This vessel was built in England, with English capital, manned 
The Ala- w ^ n an English crew, and left Liverpool flying the 
bamaandthe English flag, in spite of the protests of the American 
earsarge minister. Her officers were officers of the Confederate 
navy. During the two years of her existence, she cruised in the 
Atlantic and captured sixty-six merchant vessels. In June, 1864, 
she was overhauled in the harbor of Cherbourg, a French port on 

the English Channel, 
by the Kearsarge. A 
challenge to fight 
was sent by her com 
mander to Captain 
Winslow of the Kear 
sarge. The challenge 
was promptly accepted, 
and after a hot con 
flict the Alabama 

was sunk (June 19, 

The Slienandoali had been a steamship plying between London 
and Bombay. She w r as purchased and refitted as a commerce de 
stroyer, her guns being delivered to her by a British ship at an 
uninhabited island near Madeira. The Slienandoali cruised about 
the Pacific, where she captured or destroyed thirty-eight vessels, 
mainly whaling ships and vessels in the China trade. At the 
close of the war sh was returned to the British authorities. 
The Florida? another of the active commerce destroyers, was 
built in Liverpool and armed in the Bahamas. 

It is not often that the British government has been concerned in 

1 The Florida was discovered in the harbor of Bahia, Brazil, by the Wachusett. 
The commander of the latter entered the harbor, captured the vessel, and towed 
her out, in spite of the protests of the Brazilian authorities. To enter a neutral 
harbor and capture a vessel was a gross violation of international law; and so 
the act was disavowed by the Federal government, and the vessel was ordered 
to be returned with an apology. The apology reached the Brazilian authorities, 
but the vessel did not; she was sunk by an alleged accident. Altogether it was 
a (li.u-reditable piece of work. 



The Virginia 

unfair practices, even in time of war. In fitting out these destroyers, 
however, the authorities openly violated the laws of neutrality ; 
in the end, they were compelled to pay a round sum for it. 1 

The Ironclads. The work of the two navies on inland waters 
was unique ; nothing approaching it had ever occurred before in 
the history of warfare. The gunboat flotillas built by both parties 
to the conflict proved to have excellent fighting qualities. They 
were of light draught, and their sloping sides, well armored with 
iron, resisted the fire of the enemy so well that only point blank 
shots at short range were likely to penetrate the vessel. 2 

Just before the beginning of hostilities, the steam frigate 
Merrimac was undergoing repairs at the Norfolk Navy Yard in 
Virginia. Rather than to permit this vessel to fall into 
the hands of the Confederate authorities, the comman 
dant of the navy yard set fire to her. When the Confederate 
authorities got pos 
session of the navy 
yard, it was found 
that the hull and 
engines of the sunken 
Merrimac w r ere un 
injured. The hull 
was raised and on the 
deck was built a 
house work, the four 
sides of which sloped 
to an edge. This bul 
wark consisted of 
timbers two feet 
thick plated with an iron armor four inches thick. The recon 
structed vessel was armed, commissioned, and renamed the Virginia. 

1 See page 360. 

2 The idea of iron armor was not new. In 1860 the British Admiralty had built 
the Warrior, and had plated her with an armor of iron four and one half inches 
thick. This had been done because armor plates had already been put on four 
French warships. The matter of armor-plated ships had, therefore, become one 
of world-wide interest. The Warrior was considered by far the most powerful 
fighting machine in existence. 




The Monitor 


About four months after the construction of the Virginia, 
John Ericsson l made a contract with the Federal authorities for 
an iron vessel unique in character, which was deliv 
ered to the government early in 1862. The greater 
part of her hull was below the water line ; there was less than 
three feet above water. A low conning tower projected above 

the armored deck, and 
from the grating of 
this the helmsman 
could see to steer the 
vessel. A midship 
there was a revolving 
turret containing two 
eleven-inch guns. The 
vessel was named the Monitor. She was insignificant in appear 
ance and no one had much confidence in her fighting power. 

The Great Naval Duel. 1862. In March, 1862, the Virginia was 
ordered to destroy the vessels that were blockading the Virginia 
coast. Her first attempt was directed against the vessels stationed 
in Hampton Roads. She deliberately steamed up to the Cumber 
land, rammed a great hole in her side, and poured a murderous 
broadside into her as she pulled away. The Cumberland sank in 
a very few minutes. Then the Virginia made for the Congress. 
In the first two or three broadsides the Congress caught fire and 
burned furiously ; then the vessel surrendered. By this time it 
was dark, and the Virginia drew away, intending in the morning 
to sink the Minnesota, the Roanoke, and the St. Laivrence. After 
that Washington, New York, and the other great ports of the 
North were at her mercy. 

In the meantime the Monitor had been dispatched to Hampton 
Eoads. She reached the Roads after a most stormy passage of 
The battle of ^ty hours, during which more than once she seemed 
Hampton certain to founder. It was nearly daylight when she 
steamed alongside the Minnesota, but there was no 
time to give her crew the rest they so much needed. When day- 

1 He was an engineer of Swedish birth, then living in New York. The iron 
clad was built at Greenpoint, Long Island. 


light canie, the Virginia steamed for the Minnesota) but the 
Monitor took up the fight in good earnest. The Virginia poured 
broadside after broadside against her antagonist, but the shot 
glanced harmlessly from the Monitor s turret. A shot that 
crumbled against the grating of the conning tower disabled 
Lieutenant Worden, her commander, but did no other damage. 
Several times the Virginia tried to ram the Monitor, and once she 
ran over the latter s bow ; but the blow that would have sunk a 
wooden frigate did not harm the Monitor. For about three hours 
it was almost a muzzle-to-muzzle battle. Then the Virginia drew 
away. She had failed to destroy the rest of the fleet ; moreover, 
she was powerless to do further damage. 1 

The naval battle of two days demonstrated the fact that the 
best of wooden warships could not stand for a moment against 
such a fighting machine as either the Monit or or the Virginia. 
Point-blank broadsides, even at a distance of a few yards, scarcely 
dented either the Monitor or the Virginia, while a single fortunate 
shot at a distance of a mile might penetrate and sink a wooden 
ship. The naval authorities of the United States learned the 
lesson well. Coast defense vessels of the Monitor type have an 
important place in the American navy, and the revolving turret 
is a part of the construction of every battleship. 

Results of Naval Operations on the Coast. The coast opera 
tions of the navy were confined mainly to the enforcement of 
the blockade. The chief offensive work consisted of the occupa 
tion of the various defenses about Palmico and Albemarle sounds, 
and the capture of Port Royal in the latter part of 1861. 2 After 
the evacuation of Norfolk by the Confederates, the Federal navy 
controlled the greater part of the coast from Norfolk to Florida. 
Pensacola, the forts at the mouth of the Mississippi, and New 
Orleans were captured during the spring of 1862. An attack 

1 Both vessels were undeserving of the fate that overtook them. The Monitor, 
which was never built for deep-sea sailing, was unseaworthy in bad weather. 
She foundered shortly afterward in a storm off Cape Hatteras, and a number of 
her crew went down with her. When the Confederate forces abandoned Norfolk, 
it was found that the Virginia drew too much water to get up the James River 
to a place of safety ; she was therefore blown up. 

2 See page 311. 


looking to the capture of Charleston was made in April, 1863 ; 
Fort Sn niter and some of the near-by fortifications were destroyed, 
but the Federal forces failed to take the city. Wilmington and 
its fortifications, the objective point of most blockade runners, 
were not captured until a few months before the surrender of Lee. 1 


The Cofet of the War. Carrying on the war cost the Federal 
government an average of very nearly $2,000,000 a day for a 
period of four years. At its high-water mark (August 1, 1865) 
the national debt was not far from $2,850,000,000. When the 
pensions and other indirect expenses are added, the cost of the 
war was not less than $6,000,000,000. This debt, principal and 
interest, for the greater part was to be paid in gold. 

The government was compelled to do what an individual does 
when he requires more money than he has in possession it bor 
rowed. For some of the expenditures, especially those paid in 
foreign countries, gold and silver were required, as these bills 
were to be paid cash down. For this purpose, the coin in circu 
lation throughout the North was very quickly gathered in and 
sent to the Treasury. 2 This amount, however, was only a drop in 
the bucket ; the great bulk of money was borrowed through the 
aid of banks at home and abroad, and for the money thus bor 
rowed bonds and notes were given. A very large part of these 
loans were arranged through the banking house of Jay Cooke, 
one of the ablest financiers the country has ever produced. A 
large amount of money was also raised by internal taxation. 

1 During the latter part of 1864, the Confederate ironclad Albemarle appeared 
in Albemarle Sound, destroyed the Southfield, and threatened the existence of the 
other vessels of the blockading squadron. A "dare-devil" lieutenant, William 
Barker Gushing, fitted a small launch with a torpedo swung at the bow, steamed 
to the Albemarle at night, lowered the torpedo under her hull, and blew her up. 
Gushing s own launch was destroyed and most of the crew were drowned. Gush 
ing swam ashore, and finally made his way within the Federal lines. The destruc 
tion of the Albemarle led to the capture of Plymouth, North Carolina. 

2 Much of the coin, however, was quickly gathered in by leading banks and held 
at a high premium. To provide the money for ordinary business, the first green 
backs were issued. 


Bonds. The bonds issued by the government were in the form 
of a promise to pay to the holder the sum designated. Some of 
these bonds were payable in twenty years, some in thirty, and 
some in forty years. Most of them were to be paid in gold. 
For some time the bonds did not bring their face value because 
the buyers feared that the government might not be able to redeem 
them. Unscrupulous speculators also tried to impair their value 
in order to lower their price. More than $1,000,000,000 worth of 
these bonds were sold, and every dollar s worth of principal and 
interest was paid on the date it was due. 

Notes and Currency. The notes issued by the Treasury Depart 
ment were of two kinds, the ordinary "greenback" and the 
interest-bearing treasury note. The greenbacks were merely 
promises to pay the face value on the demand of the holder. 
They passed from hand to hand as money. They were not worth 
their face value in gold and, owing to unscrupulous speculators, 
they depreciated steadily until it was evident that the Federal 
government would succeed in holding the Union together. At 
one time a dollar greenback was worth only forty cents in gold. 
The issue of greenbacks amounted to $450,000,000. 

The treasury notes, of which there were several kinds, bore 
interest. In the popular mind they were " safe," and therefore 
they were hoarded by the banks and by small capitalists until 
they gradually disappeared from circulation. The total issue of 
the interest-bearing treasury notes amounted to a little more than 

The fractional paper currency paper money issued in frac 
tions of a dollar was designed to take the place of the silver 
coins that had entirely disappeared from circulation. 1 The de 
nominations issued were the same as those of the silver coin 
which they replaced, except that a fifteen-cent piece was issued. 
Until the issue of this currency, small change was so scarce that 
postage stamps, street-car tickets, and the stamped cards of busi 
ness firms were used in making change. During the time that 
paper money was in use, it is estimated that several million 
dollars worth was lost or destroyed, and inasmuch as it was not 
1 The fractional currency was facetiously known as " shinplasters." 


presented to the Treasury for redemption, the government was 
the gainer. 

Internal Taxation. A large revenue was raised by means of a 
tax on goods used at home. This was known as the internal 
revenue tax. As a matter of fact, not many things escaped this 
kind of taxation, except food. Liquors, tobacco, bottled goods, 
and legal documents yielded the greater part of the revenue, which 
was collected by the use of stamps purchased and affixed by the 
manufacturer. The tax on liquors and tobacco has been con 
tinued to the present time. 

National Banks. At the beginning of the war most of the 
banks of the United States were operating under state charters. 
At that time, Salmon P. Chase, then secretary of the treasury, 
urged the passage of an act to establish national banks, so that 
the sale of United States bonds might be made easier ; in other 
words, with the existence of such banks, partly under the control 
of the United States Treasury, it would be much easier for the 
government to borrow money. The act was opposed by the 
various banks of the country, and not until 1863 did it pass 
the Congress. 

A reason why the state banks opposed the measure is not hard 
to find. Each bank was required to buy government bonds to 
the amount of one third of its capital, and to deposit them with 
the Treasury Department as security. For two years only a few 
of the state banks became national banks; so the Congress put 
a tax of ten per cent on all bills, or money, issued by state 
banks. Then most of them became national banks in order to 
escape the tax. The result was very beneficial ; a great many irre 
sponsible banks " wild-cat banks " they were called 
Provisions were f orce( j ^ g[ ye U p business. Some of them had 
for secunty 

been established with the distinct purpose of swindling 

the communities in which they had been established ; others were 
honestly but inefficiently managed. Under the new law, if a 
national bank failed, the Treasury Department redeemed its bills 
with the proceeds of the bonds on deposit. 

Finances of the Confederate States. The Confederate govern 
ment had great difficulty in raising money for war purposes. 



The chief resource of the Southern states was cotton, which 
could not be sold because of the blockade. The Confederate gov 
ernment sold bonds of its own issue in Europe, but in time no 
one cared to take the risk involved in buying them. After a 
while, every cotton grower was required to loan to the govern 
ment a considerable part of the money he might receive for his 
crop, provided he got it to market, taking his pay in Confederate 
bonds. When it was no longer possible to raise money in this 
way, bills were issued to the amount of several hundred millions 
of dollars. These depreciated, little by little, and at the close 


of the war they were practically worthless. As the Confederacy 
did not win its independence, neither the bills nor the bonds 
were ever redeemed. 


Plans for reconstructing the Seceded States. The problem of 
getting the seceded states back into the Union began before the 
end of the war, and from the first it proved a most difficult one. 
As early as 1863, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Louisiana were occu 
pied by Federal troops, and the people were ready to come into 
the Union again. By their support of the Confederacy they had 
gained nothing and lost everything. 

President Lincoln showed his broad character and goodness 
of heart. In a proclamation of amnesty, he declared his will- 



ingness to pardon all who were at that time, or had been, in 
rebellion against the Federal government, provided that they 
should take oath to support the Constitution and obey 
prociama- the laws of the United States. The President also 
tion. directed the qualified voters to organize their state 

governments. The three states did this ; but when their legis 
latures elected senators to the Congress, that body refused to 
receive them. The Congress then formed a plan of its own 


for readmitting the states, but the bill was passed at the end 
of the session and President Lincoln did not sign it. So the 
matter dragged along, and at the close of the war nothing had 
been accomplished. Neither the Congress nor the President 
cared to take any steps until after the general election, in 
November, 1864. 

The Reelection of Lincoln. 1864. The general election occurred 
before the Civil War had been fought to a finish. During the 
spring of 1864 a faction of the Republican party became dissat 
isfied with Lincoln. Its leaders called a convention, which met 


at Cleveland, Ohio, and nominated John C. Fremont for the 
presidency. This faction believed that Lincoln had been too 
lenient in dealing with the people of Arkansas, Tennessee, and 
Louisiana and thought that all reconstruction plans should be 
made by the Congress. 

A week after the convention at Cleveland, the regular Republi 
can party met in convention at Baltimore. A number of " War 
Democrats " joined them. Lincoln was renominated and Andrew 
Johnson, a Union Democrat of Tennessee, was named for Vice- 
President. This convention approved of Lincoln s war policy and 
of the plan which he wished to put in operation in reconstructing 
the Southern states. 

The Democrats, meeting in convention at Chicago, nominated 
General George B. McClellan for the presidency and declared that 
the war should cease. McClellan accepted the nomination, but at 
once stated his opinion that the war was not a failure and should 
be prosecuted to the end, thus repudiating the platform of his 

Fremont withdrew in September as a candidate for the presi 
dency, and Lincoln was easily elected over McClellan. 

The Murder of President Lincoln. 1865. At the time when 
there was a general rejoicing over the close of the war, President 
Lincoln was struck down by the hand of an assassin. The dread 
ful occurrence took place on April 14, 1865. The President was 
attending a performance at Ford s Theater, in Washington, accom 
panied by his wife and some friends. During the progress of the 
play, a one-time actor named John Wilkes Booth forced his way 
into the President s box and shot him. The President died with 
out recovering consciousness. The murder was the result of 
a conspiracy that planned also the murder of several other officers 
of the government. The assassin was hunted down and killed in 
his attempt to escape. 

The joy of the people over the coming of peace was turned to 
lamentation. The whole nation mourned over the death of the 
great leader, and there was remarkable demonstration of grief and 
affection as his body was borne from Washington to Springfield, 
Illinois, to be laid in its final resting place. 


Immediately after the death of Lincoln, the Vice-President, 
Andrew Johnson, 1 was sworn into office as President. 

Civil Government in the Seceded States. With the surrender of 
General Lee, the Confederate government ceased, leaving the 
seceded states practically without any formal government. So 
far as public order was concerned, there was nothing to fear ; the 
conduct of the people was as orderly as though all laws were in 
force. The wheels of civil government, however, were motionless. 

President Johnson acted quickly in 
the matter. He established courts, 
withdrew the blockading fleet, opened 

the ports for business, and pro- 
THE AUTOGRAPH OF JOHNSON. . n . .. ,, ,, . , 

vided tor the collection ot taxes. In 

order to establish working governments, he appointed a pro 
visional governor in each state and provided for sessions of the 

In this matter the policy of the President was generally com 
mended by the whole country. The administration of the laws 
passed by the provisional legislatures, however, was not always 
above criticism. In various instances vagrancy and pauper laws 
were put into effect, these being virtually aimed at the negro 
population. On the whole, laws of this sort were necessary. A 
large part of the former slave population had the notion that, 
having been freed, they were no longer required to labor for their 
bread and butter; most of them therefore became shiftless and 
idle, and a few became vicious and dangerous. 

In many cases, however, the spirit of these laws was violated, 
and the negroes were put in a condition that was not a whit 
different from actual slavery. When this fact became known in 
the North, there was a feeling of resentment that was not fully 
warranted, because the violation of the spirit of the Thirteenth 

1 ANDREW JOHNSON (1808-1875) was born at Raleigh, North Carolina. He 
began life as a tailor, and made himself the leader of a working-man s party. 
His gifts of oratory were considerable. He rose rapidly ; was elected to the Con 
gress in 1843, and to the Senate in 1857. On the outbreak of the Civil War he 
took a vigorous Union attitude. With a view to conciliating the War Democrats, 
the Republicans nominated him to the vice-presidency. On Lincoln s assassina 
tion he became, by virtue of his office, the seventeenth President. 


Amendment was not general. For this condition of affairs 
President Johnson was unjustly blamed. 

The President and the Congress. 1865, 1866. When the Con 
gress met (December, 1865) much anger was exhibited, especially 
in the Senate. Charges that the President had ex 
ceeded his powers were freely made, and all that he Rights Bill 

had done for the Southern states was ignored. The 
Congress refused to recognize the senators and representatives 
who had been elected to represent the seceded states. A Civil 
Rights Bill giving to the freedmen the right to vote and to sue at 
law in the United States courts was passed (1866) ; also a Freed- 
men s Bureau Bill, which provided for the sale of government 
lands on easy terms. While these acts were under discussion, 
the President s course was sharply criticised in the Senate; the 
President vetoed the acts, but the Congress passed them over his 

By this time President Johnson had lost his temper and a good 
part of his judgment. He made a tour through the West, and in 
his public speeches he strongly denounced the Congress. Some 
members of the Congress likewise were undignified in their 
language. The estrangement of the President and the Congress 
soon became a matter of public concern, inasmuch as it was 
rapidly arousing anew the hostile feeling between the two sec 
tions of the country. 

The Fourteenth Amendment. 1866-1868. Lest the Civil Eights 
Bill should be repealed by a succeeding Congress, its principles 
were embodied (1866) in an amendment to the Constitution. The 
Congress made the approval and adoption of this amendment a 
condition of the readmission of seceded states into the Union. 
This Fourteenth Amendment received the necessary ratifications 
in 1868. 

The Reconstruction Policy of the Congress. 1867. In the 
meantime, the Congress had proceeded to carry out a different 
plan of reconstruction. Tennessee had already been 
readmitted, being the only seceded state at that time 
accepting the Fourteenth Amendment. The remain 
ing ten states were grouped into five military districts, and a 


military governor was placed in charge of each district (1867). 
In order to be readmitted to the Union, each state was required 

To adopt a new state constitution that should guarantee to the 
freedmen full civil rights, including the right to vote. 

To ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. 

If the Congress approved the constitution adopted by the state, 
the latter might then be readmitted, and again become a member 
of the Federal Union. Six of the states Arkansas, North Caro 
lina, South Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, and Alabama carried 
out these provisions and were readmitted. 

The Impeachment of President Johnson. 1868. The quarrel 

between the President and the Congress was daily becoming 

more bitter. Some of the leaders in the Congress feared that the 

President might prevent the operation of the various acts of 

reconstruction by removing the officers responsible for 

their execution. So the Tenure of Office Act, forbid- 
Unice Act 7 

ding the removal of a Federal officer by the President 
without the consent of the Senate, was passed. 

During the second year of his term (August, 1867) President 
Johnson suspended the secretary of war, Edwin M. Stanton, and 
appointed General Grant in his place. This he had a perfect 
right to do. The Senate, however, would not approve the Presi 
dent s action, and ordered that Stanton be restored to the office. 
The President did not obey the order ; on the contrary, he ap- 
The attem t P^ n ^6d General Lorenzo Thomas secretary of war, 
to remove and directed him to seize the office. All this was a 
Stanton violation of the Tenure of Office Act ; so the House 
impeached the President (February 24, 1868), and he was ordered 
to be tried before the Senate. At the conclusion of the trial, the 
Senate failed, by one vote, to find him guilty. 

Carpet-bag Rule in the South. The Congressional plan of 
reconstructing the Southern states had an effect that was never 
intended. The reconstruction acts gave to freedmen the right 
to vote and to hold office, and disfranchised those who prior 
to the war had held office and had afterwards supported the 
Confederacy. Moreover, every officer was required to take oath 



that he had not aided in the struggle against the Union. As 
a result, nearly all the officers of the Southern state govern 
ments were either freedmen or else political adventurers, called 
carpet-baggers, who had gone into the Southern states after the 
close of the war. Under their rule the people fared about as 
badly as they did during the time of hostilities. The destruction 
of property had been one of the fortunes of war. During the 
period of reconstruction, the story of the course of events in the 
South is a history of pillage, theft, and corruption in office. 


Enormous sums were voted by the legislatures, only to be wasted 
or stolen. It was about ten years before the responsible people 
got possession of the reins of government again. 

The Ku Klux Klan. In the depth of their misery, some of 
the more hot-headed people of the South resorted to acts that 
were unwise and illegal. They organized secret societies for the 
purpose of frightening the freedmen away from the voting places 
at election time. It was the negro vote that elected the carpet 
bagger to the legislatures ; and by keeping the negro voter away 
from the polls, it was hoped that responsible men might be 
elected to fill the offices. 


There were several societies of this character, one of which, 
the Ku Klux Klan f became widely known. At first it was a 
secret organization for social purposes, but in time it took a 
political character. As is often the case in such organizations, 
it finally became an agency for evil doing and private revenge. 
In many instances the members carried on their work with 
such brutality that their victims were murdered or crippled 
for life. 

The Fifteenth Amendment. 1869. In consequence of the inter 
ference with negro voting, the Congress passed the necessary 
legislation for the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment, which 
was duly ratified by the necessary number of states. This amend 
ment provided for the protection of voters ; under its provisions 
the Force Act was passed, making it an offense to hinder or to 
intimidate a voter. For several years thereafter, Federal troops 
were stationed at the polls during the elections, when it was 
thought that such a measure was necessary. 

Reconstruction Completed. As the real condition of affairs in 
the South became known to the people of the country at large, 
there grew a feeling that some of the measures imposed upon the 
Southern people had been unnecessarily harsh. It was learned 
that the great mass of the people in the South were peaceful and 
law abiding, and that they were willing to do anything that would 
insure the possibility of earning their bread and butter in peace. 
Having been defeated in war, they intended that their loyalty to 
the Union should be beyond question. When this was appreci 
ated throughout the country, the sentiment against harsh and 
coercive measures became very strong; it finally took shape in 
the organization of the Liberal Republicans. The organization 
lived long enough to change very materially the severity that 
had marked the treatment of the Southern people. 

Proclamations pardoning certain of those who had borne arms 
against the Federal government had been issued on several occa- 
The am- sions, each being more liberal than the one preceding, 
nesty proc- There still remained, however, a large number of 
Southerners who did not have full rights of citizen 
ship. On Christmas Day, 1868, President Johnson granted a 


general pardon to all those remaining. 1 It is certain that no 
Christinas gift ever granted was more appreciated than this. 

In the meantime, the remaining four states Virginia, Georgia, 
Mississippi and Texas had complied with all neces- states 
sary requirements, and were readmitted (1870) to the readmitted 
Union. This practically completed the work of reconstruction. 


The election of Abraham Lincoln was considered a menace to the 
expansion of slavery, and the secession of states from the Union began. 

A confederacy of Southern states was organized, and the forts, navy 
yards, and arsenals of the United States were seized. The bombardment 
of Fort Sumter by the Confederates practically began the Civil War. 

The plan of the Federal government for carrying on the war included : 

Operations along the Potomac looking to the capture of Richmond, 
which were unsuccessful, chiefly because of the defeat of the Federal 
army at Bull Run. 

Operations on the frontier of Kentucky, which resulted in the capture 
of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, and the battle of Shiloh. The line 
of the Federal troops advanced (1861-1862) to the northern border of 
Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia, involving the battles of luka, Corinth, 
Murfreesboro, and Pea Ridge. 

Operations on the coast, which led to the capture of Port Royal Sound. 
The capture of New Orleans and the reduction of the forts near its 
mouth opened the lower Mississippi. 

The Peninsular campaign under General McClellan, beginning in 
1862, was organized for the purpose of capturing Richmond. At York 
peninsula, McClellan fought the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, and 
Seven Pines, reaching a point within sight of Richmond. The Con 
federate Generals Lee and Jackson retaliated by a raid into Maryland, 
but were forced back. 

General Lee invaded the north, but was defeated and driven back at 
the battle of Gettysburg by General Meade. 

In the first seven months of 1863 the Mississippi River between Port 
Hudson and Vicksburg was opened by the capture of those two strong 

In the latter half of 1863 the Union lines were pushed south by the 

1 Jefferson Davis was then a prisoner, and was not included in the proclamation. 


capture of Chattanooga and the destruction of General Johnson s army 
at Dalton. 

The closing campaigns of the war (1864-1865) consisted of operations 
against Richmond from the north, and Sherman s march from Atlanta 
to a point south of Richmond. 

The operations against Richmond involved the battles of the Wilder 
ness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg, in which General Grant 
pushed General Lee s army south to Petersburg. Early s raid through 
the Shenandoah was checked by General Sheridan. 

In his march across Georgia General Sherman destroyed all available 
supplies between Atlanta and Savannah. 

The capture of Richmond practically closed the war. General Lee 
surrendered at Appomattox. 

The Federal naval work of the Civil War consisted of the blockading 
of the Southern ports, the destruction of blockade runners, and the 
operation of the flotilla of iron-clad gunboats on the Mississippi and 
Tennessee rivers. 

The Confederate operations consisted mainly of the destruction of 
merchant ships by fast vessels built and armed mainly in Great Britain. 

The most important naval encounter was the fight between the Con 
federate ironclad Virginia and the turret gunboat Monitor. 

The money for carrying on the war for the Union was borrowed both 
at home and abroad by : 

The issue of about one billion dollars worth of bonds, the principal 
and interest of which was payable in gold ; and 

The various issues of greenbacks or paper money, to the amount of 
about $ 575,000,000 ; and 

An internal tax. 

The financial operations of the war led to the establishment of national 

The congressional acts of reconstruction provided that the seceded 
states should remain under military control until they should adopt state 
constitutional amendments guaranteeing civil rights to the freed slaves, 
and should ratify the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of 
the United States. 


The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War Fiske. 

The American Conflict Greeley. 

Drumbeat of the Nation Coffin. (For popular reading.) 

Campaigns of the Civil War Scribner. 



Gold and Silver in the Rocky Mountains. The discovery of 
new deposits of precious metals in 1858 and the few years fol 
lowing resulted in extensive emigration to the West. A part of 
the tide of emigrants went to the vicinity of Pikes Peak, Colorado. 
In two years the mining camp of Denver became a city of several 
thousand people ; at the end of the century it had become one of 


the great centers of mining industry, and its existence was a factor 
in the demand for a transcontinental railway. 

About the time of the Pikes Peak discoveries, the Corn- 
stock lode, a vein of ore rich in both silver and gold, was dis 
covered in the western part of Nevada. Carson and Virginia City 



sprang into existence, and in a very short time many mines were 

New States and Territories. The western movement of popula 
tion was increased by the discoveries of gold and silver, and there 
was much prospecting for these metals throughout the 
Nebraska Rocky Mountains. With each new discovery there 
was a rush of miners. As a result Colorado became 
a territory in 1861 ; the territory of Dakota was formed in 1861 ; 
Idaho followed in 1863 ; Arizona was severed from New Mexico 
the same year ; Montana was organized in 1864 ; Wyoming began 
its territorial history in 1868. In 1864 Nevada was admitted as 
the thirty-sixth state, three years after it had been organized as 
a territory. Nebraska, the thirty-seventh state, was admitted in 

Napoleon III attempts to invade Mexico. 1864-1867. The at 
tempt of Napoleon III to extend French power to America was 
practically one of the events of the Civil War. In this war the 
French emperor saw his opportunity. Mexico owed considerable 
sums of money in Europe, and as she could not pay, Great Britain, 
Spain, and France sent troops to hold Mexican seaports until the 
debts were paid. Great Britain and Spain withdrew as soon as 
the claims were paid, but the French emperor attempted to 
destroy the Mexican republic. About 1864, Napoleon deposed 
the officers of the Mexican government and made Maximilian, a 
brother of the Austrian emperor, the sovereign of Mexico. 

This act was clearly contrary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1 but 
during the Civil War the United States government could do 
nothing more than to protest. To the protests Napoleon paid no 
attention. At the close of the war, however, General Sheridan 
was dispatched to the Mexican frontier with 50,000 troops. * The 
French troops were immediately withdrawn. Napoleon then 
performed the cowardly act of leaving Maximilian to his fate. 
The Mexicans promptly shot him and reestablished their republic. 

The Purchase of Alaska. 1867. By the efforts of Secretary 
of State William H. Seward, Alaska, or Russian America, was 
purchased from the Emperor of Russia for $7,200,000. The terri- 

1 See page 248. 


tory had been a burden to Russia, but Seward had an enthusiastic 
belief in the future of Alaska. The purchase was considered a 
most profitable investment inasmuch as it included valuable fish 
eries and the largest fur-seal rookeries in the world. 

Grant elected President. 1868. In previous elections for Presi 
dent, a successful soldier had always proved a good candidate. 
Jackson, Harrison, and Taylor had become prominent as soldiers 
rather than as statesmen. General Grant was therefore considered 
by the Eepublicans the most available candidate for the election 
^ of 1868. Horatio Seymour 

of New York was nominated 
by the Democrats. There 
was no material difference 
THE AUTOGRAPH OF GRANT. between the two platforms 

except that the Democratic platform was against giving away 
lands for public improvements. Grant and Colfax were elected, 
and were inaugurated, March 4, 1869. 

The Rise of the Labor Reform Party. During the campaign the 
labor element came to the front. Labor organizations were no 
new thing ; this time, however, organized labor became a national 
matter and effected a national organization. National labor 
congresses held sessions in Louisville, Chicago, New York, and 
Cincinnati, and presented a ticket for the presidential election. 
The attitude of the labor congress in demanding the repeal of the 
national bank law and the issue of unlimited paper money cost 
the party many votes that otherwise it would have held. Two 
planks in the platform subsequently proved to be sound the 
exclusion of Chinese coolies and laborers and the refusal of public 
land grants to corporations. 

Indian Troubles. The loose system of dealing with the tribes 
of Western Indians more than once has brought the United States 
into hostile relations with them. For the greater part, the corrupt 
practices of contractors and of white men who sought possession 
of Indian lands have caused these troubles. In 1873 the Modocs 
of Oregon killed several innocent white settlers, and resisted the 
troops sent to put them back upon their reservation. They forti 
fied themselves in an inaccessible place, and treacherously killed 



two of the commissioners who went there to confer with them. 
They were finally captured and sent to the Indian Territory. 

The Sioux have always been troublesome. During the Civil 
War about sixty were hanged at Mankato, Minnesota, for the 
massacre of white settlers. In 1876 they refused to 
leave the Plains and go upon the reservation, where 
it had been found necessary to place them. In 
defiance, they intrenched themselves in the valley of Little 
Big Horn River, 
Montana. Gen 
eral George A. 
Custer attempt 
ed to drive them 
from their posi 
tion. He had 
two hundred and 


sixty-two men 

in his command. 

When the fight 

was finished, 

Custer and his 

two hundred and 

sixty-two men 

were dead on 

the field. The only survivors were Captain Keogh s horse and a 

cowardly Crow scout. The Indians were finally beaten. 

The Chicago and Boston Fires. Like most cities of very rapid 
growth, the city of Chicago was but little better than a tinder 
box at the end of its first fifty years. A fire broke out (October, 
1871) in a part of the city that consisted of light, frame buildings. 
A strong wind spread the fire for two days, sweeping over five 
square miles, including the business part of the city. Although 
the loss was heavy, it proved a blessing. The burned district was 
again covered with substantial buildings almost like magic. A 
year later (November, 1872), the business section of Boston was 
destroyed by fire. Sixty acres of buildings were destroyed. Like 
the Chicago fire, it proved to be most beneficial in final results. 


The Geneva Award. 1871. At the close of the Civil War, the 
United States made a demand on Great Britain for damages 
inflicted by the Confederate cruisers built and armed in British 
waters. 1 The British government evaded the question for several 
years, but finally the two governments made a treaty at Wash 
ington (1871) agreeing to refer the matter to a board of five 
arbitrators. The Board of Arbitration met at Geneva, Switzer 
land. As a result, the United States was awarded the sum of 

The Boundary and Fisheries Disputes. 1872, 1877. For many 
years the boundary line between British Columbia and Washing 
ton Territory had been in dispute, and for some time both British 
and American troops had been in camp on very friendly terms at 
San Juan Island, in the straits of Juan de Fuca. The matter 
was referred to the Emperor of Germany (1872), who awarded the 
islands in dispute to the United States. 

A few years later (1877), during Grant s second term, a dispute 
over certain privileges of the Canadian fishing waters was sub 
mitted to arbitration. In this case it was shown that the Ameri 
cans were the aggressors, and the United States paid $5,500,000 

The Reelection of Grant. 1872. The management of affairs in 
the South caused the organization of the Liberal Eepublican 
party. 2 The regular party nominated General Grant and Henry 
Wilson ; the Liberal Republicans chose Horace Greeley as their 
candidate. The Democrats endorsed Greeley and the two parties 
compromised by uniting on B. Gratz Brown of Missouri for 
Vice-President. Subsequently, the dissatisfied elements of both 
Liberal Republicans and Democrats nominated presidential candi 
dates. The Prohibitionists also nominated candidates. Grant 
was reflected by a heavy vote. 

Four Years of Corrupt Politics. W hen a political party is in 
power any length of time, officials are apt to use their positions to 
secure money and other advantages unfairly. Such was the case 
in Grant s administration ; many corrupt officials brought about 
shameful scandals. Those that came within reach of the Presi- 
1 See page 337. 2 See page 352. 


dent s hand were exposed and so far as possible the culprits were 
punished. Public displeasure was aroused to the extent that the 
Democrats obtained a majority in the House of Representatives. 

The Election of 1876; the Tilden-Hayes Episode. As a result 
there were several parties in the field during the campaign of 
1876. The Prohibition party showed a considerable strength, and 
people who were dissatisfied with financial measures formed the 
Greenback party. The Democrats nominated Samuel J. Tilden 
and Thomas A. Hendricks. There was dissension among the 
Republicans; the convention was held in Cincinnati, and after 
many fruitless ballots had been cast, Rutherford B. Hayes 1 of 
Ohio and William A. Wheeler of New York were nominated. 

When election day came, Tilden received a much larger popular 
vote than either of the other candidates. The electoral vote, how 
ever, was a different matter. One hundred and eighty-five votes 
were required to elect a candidate, and the Democrats could count 
with certainty on only one hundred and eighty-four. In Oregon, 
Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina the electoral vote was in 
doubt and each party claimed the electors. 

This was a difficulty that had never been contemplated, and no 
one had thought that it would ever occur. The Congress passed 
an act referring the matter to a joint Electoral Commission of five 
senators, five representatives, and five justices of the Supreme 
Court. The Congress named two Repub 
lican and two Democratic justices; the 
fifth justice was to be chosen by these * 

four, and they chose a Republican. The THE AUTOGRAPH OF HAYES. 
joint commission, which then consisted of eight Republicans and 
seven Democrats, declared Hayes to be elected. 

The Policy of Conciliation in the South. President Hayes be- 

1 RUTHERFORD B. HAYES (1822-1893) was born in Delaware, Ohio. He was a 
graduate of the Harvard Law School. By means of his ability and industry he 
soon established an excellent practice. He fought in the Civil War on the Union 
side, and was brevetted major-general of volunteers. After the conclusion of the 
war he served as member of the Congress, and twice as governor of Ohio. In 
1877 he became the nineteenth President. He was much interested in educational 
work and prison reform ; in prison government many of his remarks have 
become maxims. 


lieved that the measures imposed upon the South had been un 
necessarily harsh. During his administration the Federal troops 
that had upheld carpet-bag rule in several Southern states 
notably in Louisiana and South Carolina were withdrawn. 
Responsible officers were at once put in charge of public affairs 
in these states. 

Colorado Admitted. 1876. Colorado, the thirty-eighth state, 
was admitted to statehood just one hundred years after the 
Declaration of Independence. It is therefore the "Centennial 

The Railroad Strike at Pittsburg. 1877. Strikes among work- 
ingmen for the purpose of bettering their condition have taken 
place ever since workingmen have had organizations. In the 
United States, railway employees form a group notable for 
intelligence, courage, and efficiency. Although organization was 
common among workingmen, the railway men were about the 
first in the country to form themselves into closely organized 
brotherhoods that could be relied upon to act as a unit. 

In 1877 the employees of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at 
Pittsburg declared a strike in order to compel the management to 
redress certain alleged grievances. The strike extended to other 
divisions of the railway and then to other railways. Unfortu 
nately, there were serious riots along the lines of the various rail 
ways. In Pittsburg it was necessary to call upon the troops to 
restore order. Property to the value of many millions of dollars 
was destroyed. 

Financial Affairs. During Grant s administration, the Congress 
had made gold the standard money of the country (1873). l In 
1878 the Bland-Allison Bill made both silver and gold basic 
money in other words, acceptable for all debts. In 1879 the 
government accepted greenbacks at face value, paying gold for 
them on demand. This made the greenbacks equal in value 
to gold. 

The Election of Garfield and Arthur. 1880. An unsuccessful 
effort was made to nominate General Grant for a third term, in 
spite of traditions to the contrary. The Republicans finally norni- 

1 See page ,181. 


nated James A. Garfield l of Ohio and Chester A. Arthur of New 

York. The Democrats nominated Winrield S. Hancock, a gallant 

soldier; and the Labor and Greenback parties combined with 

James B. Weaver at 

the head of the 

ticket. Garfield was 


The Murder of Gar- 

field. 1881. Presi 
dent Garfield had been in office about four months, when he was 
shot down by a disappointed office seeker. He lingered until Sep 
tember and then died. Vice-President Arthur 2 was immediately 
sworn in as President. 

Civil Service Reform. The murder of Garfield was a result of 
the most disgraceful system of distributing public offices among 

a rabble of political 
" heelers." Under 
the long-continued 
spoils system, 3 the 
THE AUTOGRAPH or ARTHUR. administration of 

public business had been conducted bunglingly and inefficiently. 
The fitness of an official was rarely considered. The only question 

1 JAMES A. GARFIELD (1831-1881) was born at Orange, Ohio. He grew up amid 
hardships in a log-cabin home in the Ohio wilderness. His schooling was inci 
dental, but, like Lincoln, he educated himself by a persistent course of reading. 
He graduated from Williams College, Massachusetts. He was elected president 
of Hiram College, Ohio, where he gained recognition as an able educator. He 
served with distinction in the Civil War. He was elected a member of the Con 
gress, and later United States senator. In 1881 he became the twentieth Presi 
dent. He was shot by Charles J. Giteau, July 2, 1881, and died in the following 

2 CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR (1830-1886) was a native of Fairfield, Vermont. He 
graduated from Union College in 1848. He began to practice law in New York, 
and won reputation by his arguments in behalf of the negroes. In 18(52 he was 
made inspector-general and quartermaster-general of the New York troops. 
In 1871 President Grant appointed him collector of the port of New York. In 
1880 he was elected Vice-President, and, on the death of Garfield, succeeded to 
the post of President. His attitude during his administration was admirable for 
its fairmindedness and independence. 

3 See page 260. 


would be : Is he a Democrat ? or, Is he a Kepublican ? When 
Democrats came into power, they were apt to put every Kepublican 
out and fill the offices with Democrats, and the Kepublicans in 
turn did the same. To business men such a system seemed 

In 1883 Civil Service laws were enacted. These laws require 
that candidates for certain classes of official positions must be 
Competitive se l ec ^ e( i by competitive examination. Under the laws 
examina- an official cannot be removed from office for political 
reasons, nor are political leaders permitted to demand 
money from officers for political purposes. President Arthur gave 
the civil service laws his support, and his successors have done like 
wise. Many of the states and cities have adopted similar regulations. 

Letter Postage Reduced. Up to 1816 the postage on a letter 
consisting of a single sheet of paper varied from eight to twenty- 
five cents, according to the distance of the locality to which it 
was sent. In 1816 the rates of postage were reduced about one 
fifth. In 1851 the postage on a letter was reduced to three cents 
per half ounce for all distances less than three thousand miles. 
In 1863 it became three cents for all domestic letters without 
respect to distance. In 1872 postal cards were authorized, and 
in 1883 the postage on domestic letters was fixed at two cents. 
The United States is a member of the International Postal 
Union ; among the states of this Union the postage rate of 
foreign letters is not more than five cents. 

Cleveland elected President ; the Democrats in Power. 1884. - 
During Arthur s administration there had been an effort to 
reform the abuses that had caused widespread complaint. The 
manner of doing this had caused dissensions in the Kepublican 
party, and as a result Arthur was not nominated for a second 
term. This angered a great many Kepublicans. James G. 
Blaine of Maine was put at the head of the ticket. In a long 
and honorable political career Blaine had made many bitter 
enemies, and the strength of the party in this election was there 
fore greatly impaired. Grover Cleveland, 1 the governor of New 

1 GROVER CLEVELAND was born in Caldwell, New Jersey, in J837. He began 
the practice of law in Buffalo, New York. After holding many local offices, he 


York, was the candidate of the Democrats. He was elected, and 
the Democratic party came into the control of the country after a 
lapse of twenty-four 

The Presidential 
Succession. One of 
the first acts of the THE AUTOGRAPH OF CLEVELAND. 

new administration was a series of measures to prevent a repeti 
tion of the Hayes-Tilden episode. A Presidential Succession Act 
(1886) provided that, in the event of a vacancy in the office of 
both President and Vice-President, the office of President should 
devolve in order upon the secretary of state, the secretary of the 
treasury, the secretary of war, the attorney-general, the postmaster 
general, the secretary of the navy, the secretary of the interior. 
The place of the Vice-President is filled by the president pro tern 
of the Senate. The Electoral Count Act (1887) provides for such 
details of counting the electoral votes as are not named in the 

Rebuilding the Navy. At the close of the Civil War the navy 
of the United States was the strongest afloat. Twenty years later 
it consisted of a few rusted monitors and several half-rotten wooden 
steam vessels ; it was the laughingstock of the world. There was 
no question of the personnel of the navy, however ; it was without 
superior, thanks to an efficient naval academy. Under Secretary 
of the Navy William C. Whitney, the beginning of a new navy 
was effected during . Cleveland s administration. A dispatch 
boat and two steel cruisers formed the beginning of a fleet that, 
at the close of the century, consisted of about three hundred vessels, 
some of the battleships being the most powerful in existence. 

The Chicago Riots. 1886. During a railway strike, of which 
Chicago was the center, an organized body of anarchists came to 
the front, and made a great deal of trouble. When the police at 
tempted to scatter a gang at Hay market Square, Chicago, the 
latter retaliated by throwing a bomb among the police, killing 

became governor of New York in 1883. The next year he was made President. 
He served a second term as President, from 1893-1897. He is a man of great 
personal popularity, and even in his retirement is an influence and power. 



seven and wounding a large number. The leaders of the gang 
were convicted and hanged. 

Harrison elected President. 1888. During Cleveland s first 
term, there was not a little agitation over the tariff. As a rule, 
the Democrats have favored a low tariff, while the Repub 
licans have stood for a protective tariff. It was feared that, if 
the Democrats were in power another term, the tariff would be 
lowered, to the injury of the country s manufactures. Cleveland 

Copyright, 1902, by A. Loeffler. 


was nominated by the Democrats for a second term; Benjamin 
Harrison 1 of Indiana, a grandson of General William Henry 
Harrison, was the Republican candidate. Harrison was elected. 

New States Admitted. During Harrison s administration the 
Union of states was materially strengthened, and six new stars 

1 BENJAMIN HARRISON (1833-11)01) was a native of North Bend, Ohio, and was 
a graduate of Miami University. He began the practice of law in Indianapolis, 
and early won recognition as an able lawyer. In the Civil War he commanded 
an Indiana regiment; he distinguished himself by his gallant conduct in the 
Atlanta campaign, and was brevetted brigadier-general. He was elected to the 
United States Senate from Indiana, and, in 1889, became President. After serv 
ing his term as President, he filled many positions of international distinction. 


were added to the field of the national flag. In 1889 Dakota Ter 
ritory was divided ; and North Dakota and South Dakota became 

the thirty-ninth and fortieth states. 
Montana, the forty-first, and Wash- 
ington, the forty-second, were ad- 

THE AUTOGRAPH OF HARRISON. mitted in that y ear 5 Idaho > the 

forty-third, and Wyoming, the forty- 
fourth, were added in the following year. Oklahoma was set off 
from the Indian Territory, and made a territory by itself in 1889. 
Tariff Revision. 1890. The tariff revision of 1890, commonly 
known as the McKinley tariff, raised the average of duties on im 
ported goods materially. It also provided a scheme 
^ rec ip roc ity ; that is, it offered a nominal tariff or 
the free entry of certain goods from nations which 
might make a similar concession to the United States. In some 
instances the McKinley tariff proved prohibitive ; that is, certain 
goods could not be imported at all, because the increased tariff 
made the price so high that the goods could not be sold. 

Financial Matters. The Sherman Act, providing for the pur 
chase of four and one half million ounces of silver 
man Ac?" eac ^ montn j was an important incident of Harrison s 

administration. 1 

Pension Increase. The United States has always been liberal 
to the soldiers who fought to preserve the Union. The pension 
list of the Civil War was a large one, and no patriotic citizen 
objected. In 1890 it was increased to include all soldiers 
unable to earn their living. At the close of the century there 
were nearly one million pensioners, drawing an aggregate of 
$140,000,000 annually. 

Cleveland s Second Election. 1892. It was generally felt that 
the McKinley tariff was unnecessarily high ; it was also discov 
ered that the tariff did not produce the revenue expected because 
certain lines of goods were not imported at all. The campaign of 
1892, therefore, centered upon the question of the tariff. President 
Harrison was nominated for a second term, and so was former 
President Cleveland. At the election Cleveland received nearly 

1 See page 385. 



twice as many votes as his chief competitor. A new organization, 
the People s party, carried several Western states. 

The Columbian Exposition. 1893. The four hundredth anniver 
sary of the discovery of America was celebrated by a great ex 
position held in the city of Chicago. The dedication took place 
in October, 1892 ; the fair was formally opened in May of the 
following year. It was an exposition of the world s progress, 


and nearly every nation was represented. Twenty million people 
attended it. 

The Extra Session of Congress. 1893. An extra session of the 
Congress was convoked by President Cleveland (August, 1893) 
in order to take action on the low price to which silver had fallen. 
The Congress repealed the Sherman Act, which had required 
the Treasury to buy four and one half million ounces of silver 
each month. 

Tariff Revision. 1894. The Congress amended the tariff, in 
1894, by an act known as the Wilson Bill. The reduction was 


not great, but it brought about a fear that there might be furthei 
reductions. Capitalists are slow to invest in new enterprises 
The Wilson when any change in the tariff laws is likely to be 
tariff made. The frequent changes at this time had tended 

to prevent investment, and business stagnation resulted. 

Labor Troubles. 1894. In 1894 the employees of the Pullman 
Car Company at Chicago quit work on account of a grievance 
which the company declined to satisfy. The various railway 
unions with which the Pullman Company employees were 
affiliated also struck in sympathy. It proved to be one of the 
greatest strikes in history. Almost all railways in the country 
were tied up. Property to the value of several millions of dollars 
was destroyed by rioters, and the transmission of the mails was 

In this state of affairs President Cleveland ordered Federal 
troops to the scene of trouble. The governor of Illinois objected 
strongly, but President Cleveland pointed out the fact that it 
was his sworn duty to see that the handling of the mails should 
not be delayed. The strike leaders were enjoined by the courts 
from interfering with the mails. Some of them disobeyed the 
injunction and they were therefore punished. This broke the 
strike; it was declared to be " government by injunction," but it 
was nevertheless effective. 

Foreign Complications. In 1893 the queen of the Hawaiian 
Kingdom was deposed by revolutionists. The revolutionary 
Hawaii government desired the annexation of the islands by 

the United States, and the American flag was raised 
over a public building in Honolulu. When President Cleveland 
learned that the revolutionists had been aided by American 
officers, he disavowed the act. 

The Monroe Doctrine became a live issue again in 1895. A 
dispute over the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana 
The Venez- seemed likely to result in the loss of a considerable 
ueia dispute par t o f Venezuelan territory. President Cleveland 
protested against the act of Great Britain, and the latter agreed 
to submit the matter to arbitration, with the result that Venezuela 
saved the greater part of the territory in dispute. 


McKinley elected President. 1896. A foreign critic once declared 
that a presidential election in the United States costs as much as 
the support of the royal family in Great Britain. This is not far 
from the truth ; but the presidential election in the United States 
usually has been a campaign of education, and the election of 1892 
was worth the money it cost from an educational standpoint. 

It was a foregone conclusion that the silver question would be 
the chief issue. The Democrats met in convention at Chicago 
and nominated William J. Bryan of Nebraska. The 
chief plank in the platform declared for the free and 
unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio which made six 
teen ounces of silver equal in coin value to one ounce of gold. 
Another plank made contracts that had been drawn on a gold 
basis, payable in silver. 
The People s party also 
nominated Bryan. There 
were many Democrats 
who favored a gold stand 
ard ; they nominated John THE AUTOGRAPH OF MCKINLEY. 
M. Palmer of Illinois. The Republicans nominated William McKin 
ley l of Ohio. The Republican platform was for sound money 
practically for gold as a standard. McKinley was elected. 

Chinese Exclusion. Chinese coolies were brought to the United 
States in order to build the Pacific railways. They were imported 
under contracts with the various " tongs " or companies, and were 
in a condition of servitude almost precisely like that of the redemp- 
tioners brought to the United States two hundred years before. 
They were hired for less than half the wages paid to white 
laborers ; nevertheless they were orderly and serviceable. 

i WILLIAM McKmLEY (1843-1901) was a native of Trumbull County, Ohio. He 
was educated at Union Seminary, Ohio, and Allegheny College, Pennsylvania. 
He enlisted in the Civil War and attained the rank of major. He was elected 
member of the Congress, and was chairman of the Committee on Ways and 
Means in the House, 1889-1891. In this latter capacity he introduced the famous 
McKinley Tariff Bill. He served two terms as governor of Ohio. In 1896 he 
was elected President, and was reflected in 1900. On September 6, 1901, while 
holding a reception at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, he was shot by an 
anarchist; he died September 14. He was of a gentle, dignified, and strong 
character, and his death caused universal sorrow. 



Within a few years after the completion of the railways, about 
seventy-five thousand emigrated from China, and settled mainly 
in California. There they monopolized the greater 
P art ^ tne ^ e ^ ^ ^ a ^ ^ a ^ 01 ? being employed in the 
mines, in most of the manufacturing establishments, in 
the laundries, and as house servants. They made faithful and 
efficient laborers, and that is about all that could be said in their 
favor. After a score of years they were still aliens, both in heart 
and in their ways of living. There was no home life among 
them ; they lived under conditions that were degrading, disre 
garding all laws except those imposed by the companies that 
owned them. They did not "Americanize," and they had no 
loyalty to the government. Even their earnings were sent to China. 
In the seventies there began an agitation that led to the exclu 
sion of Chinese coolies. An act of the Congress (1882) forbade 
Chinese laborers from entering the country for a period 
Exclusion Q ten ^^ . it wag renewed in 1892 an ^ again in 1902. 

The act also forbade their going to the island posses 
sions of the United States. The administration of the law, in 
many instances, has not been creditable to our country. 

The Uprising in China. For a number of years there was grow 
ing in China a sentiment against foreign intrusion. This resulted 
largely from the conduct of the foreigners themselves. The Chinese 
had no competent army and navy. However disgraceful, it is 
not far from correct to say that the Chinese had no rights that 
foreign nations felt bound to respect. A war between China and 
Japan had half awakened a long-dormant warlike feeling among 
the Chinese, and the fact that several European states had forced 
China to cede or lease Chinese territory to them gradually 
brought about a very ugly feeling toward foreigners. 

In 1900 a secret society the name, loosely translated, means 
" boxers " - was organized for the purpose of expelling foreigners. 
The Empress dowager secretly encouraged the society, and the 
foreign legations were attacked. Japan, the United States, and 
the European powers sent troops to rescue their embassies. Peking 
was entered, the uprising was quelled, and the people of the 
embassies were rescued. 


20 - IN 1906 


) 200 300 



The discovery of gold and silver in the Western highlands caused an 
emigration from the East to that section. The organization of several 
states and territories resulted. 

During Grant s two term s, the Modoc and the Sioux Indians, who had 
gone on the warpath, were subdued. Chicago and Boston were nearly 
destroyed by fire. The Geneva Board of Arbitration awarded $15,500,000 
to the United States for damages done by Confederate cruisers built or 
armed in British ports. The boundary between Washington Territory 
and British Columbia was settled. The United States paid Canada 
$ 5,500,000 damages claimed in the fisheries dispute. 

The election of Hayes was decided by a Joint Electoral Commission, 
the regular electoral vote being in doubt. Conciliatory measures were 
made the policy of the administration in the South. Silver was demone 
tized, and gold was made the standard. 

President Garfield was murdered, and Vice-President Arthur became 
President. Civil service laws were enacted. 

In Cleveland s first administration the rebuilding of the navy began. 
The presidential succession was established. 

In Harrison s administration North and South Dakota, Montana, 
Washington, and Idaho were admitted as states. The McKinley Tariff 
Act and the Sherman Silver Act were passed. Pensions to veterans of 
the Civil War were increased. The Columbian Exposition was held. 

In Cleveland s second term the Sherman Silver Act was repealed. 
The tariff was lowered by the Wilson Bill. A boundary dispute between 
Venezuela and Great Britain became the subject of arbitration, at the 
demand of the United States. The President made an attempt to restore 
the queen of the Hawaiian Kingdom to her throne, United States officials 
having been concerned in deposing her. 

By McKinley s election the effort to establish free silver coinage was 
defeated. It became necessary to send troops to China in order to rescue 
the members of the foreign legations. 


Last Quarter of a Century Andrews. 
Noted Men of the Solid South Herbert 
The United Stat es Shaler. 



Industrial Resources. With the peace that ended the Civil War 
came the beginning of an industrial epoch which probably has 
never been equaled. The people had begun to recognize the exis 
tence of several great industrial regions. The New England 
plateau and the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains afforded 
water power for light manufactures. From Portland to Savan 
nah on the Atlantic coast, as well as on the Gulf coast, were 
splendid harbors. In the mountain regions was stored the coal 
that could be used in making the iron and steel required in rail 
road building. The South had long been the world s chief source 
of cotton. The prairie region west of the Appalachian Mountains 
had been shown to be not only one of the largest, but also one of 
the most fertile regions in the production of food-stuffs. 

Industrial Needs. These great industrial regions lacked one 
very necessary thing. To be effective, they must be joined by a 
better system of railway service than had yet existed. With 
out the means of transporting their products to the various mar 
kets of the world they had but little value. Provision must be 
made for 

The rapid and prompt movement of crops from the farms to East 
ern markets and the Atlantic seaboard. 
The shipment of the surplus food-stuffs and cotton to Europe and 

to other foreign markets. 

The importation of such foreign and domestic articles as could 
not be economically made in the Southern and Western 

The first of these provisions was essential in developing the agri 
cultural resources of the West and the South. The second was 




needed to stimulate foreign commerce. The third would insure 
return cargoes to both the railway and the ocean-carrying com 
panies and make lower rates of traffic. 

In part these industrial needs had been met before the Civil 
War, but it had not been economically done. It could not be 
thoroughly done while all the energies of the country were bent 
on the settlement of the internal troubles. 


The M.-N. Work 


Connecting Industrial Centers. After the Civil War was over, 
the first thing to adjust in industrial matters was the question of 
railway transportation. Like the English and the 
French railways, those in America were originally ^a lines" 

built for local traffic ; the making of trunk lines, or 
long lines connecting industrial centers, was no part of the design 
of the builders. As late as 1843, twenty-five hours of traveling 
with four changes of cars was the fate of a passenger from Albany 
to Buffalo, and he paid $11 in fares for the journey. 

One of the first steps toward the consolidation of short local 
railways into trunk lines was accomplished* by Cornelius Vander- 
bilt. Most of the short lines of New York were hopelessly in 
debt; some of them were bankrupt. Vanderbilt purchased them, 
one after another. He first obtained possession of the short lines 
north of New York City ; these he organized into the New York 


and Hudson River Railroad. Then he acquired the lines between 
Albany and Buffalo, which he consolidated into the New York 
Central Railroad. Finally, he combined the two, and created 
practically the first trunk line in America. 

The value and necessity of trunk lines soon became apparent, 
and most of the existing lines were thus organized by 1870. It 
was also apparent that " through traffic " and not local business 
between stations was the chief carrying business of the trunk 
lines, owing to the fact that the two great markets of the country 
lay one in the Mississippi Valley and the other in the manu 
facturing centers of the United States and in Europe. 1 After 
1865, about the only local lines of railway constructed were the 
branches and feeders necessary to receive and distribute the traffic 
of the trunk lines. The existing lines were adjusted and the new 
lines were built so that the branches and feeders converged at 
such commercial centers as Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, 
Omaha, Minneapolis, and St. Paul ; the trunk lines then took the 
traffic to the Atlantic seaboard. 2 

Improvements in Railway Construction. Within a very few 
years after the Civil War, there was a heavy emigration westward, 
and the amount of produce grown on the farms had reached 
such enormous proportions that the existing railways could not 
begin to handle the freight delivered to them. At that time a 
locomotive could draw scarcely more than thirty or forty loaded 
cars on a level ; it could not pull them up an ordinary grade with 
out the help of a pusher. More cars could not be put on a freight 
train unless the locomotive was heavier, and a heavier locomotive 
would quickly destroy the rails. 

1 A disregard for terminals in the great centers of population was shown in 
the building of the Erie Railroad. Its western terminus was not at Buffalo, but 
at Dunkirk. Its eastern traffic stopped not at New York City, but at a pier on 
the Hudson River about twenty miles from the city. The projectors of the road 
had not learned that commerce cannot be forced away from natural centers of 
production and distribution. It is a fundamental law of railroad science that one 
series of terminals shall be in producing regions, the other at distributing markets. 

2 Most of the western railroads entering Chicago extend to at least two or 
three of the places named above. Practically every one has a dozen or more 
terminals in the various food-producing regions. Eastern roads seek, in addition, 
a good harbor and an entrance to the coal fields. 


There was but one thing to do ; namely, to make the rails of 
steel ; but inasmuch as steel made by the ordinary process was 
worth from ten to twenty cents a pound, the question 
was a serious one. In 1859, however, Sir Henry Bes- jf t eei Cmer 
seiner had perfected a process by which steel could be 
made at a much lower cost, scarcely more than that of casting 
iron. It was at once decided to use this process for the making 
of rails. The first steel rails were rolled in Chicago in 1865, and 
they immediately began to supersede iron rails. 

With steel rails it was perfectly safe to increase the weight of 
the locomotive from twenty-five to fifty tons or more. Bessemer 
steel was also employed in the construction of the locomotive 
boiler, which could thus be made to carry steam at two or three 
times as great pressure. A good locomotive could not only haul 
twice as many cars, 1 but it could haul them twice as fast. Bessemer 
steel, therefore, more than doubled the carrying power of the rail 

With the increased weight and speed of the railway trains, 
the hand brake was no longer a safe device with which to control 
the trains. In 1869, George Westinghouse invented a The West- 
brake that was operated directly from the engine by inghouse 
means of compressed air. The air brake was first brake 
applied to passenger trains ; by its use not only could the speed 
of the train be safely increased, but trains could be run at a high 
speed with close intervals between them. Its application to 
freight cars is now compulsory. 

An Epoch of Railway Building. Even before the Civil War it 
had been demonstrated that grain-farming would not pay if the 
farmer was compelled to haul his grain more than twelve or fifteen 
miles to the place of shipment. All through the states of the Mid 
dle West there was an abundance of good land that needed only 
transportation facilities to make it productive. Railway promoters 
were not slow to take advantage of this. In the twenty years 
between 1850 and 1870 about forty-four thousand miles of railway 
were built and put into operation. The money for the work of 

1 A modern freight locomotive on the New York Central Railway draws a 
load of ninety or more box cars, each carrying sixty-six thousand pounds. 



construction was obtained from two sources : it was borrowed in 

Europe, 1 and it was raised from the sale of the public lands 

which the government gave for the purpose. 

Transcontinental Railways. At the time of the Civil War 

both parts of the coun 
try were desirous of a 
railway to the Pacific 
coast. About 1862 char 
ters were issued to two 
companies the Union 
Pacific and the Central 
Pacific. The former 
built from Omaha west 
ward ; the latter from 
Sacramento eastward to 
the point where the two 
lines met. Each road 
received a loan from the 
government varying from 
116,000 to $48,000 per 
mile. The government 
also gave the railroad 
companies public lands, 
consisting of the odd- 
numbered sections in a 
strip of land twenty 

miles in width, along the entire route of the railway. The road 

was completed in 1869. 2 

1 To borrow the money in European markets was not a difficult matter. In 
Europe the interest on large sums was rarely more than three per cent ; invested 
in secured railway bonds in the United States it commanded from four to six per 
cent. A few of these railways were good investments from the first ; some barely 
earned their operating expenses and interest for many years. Some were hope 
lessly insolvent from the first. The most of them did not pay dividends until 
they had built up and peopled the territory through which they extended. 

2 In building the road the companies let out the contract for construction to 
themselves, operating under a different charter, known as the Credit Mobilier. 
The scandals connected with the latter company were such that public sentiment 
set strongly against granting either lands or subsidies to railways thereafter built. 



Neither railway paid the interest or principal of the moneys 
advanced by the government until forced by the Congress to do 
so. The Union Pacific did not pay its indebtedness until 1897 ; 
in 1899, the Central Pacific gave its promissory notes in settle 
ment. The entire indebtedness of the two roads to the govern 
ment amounted, principal and interest, to about $59,000,000. 1 

In the course of twenty years other transcontinental railways 
were built, and at the end of the century several others were 
under way. All of them seemed warranted by the amount of 
transcontinental business. One road, the Great Northern, has 
a history that is unique among transcontinental railways. It 
did not receive from the government a single acre of land or a 
dollar of subsidy, and it paid from the start. Mr. 
James J. Hill, the builder of the road, constructed it Northern 1 
for the purpose of carrying lumber from Puget Sound 
to the Eastern markets. In order to get a return business, he 
invaded the markets of the Orient, carrying American cotton to 
Japan and American wheat to China. He not only built the 
road, but he also created the business for it. His success in 
these ventures constitutes one of the greatest achievements in 
the history of American commerce. 

Public Land Grants to Railways. The first large grant in aid 

The scandals did not cease with the completion of the roads ; indeed, they did 
not cease until the roads had passed into the hands of different owners, nearly 
thirty years afterward. In one instance, the Southern Pacific Railway, a com 
pany operated by the Central Pacific, failed to build the road through a certain 
region in California for which the lands had been granted. The grant was 
thought to be forfeited, and settlers took possession of the place as vacant 
government lauds. After the settlers had lived on them many years, and the 
ranches had acquired great value because of the extensive irrigating ditches 
and other improvements, the railway company claimed the lands and evicted 
the occupants. During the struggle a pitched battle between the United States 
marshals and the settlers resulted in the killing of a dozen or more men. 

In the action between the railway company and the settlers, the Supreme 
Court of the United States decided that the lands could become forfeited only by 
an act of the Congress. Such an act had not been passed, and this decision 
defeated the settlers. Some of the ranchmen destroyed their property to prevent 
its falling into the possession of the railway company. 

1 Long before this, the Central Pacific had used its surplus earnings to build, 
under another charter, the Southern Pacific Railway. 


of railway building was made to the Illinois Central Eailroad. 
To the company was given the right of way through the public 
lands and also the alternate sections of a strip twelve miles wide, 
through which the road was built. The price of the remaining 
government lands was increased from $1.25 to $2.50 per acre. 
The same plan was followed in the case of almost all the lands 
subsequently granted to railway companies. At the close of the 
century, the public lands given as subsidies aggregated about 
ninety-eight millions of acres an area more than three times 
that of New York State. The remaining public domain of the 
United States consists mainly of arid and mountain lands, of 
little value without the construction of irrigation systems. 

The Growth of the Steel-making Industry. The manufacture of 
iron had been an industry of the country for more than a century 
before the Civil War, but at its best, it was one of minor impor 
tance. By the middle of the seventeenth century there were a 
score or more of smelteries and blast furnaces in the New Eng 
land colonies, 1 and several also in the Middle and Southern colo 
nies. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the famous 
mines on Lake Cham plain, New York, were opened. In this 
region and northern New Jersey there came to be about two hun 
dred furnaces and forges. Just before the War of the Revolution, 
about six thousand tons of iron were exported yearly to the West 
IndieSo In 1810 the output of the entire country was a little 
more than fifty thousand tons of pig iron and nine hundred tons 
of steel. At the close of the century, the production of steel 
alone was more than ten millions of tons. 

The use of steel rails created a tremendous demand for 
Bessemer steel. The iron ores of the Appalachian ranges were 
not suitable for the manufacture of steel, but those of the ranges 
on the south shore of Lake Superior proved to be very fine ores 
for that purpose. Moreover^ the Lake Superior ore could be 
mined and transported more cheaply than could the ores in the 

1 One of these furnaces was established at Scituate, Massachusetts, by Mor- 
decai Lincoln, an ancestor of Abraham Lincoln. The father of George Washing 
ton also owned one. In 1792 a small blast furnace was built at Two-mile Kun, 
within the limits of the city of Pittsburgh, but it was abandoned for want of ore. 



central part of Pennsylvania. Because of these mines the United 
States has become the greatest steel-making country in the world. 
Textile Manufactures developed in the South. The growth of 
cotton textile manufacture in the South was one of the readjust 
ments that were bound to come about in the course of time. The 
building of railways, together with the possibilities of good water 
power and cheap fuel, had much to do with bringing the result 
about. The fact that it was very poor economy to send cotton 
a thousand miles away to be manufactured into cloth resulted in 


the building of many hundred mills in the South, as soon as the 
problems of transportation and fuel were solved. In the amount 
of cloth made, the output of the Southern mills was not far 
behind that of the New England mills at the close of the nine 
teenth century. 

Electrical Inventions. With the exception of its use in the 
telegraph and occasionally in medicine, electricity had not been 
used in the various arts and sciences before 1870. Up to that 
time there were but two sorts of generators of the electric current 
the frictional machine and the galvanic battery. The former 




was nothing more than a toy; the latter was confined to teleg 
raphy and medicine. 

Early in the seventies several inventors set themselves to the 
task of inventing an electric generator which should produce a 
current strong enough to operate machinery. 1 This 
they succeeded in doing, and the successful machine is 
the universally used dynamo. The applications of a 
generator of this sort proved to be almost endless. The first use 

to which it was put was the 
electric arc light. Shortly after 
ward it was found that a modi 
fied, form of the dynamo might 
be used as an independent motor 
that could be attached to almost 
any kind of machinery. As a 
result, street cars driven by 
electricity immediately began 
to take the place of horse cars. 
The telephone came into use 
early in the seventies. Success 
ful telephones had been con 
structed by Elisha Gray and 
Professor A. E. Dolbear of Tufts 
College. The apparatus patented 
by Alexander Graham Bell, however, superseded all others. The 
telephone quickly became a necessity in business ; its 
use has extended to all parts of the world, civilized 
and uncivilized. 

The Great Financial Crash. 1873. European financiers have 
always claimed that the management of financial affairs in the 
United States is not wholly safe, and the charge is probably true. 

1 Applying certain principles brought to notice by Gramme and by Siemens, 
Mr. George F. Brush built a generator in which bobbins of insulated copper 
wire, wound around coils of iron, revolved rapidly between powerful electro 
magnets. By this means a current great in quantity and high in potential 
was generated. The machine was called a dynamo-electric generator, or 
dynamo. About the same time, similar generators were invented by Edison, 
and by Messrs. Thompson and Houston. 


The tele 


Financial panics ought not to occur at all, and they are rare in 
most European nations ; in the United States they have occurred 
with unpleasant frequency. 

During the few years succeeding the Civil War, the finances of 
the country were in a somewhat strained condition, owing to the 
fact that the bills and currency issued by the Treasury 
were not worth their face value in gold. 1 Unfortu- 
nately at this time several things occurred that made 
an imperative demand for money, and plenty of it. The money 
was needed chiefly to complete the many miles of railway then 
under construction, and to rebuild the cities of Chicago and 
Boston, which had been almost destroyed by fire. There were, 
besides, other demands for large amounts of money. 

What was still more unfortunate, about the only source of ready 
money was closed by some very unwise legislation. In most of 
the states, the farmers and the railway managers 
could not agree. The farmers claimed that freight 
rates on their produce were so high that they could not 
pay the interest on the mortgages against their farms. The rail 
way men pointed out the fact that even the excessive rates 
charged did not pay the operating expenses of the roads. Both 
claims were true. The farmers then went to their various state 
legislatures and brought about the passage of the famous 
"granger" laws, which gave to state legislatures the right to fix 
the freight charges and fares of the railroads. 

As a result, the railway companies were so badly crippled that 
few capitalists cared to buy either their bonds or their stocks. 
An important source of income had been the foreign purchasers 
of railway securities, and when they ceased to send their gold to 
the United States there was a great scarcity of money. The 
banks found themselves short of ready money. A demand upon 
the important house of Jay Cooke and Company caused that bank 
to fail in September, 1873, and then began the most serious panic 
in the history of the United States. Almost the whole country 
became involved. In two years there were eleven thousand fail 
ures, and industrial enterprises came to a halt all over the land. 

i See p. 343. 


Specie Payment Resumed. 1879. There was a general demand 

for more money, which certainly was needed. Many people 

thought that the trouble could be cured by the issue 

A( ? J a of more greenbacks. So an act commonly called the 

Inflation Bill passed the Congress, providing for the 

issue of $44,000,000 in greenbacks, thus raising the entire issue 

to $400,000,000. President Grant vetoed the act (1874). 

The next act passed by the Congress in the matter (1875) was 
wise. It provided that the fractional paper currency might be 
exchanged through the post offices and subtreasuries for silver 
coin. It provided also for the purchase of gold coin with the 
surplus money that accumulated in the Treasury, and also with 
bonds issued for the purpose. It arranged for the recalling of 
many of the greenbacks, and specified that after January 1, 1879, 
all greenbacks should be redeemed on demand. 1 

The Silver Question. About 1859 the famous Comstock silver- 
bearing lode was discovered in the western part of Nevada. The 
mines of this lode at once became productive. They not only 
yielded an enormous amount of silver, but their discovery led to 
the discovery and development of many silver mines in other 
parts of Nevada. In the course of ten years the pro- 
demonetized Auction of silver began to exceed the amount required 
for silver coin. In the United States the price of 
silver had been fixed at $1.2929 per Troy ounce, and it was worth 
about the same in European countries. Inasmuch as more silver 
was mined than was needed, the market price began to fall rapidly. 
As a result most of the European countries demonetized it ; that 
is, they ceased to coin it except in very small amounts, and declared 
that it should not be a legal tender, or lawful payment, except 
for very small amounts (usually less than the equivalent of five 
dollars). In 1873 the United States took the same action. 

The Bland- Allison Bill. 1878. The passage of the act demone 
tizing silver angered two classes of people. The silver mines 
and all persons depending upon them saw their business ruined by 
the low price of the metal and the loss of a market for it. The 

1 In 1878, however, the Congress authorized the continued issue of greenbacks, 
and the amount in circulation in 1906 is about $350,000,000. 


Western farmers were angered because there was a scarcity of 
money, which they attributed to stopping the coinage of silver. 1 
They claimed that it made the payments on the mortgages 
against their property far more difficult to meet. This difficulty 
of payment certainly existed ; the banks had become more exact 
ing and required their debtors to pay promptly or lose their 
farms. As a matter of fact there was widespread distress. 

To meet these conditions two laws were enacted by the Con 
gress. One of them restored the issue of greenbacks ; the other, 
presented by Mr. Bland of Missouri, was far more important 
three of its provisions became national issues. These were 

Making gold sixteen times the value of silver; that is, fixing a 

ratio of sixteen to one. 

Making silver dollars a legal tender for debts. 
Coining all silver bullion brought to the mints without cost to the 


The Senate rejected the last provision, but passed instead Sena 
tor Allison s amendment requiring the secretary of the treasury 
to purchase not less than two million nor more than four million 
dollars worth of silver each month and to coin the silver into 
dollars. President Hayes vetoed the bill, but the Congress passed 
it over his veto. 2 

Silver Certificates. 1879. One year later another important act 
became law. The silver dollars were very cumbersome and incon 
venient to carry about ; so the Silver Certificate Act was passed, 
providing that the coins. might be deposited in the United States 
Treasury, and that certificates should be issued for them. These 
certificates passed from hand to hand in business, and were money 
to all intents and purposes. 

The Sherman Act. 1890. Business matters dragged along with 
little change for nearly twenty years after the passage of the 
Bland-Allison Bill. Trade did not materially improve nor did 
it suffer much. It was certainly better in the Western farming 
region, for the farmers had become more cautious about borrow 
ing money, and they were generally beginning to clear their farms 

1 The scarcity of money was really due to the causes noted on page 383. 

2 See page 362. 


of mortgages. The silver mines were much worse off, however, 
for the price of silver fell steadily until it was worth less than 

$1 per ounce. So the silver miners urged the Con- 
Free Silver . 

gress to pass a bill providing tor the tree coinage of 

silver ; that is, if a man had silver bullion or foreign silver coins, 
which he could buy for about a dollar an ounce, he could take 
them to the mint and have them coined into standard dollars, 
which would then be worth about $1.29 4- per ounce of pure 
silver. The bill failed to pass. 

Senator Sherman then presented a substitute bill that became law 
(1890). Instead of coining from two million to four million stand 
ard dollars a month, the bill provided that the United States Treas 
ury should purchase not less than four and one half million ounces 
of silver each month, paying for it in treasury notes. Moreover, 
these treasury notes, which practically were ordinary greenbacks, 
were to be redeemed in coin when the holder presented them to 
the Treasury. 1 This act certainly helped the silver miners. The 
mine owner would take, say, ten thousand ounces of silver to the 
mint, and get his pay in treasury notes ; he would then take 
the latter to the Treasury or to a bank, and exchange them not 
for silver dollars, but for gold coin. The Sherman Act kept the 
silver mines going, which was beneficial ; but it hurt business in 
nearly all commercial centers in which there was a foreign trade, 
for, China and Mexico excepted, American silver dollars would 
not be taken at their face value. 

The Gold Reserve. 1893. In order to redeem these treasury 
notes, the Treasury set aside a sum of gold that was intended to 
be kept at an amount not less than $100,000,000. This sum of 
money came to be called the gold reserve. In the course of two 
years so much of this reserve was used to purchase silver for 
coining instead of redeeming greenbacks that the amount of gold 
on hand was far below the required sum. By 1893 there were 
about $500,000,000 in greenbacks and treasury notes in circula- 

1 A standard silver dollar containing nine parts of silver and one of copper 
weighs 4122 grains; two silver half dollars weigh 385 grains. With the price of 
silver at $1 per ounce, the former is worth about 80 cents. At the close of the 
century the intrinsic, or bullion, value of a standard dollar was about sixty cents. 



tion and considerably less than $100,000,000 in gold to redeem 
them with. On several occasions President Cleveland authorized 
the purchase of gold to keep the reserve intact, for which bonds 
were issued. He was severely criticised for doing so, but his 
action was absolutely necessary. The public debt, of course, 
began to increase again, and nearly $300,000,000 was added to it. 
Averting a Panic. Just about this time, too, the shipments of 
gold to the United States decreased to an alarming extent. There 
were hard times in Europe and there was but little money to 
invest; moreover, those who had the means to invest feared that 


they would be paid in silver instead of gold. What made matters 
still worse, the American people all over the country began to 
hoard the gold that came into their possession. As a result, there 
was but little money to carry on the various business enterprises. 
The banks began to suffer, and in many instances frightened 
depositors started " runs " on the banks. Fortunately, the banks 
had learned by the experience of the past ; whenever a run on 
a bank was started, the others supplied it with the necessary 
cash to meet its payments. So, although the times were very 
hard and many industrial enterprises were suspended, there were 
not many failures among the banks. 


The Silver Purchase Clause Repealed. 1893. The fear that the 
country would drift into the adoption of silver instead of gold as 
the basis of business alarmed the people, especially in the East, 
and President Cleveland called the Congress in extra session in 
order to discuss the repealing of that part of the Sherman Act 
that compelled the Treasury to purchase so much silver. It very 
quickly became a contest between the financial leaders of the East 
and the silver miners of the West. The former desired to have 
gold as the basis of business ; the latter desired to have silver. 
For the greater part, the farmers of the Middle West and the 


South took sides with the silver miners. The Congress, never 
theless, repealed the silver purchase clause of the Sherman Act. 

The Free Silver Coinage Movement. Stopping the purchase of 
silver did not bring about prosperity ; on the contrary, it was a 
most severe blow to the Eocky Mountain states. Many mines 
were closed, and about one hundred thousand employees became 
idle. The depressed state of business likewise affected the 
farming communities, and they also were in distress. 

Consequently, there arose a movement that had a very wide 
spread following. It became a part of the policy of the Demo 
cratic party, and twice caused the defeat of that party. It first 


took form in a convention at Denver; then it took shape at 
Chicago as the National Bimetallic League. The platform of the 
party demanded that if the government stopped the purchase of 
silver, then the holder or owner of silver should be permitted to 
take his metal to the mint and have it returned to him in the 
form of standard dollars. In 1896, and again in 1900, this policy 
was the issue of the presidential election ; both times the party 
advocating it was defeated. 

The Rise of the Clearing House. Although the volume of busi 
ness throughout the country has increased many times over, the 
amount of money required for the transaction of business has 
increased but little. Nowadays, scarcely one tenth of the busi 
ness debts incurred is paid in money. Business firms and people 
who have their accounts at a bank usually pay their accounts by 
check ; that is, a man signs an order, requiring the bank in which 
his money is deposited to pay to the person or firm designated a 
certain sum of money. 

In a large city many thousand checks are daily presented to the 
banks. Every day certain clerks of the various banks meet at the 
clearing house, where each bank receives the checks drawn against 
it, and these are exchanged dollar for dollar. The balances remain 
ing to be paid in cash or to be credited are very small in compari 
son with the aggregate value of all. In New York City, for instance, 
the daily business of the clearing house has averaged as much as 
a quarter of a billion dollars. If all this were paid in gold, more 
than six hundred trucks or wagons would be required to distribute 
it. As a matter of fact, less than one dollar in a thousand is 
actually paid in cash. The clearing house is therefore a great aid 
to the rapid transaction of business. 

The Development of the Trust. The employment of a chartered 
company or corporation instead of a partnership agreement in the 
transaction of business is no new thing. The corporate 
company existed in the Roman republic, and always 
has been an established fact in Europe and America. 
Such institutions as the railways, insurance companies, and other 
large concerns could not be successfully carried on as partnerships 
or firms. Just after the Civil War business enterprises grew in 


magnitude to such an extent that it was no longer expedient to 
conduct them as private partnerships ; hence a great many of 
them became incorporated companies, or corporations. The prin 
ciple was a good one; the men who controlled them were not 
always good, however. 

One result was to be expected, and would have occurred inevit 
ably. Companies in the same line of business w^ere thrown into 
fierce competition. In order to undersell one another, 
the prices to their customers were cut down until two 
things were bound to happen : the quality of the articles or com 
modities deteriorated, and the wages to the employees were 
lowered to starvation figures. 

Between 1880 and 1890 it occurred to the managers of the 
concerns doing the same kind of business that if they were to 
unite under a single head they would accomplish two things : 
they would save much expense in the matter of management, and 
they could avoid competing with one another and thereby fix higher 
prices for their commodities. 

The combining of interests was managed in two ways. The 
directors of the corporations to be united might assign their 
interests to a general board of trustees. The latter 
would then manage the affairs of the consolidated 
companies, and pay over a stipulated amount from the yearly 
earnings to each company. This method of consolidating compa 
nies is known as a trust. 

In other cases the different companies would agree among 
themselves as to the prices at which their commodities were to 
be sold. All returns from sales were turned over to 
designated officers, who divided them among the vari 
ous companies according to agreement. If more goods were 
produced than could profitably be sold, some of the factories 
would be closed; the closed factories, however, were paid a cer 
tain percentage of the receipts. This method of combination is a 
pool. All such combinations, however, became generally known 
as trusts. 

As a matter of business, trusts and pools, as a rule, have been 
good measures ; but the moral effect very frequently was bad, 



because they were often controlled by unscrupulous men. In 
many instances smaller concerns were forced to sell out to the 
larger combinations, not by open competition, but by illicit 
means. In several instances the trusts became monopolies that 
were dangerous, because they controlled not only the output of 
the necessary food-stuffs, but the price of them as well. 


Anti-trust Legislation. In various instances the acts of these 
combinations became so decidedly contrary to public welfare 
that much legislation, both national and state, was 
directed against them. The Congress passed the man Act 
Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890), forbidding all com 
binations that in any way restrained the output and commerce of 
commodities. This law helped to prevent such combinations 
in trade as might bring about a monopoly in the commodities 
that are necessary to life. 

The principles of the Sherman Act have been made the founda 
tion of much state legislation. The act itself was most bitterly 


contested in the courts, but it was finally upheld by the Supreme 
Court of the United States. Because of the act, most of the 
trusts and pools were declared illegal and were dissolved ; the 
companies were then compelled to become ordinary corporations, 
subject to the laws of the state in which they did business. 

Railroad Pools. The study of an ordinary railway folder will 
show that many of the principal railways have the same cities 
for terminals. Nearly a dozen lines have their two terminals in 
Chicago and New York City. After years of sharp competition, 
that kept some of them practically in bankruptcy, the railways 
agreed upon the plan of fixing for each kind of traffic a given rate 
that should apply to all roads. The earnings were then divided. 
This plan, which is a pool pure and simple, proved to be the best 
that had been devised. In the meantime it had been adopted by 
law in several European states. 

The Sherman Act made pooling illegal, inasmuch as such action 
was declared to prevent free competition. 1 The railways were 
therefore required to dissolve their pooling associations. In 
several instances railway companies were consolidated in order to 
avoid the application of the law ; for although two or more roads 
might not pool their earnings, there would be no pool if the two 
lines were consolidated. The consolidation of competing lines 
was carried on to the extent that, at the end of the nineteenth 
century, the two hundred thousand miles of railroad in the coun 
try were grouped in about a dozen great systems which were owned 
or controlled by less than a dozen men. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission. In order to settle the 
dispute between the shipper and the railway company, and also 
to decide certain questions arising among the railway companies 
themselves, the Congress (1887) passed the Interstate Commerce 
Act. The act created the Interstate Commerce Commission of 
five members. This body has the power to investigate complaints 
and to award damages, but it has very limited power to enforce 
its orders. 

The Elkins Rebate Act. 1903. Between 1880 and the close of 
the century, certain railways had been giving lower rates to some 

1 It had also been declared illegal by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. 


of their customers than to others. As a result, the less favored 
ones had either been driven out of business entirely or had been 
compelled to sell their business to their more favored competitors. 
This was clearly against the laws. The laws, however, were not 
openly broken but were evaded ; the favored shipper paid full 
rates at the time of shipment, but afterward received a rebate of 
a part of the payment. The Elkins Act, passed in 1903, to remedy 
certain defects in the Interstate Commerce Act, forbade the giving 
of rebates ; but inasmuch as they are given indirectly, convictions 
for violations of the law have been very difficult to procure. In 
the latter part of 1905, however, one of the great meat packing 
companies was convicted and fined $25,000. 


The few years following the Civil War were an epoch of railway 
building. This brought about the substitution of steel in the place 
of iron rails, which vastly increased the carrying power of the rail 
ways. The most important of the railways were the transcontinental 

Among electrical inventions were the telephone and the generators of 
powerful currents that could be applied to motors for machinery and 
street cars, and also to illumination. 

A great financial crash occurred in 1873, due to the sudden needs for 
ready money to rebuild the burnt districts of Chicago and Boston and to 
complete unfinished railways. Unwise legislation had made it very 
difficult to borrow money in Europe for railway building. 

Specie payment was resumed in 1879. 

The amount of silver mined in the seventies proved greater than the 
demand; the price of the metal therefore fell. Silver was generally 
demonetized in 1873. 

The Bland-Allison Act required the government to coin from two 
million to four million silver dollars monthly; the Sherman Silver Act 
required the government to purchase 4,500,000 ounces of silver each 
month. This act was repealed in 1893, on account of the fall in the 
value of the silver dollar. 

Fierce competition led to the consolidation of smaller establish 
ments of similar character into combinations and trusts. The Sher 
man Anti-Trust Act made illegal all agreements which restrain the 


free movement of trade. This act also applied to railway pools. The 
Elkins Act made the giving of rebates illegal. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission was established for the purpose 
of regulating disputed matters between the railways and the shippers. 


Railroad Transportation Hadley. 

American Railway Transportation Johnson. 

Strategy of the Railways Spearman. 

Advanced Civics Forman. Chapters XLIII, XLVII 



The Cuban Question. Since the very beginning of the American 
nation there have been occasional periods of friction with Spain 
on account of her possessions in the West Indies. 1 The governors- 
general of Cuba, who were appointed by the Spanish Crown, were 
not always tactful in their dealings with the Americans in Cuba, 
nor were they quite so mindful of the rights of foreigners as they 
should have been. In part this was due to Spanish hatred of 
republican institutions ; in no slight degree, however, it resulted 
from the doings of American adventurers and demagogues, who 
very frequently created trouble. As is usually the case, American 
merchants and traders suffered most from this state of affairs. 
The Spanish authorities in Cuba were accustomed to show their 
dislike for Americans by various annoying exactions in trade and 
by scant protection to the property of American citizens in Cuba. 

Occasionally American statesmen had expressed a desire to an 
nex the island of Cuba. President Adams was not adverse to hold 
ing Cuba " as a pledge for a loan." ; In 1848 Secretary of State 
(afterward President) Buchanan proposed the purchase of the 
island for $100,000,000; in the Ostend Manifesto (1854) he 
boldly advocated its seizure. 3 He thought it necessary to take 

1 In 1807 there was danger of a French occupation of the Spanish possessions in 
the West Indies; a few years later (1819) it seemed as though Great Britain had 
designs upon Cuba. In 18(51 France was again a menace. 

2 Jefferson, Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Jackson, Polk, and Pierce were of 
the opinion that Cuba should be annexed to the United States, but no one of them 
cared to take the responsibility of bringing about a war with Spain. 

3 "If Cuba in the possession of Spain seriously endangers our internal peace 
and the existence of our cherished Union, then by every law, human and divine, 
we shall be justified in wresting it from Spain." 



this step in order to maintain slavery. The people, however, 
were strongly opposed to anything of the kind. 

The Case of the Black Warrior. 1854. In 1854 the American 
steamship Black Warrior was seized in the Port of Havana and 
ordered to be confiscated. It was a high-handed affair, and popu 
lar indignation in the United States reached the danger point. 
The Spanish authorities disavowed the act, however, and vessel 
and cargo were surrendered to the owners. Nevertheless, on both 
sides, the work of fomenting discord went along without inter 
ruption. The outbreak of the Civil War probably averted for 
a time a clash between the two nations. 

The Revolt of the Cubans ; the Virginius Affair. 1868-1878. A few 
years after the close of the Civil War, the Cubans revolted (1868) 
against Spanish rule and, to the disgrace of the American authori 
ties, much of the work of organizing the rebellion was carried 
on secretly in the United States. The methods of the Spanish 
authorities in putting down the rebellion were barbarous and 
atrocious, and it seemed that peaceful citizens had no rights, 
either of property or person, to be respected. There was a gen 
eral feeling of irritation throughout the United States. In the 
meantime the trade between the two countries, which had grad 
ually increased to about $100,000,000 yearly, was destroyed, and 
the financial losses that resulted were very great. 

During the revolt (1873) the steamship Virginius, sailing from 
New York and registered as an American vessel, was captured by 
The a, Spanish warship and brought into a Cuban port. 

Virginius About fifty of her officers and crew were tried by a 
military court and shot, notwithstanding the protests of the 
American government and a positive order from the Spanish 
government for the civil trial of the prisoners. Popular indigna 
tion in the United States reached the danger point again, and 
only the firmness of President Grant prevented action that cer 
tainly would have led to war with Spain, When the case was 
investigated, however, it was learned that the registry of the Vir 
ginius had been obtained by fraud, and that she was engaged in 
an act which was illegal and hostile toward the Spanish govern 
ment. The latter paid an indemnity to the families of the 


American citizens 1 who had been shot, and surrendered the 
Virginius. 2 

The Cuban revolt had no tangible result except to bring death 
and misery to thousands of innocent Cubans. Trade was strangled 
and bankruptcy overtook many whose bread and but 
ter depended on a peaceful commerce between the two 
countries. President Grant suggested a friendly mediation be 
tween the insurrectionists and the Spanish government, but his 
offer was not considered. But there was so much talk of the inter 
vention of foreign powers that Spain offered the Cubans certain 
concessions, and after about ten years of w r ar, hostilities ceased. 

Peace was not of long duration, however, for the Spanish offi 
cials in Cuba forgot the promises made by the government, and 
not only started anew the heavy trade exactions in American 
the shape of fines and overcharges, but flatly refused trade mo- 
to pay for the property of Americans which had been 
confiscated during the rebellion. So matters went on for a decade. 
Several filibustering expeditions were secretly fitted out in Amer 
ican ports, with the result that Spanish cruisers in search of them 
fired upon vessels in lawful trade. Then there was the usual 
diplomatic correspondence ; the American government protested ; 
the Spanish officials apologized and promised and neither one 
took any steps that would help matters. 

The Policy of the United States. Up to 1895 the policy of the 
United States with reference to Cuba had been conciliatory. 
There were abundant excuses and many opportunities for taking 
action which would have ended in the acquisition of Cuba, but 
the American government has always refused to take advantage 
of them. In spite of individual opinions of eminent statesmen, 
popular opinion in regard to Cuba has always been " hands off." 

In the last decade of the nineteenth century, however, condi 
tions were taking shape that made intervention a necessity, and 
with these the American nation had nothing to do 

1 As a rule these men bore such names as Manuel Gonzales or Don Perez de 
Alvarado y Gomez. 

2 Technically she was surrendered ; as a matter of fact, she was scuttled and 
sunk before the authorities had official possession of her. 


Sugar Production in Cuba. For many years Cuba had been one 
of the leading sugar-producing regions of the world, and the 
American people were her chief customers. Within the last 
thirty years of the nineteenth century the world s consumption of 
sugar increased so enormously that the supply of cane sugar was 
nowhere equal to the demand. In order to meet this demand, the 
cultivation of the sugar beet in Europe was encouraged. 1 Inas 
much as raw cane sugar could be obtained from the tropical islands 
more cheaply than beet sugar could be produced in Europe, the 
various European states protected the growers of beet sugar by 
paying a bonus on all sugar exported. 

The immediate result of this bonus on export sugar was to 
lower the wholesale price of sugar in Cuba to a point where the 
Cuban sugar growers saw nothing but financial ruin ahead of 
them. The only relief to the unfortunate condition would have 
been a material lowering of the taxes imposed by the Spanish 
government. This, however, was a concession which the latter 
declined to make. 

The Cubans declare their Independence. 1895. As a result, the 
Cubans for a sixth time in half a century rebelled. On this 
occasion they declared themselves independent, and organized a 
republic (1895). 

Americans had invested in the island more than $50,000,000, 
while the annual volume of their trade was about double that 
sum. The Americans quickly realized that their prop- 
desire er ty was the lawful prey of both Spain and the rebel- 
Cuban inde- Hous Cubans. They were indignant that they had no 
rights of property to be respected ; the Spanish govern 
ment was equally irritated that the real insurrectionary head 
quarters of the Cubans was in New York City, and that hostile 
expeditions were fitted out at American ports almost weekly, in 
spite of efforts to prevent them. The President and the Congress 
were urged by the people to recognize the independence of Cuba, 
and to grant the rights of belligerents to the insurrectionary 
government. A great majority of the people of the United States 

1 At the close of the century less than half of the total sugar product came 
from the sugar cane ; the production of beet sugar has been steadily increasing. 



grew to be in favor of such a measure, but the government wisely 

The Reconcentration Camps. During the three years following 
the declaration of Cuban independence, Spain sent two hundred 
thousand troops to quell the revolt. General Weyler was made 
military governor of Cuba, and he began a policy that for atrocity 
has no equal in modern history. 1 NoncomtJatant Cubans were 
forced into camps of " reconcentration," where they were systemati- 


cally starved to death ; those who refused to go into these camps 
were butchered men, women, and children. The horrors of the 
situation shocked the civilized world. It was a question of time 
only until the American government should intervene. 

The Destruction of the Battleship Maine. 1898. The opportunity 
for intervention occurred sooner than was expected. The United 
States battleship Maine, under Captain Sigsbee, while at anchor 

1 Weyler was recalled by the Spanish government, practically because his 
methods had become so offensive to the American government. His successor, 
General Blanco, was a humane man as well as a skillful soldier. 




at a place assigned to her by the authorities of Havana Harbor, was 
blown to pieces (February 15, 1898) by a torpedo or other explo 
sive. Two hundred and sixty 
of the Maine s men were killed, 
and the battleship herself was 
torn to pieces. In the official 
inquiry there was no evidence 
to suggest that the Spanish 
government or any official was 
concerned in the matter ; in 
deed, the Spanish officials 
offered every kindly service 
within their power to Captain 
Sigsbee and the survivors. 

War Declared. 1898. The 
destruction of the vessel cer 
tainly hastened what was in 
evitable. The Congress of the 
United States (April 19, 1898) adopted a resolution demanding of 
Spain that she withdraw at once from the West Indies ; and at 
the same time the independence of Cuba was recognized. Presi 
dent McKinley was authorized to carry out the resolution with 
the army and navy, and $50,000,000 was supplied to the President 
for the purpose of getting the army and the navy ready for war. 
Two days later the Spanish government gave the American 
minister his passport, and war between the two countries was on. 1 

1 At the opening of the negotiations between the United States and Spain 
concerning Cuba, President McKinley expressed the belief that with time and 
authority from the Congress, he could bring about a peaceful and satisfactory 
settlement of the Cuban difficulty. Stewart L. Woodford, minister to Spain, 
entered heartily into the President s purpose. On April 9, he telegraphed to 
President McKinley from Madrid that the Spanish government had agreed to a 
cessation of hostilities preparatory to a peaceful settlement. On April 10, Wood- 
ford telegraphed: "I believe you will get final settlement ... on one of the 
following bases : Either such autonomy as the insurgents may agree to accept, or 
recognition by Spain of the independence of the island, or cession of the island to 
the United States. I hope that nothing will now be done to humiliate Spain, as I 
am satisfied that the present government is going, and is loyally ready to go, as 
fast and as far as it can." In the President s message to the Congress on the 


There were two fields of operation the Spanish possessions in 
the West Indies and the Philippine Islands. The latter, like 
Cuba, had been in revolt for several years. 

The Battle of Manila Bay. May 1, 1898. The first hostilities 
of importance occurred in the Philippines, in the harbor of 
Manila. Immediately after the declaration of war 
Commodore George Dewey assembled at Mirs Bay, acquire 
near Hongkong, the war vessels on duty in Pacific Philippine 
waters. Proceeding to the Philippine Islands, his fleet 
entered Manila Bay (May 1, 1898). Within a few hours Dewey 
had sunk or destroyed the Spanish fleet of ten vessels, and captured 


the fortifications of the harbor, including the arsenal at Cavite. 
None were even wounded on the American side. The city and 
harbor were blockaded until the arrival of General Merritt with 
twenty thousand troops. A few weeks later (August 13) the city 
and the islands were surrendered with very slight resistance. 

The Plan of Campaign in the West Indies. The campaign in 
the West Indies was a more difficult affair. A part of the Ameri 
can fleet under Acting Rear- Admiral William Sampson was sent 
to blockade Havana ; another part, under Commodore Winfield 

llth, he said, after referring to Spain s order for a cessation of hostilities, " If 
this measure attains a successful result, then our aspirations as a Christian, 
peace-loving people will be realized." In the face of these facts the Congress 
declared war. ("Foreign Relations of the United States," 1898, Pub. Doc.) 



Scott Schley, was organized into a " flying squadron," to search 
for the Spanish fleet under Admiral Cervera, which had sailed 

from a Spanish port for the West 
Indies. After a considerable skill 
ful sea-maneuvering, Admiral Cer 
vera, in need of coal and other 
supplies, took refuge in the harbor 
and port of Santiago. The strongly 
fortified harbor, k nown as a clover- 
leaf bay, opens into the ocean 
through a narrow, tortuous channel. 
It was manifestly unwise for an 
attacking fleet to enter the harbor 
well-laid with mines ; so all the 
available vessels of the fleet were 
disposed about the entrance to 
blockade it. 1 

The Capture of Santiago. The 
presence of the Spanish fleet in 
the harbor of Santiago made it the chief strategic point, and the 
necessity for capturing the city and harbor was at once 
orations apparent. An army of eighteen thousand men was at 
once dispatched to the seat of war under the command 
of General William R. Shafter. The arjny was landed at a point a 
few miles distant from Santiago, and the campaign was at once 
begun. The outer line of defenses at El Caney and San Juan 
was taken by assault (July 1, 1898), and held in spite of the 
efforts to recapture them. 2 The fighting was most severe, but the 


1 It was during this blockade that a young naval officer, Richmond Pierson 
Hobson of Alabama, fitted the collier Merrimac for the purpose, and, with a crew 
of seven men, brought her under her own steam to a narrow part of the channel, 
and torpedoed and sunk her with the design of blocking it. Hobson and his crew 
threw themselves into the water, but were captured. They were kindly treated 
by Admiral Cervera and were shortly afterward exchanged. The sunken vessel 
did not block the channel, however. 

2 The charge of the " Rough Riders," a regiment composed of Western frontiers 
men, was a noteworthy event. Theodore Roosevelt, former assistant secretary 
of the navy, was in command of the regiment at the time and led the charge 



Spanish troops were driven into the city, which was practically 
at the mercy of the American army. 

When this condition was apparent, Acting Rear-Admiral Samp 
son went to hold a conference with General Shafter, regarding 
a concerted assault upon the city by both land and 
naval forces. While he was absent, the lookout of tion of the^ 
Commodore Schley s flagship, the Brooklyn, observed Spanish 
that the Spanish fleet was in motion, and it became 
quickly apparent that Admiral Cervera, as a forlorn hope, was 
attempting to run the blockade. In a very few moments the 
fight was begun, and in about two 
hours it was over. When the firing 
had ceased, all the Spanish ships 
were battered wrecks ; the American 
vessels were uninjured. The plans 
so carefully laid by Acting Rear- 
Admiral Sampson, and carried out 
so splendidly by Commodore Schley, 
on that fateful day (July 3), were 
the undoing of the Spanish nation 
so far as her American possessions 
were concerned. Admiral Cervera 
and about eighteen hundred men 
were made prisoners of war. 

The presence of General Shafter s 
army before the city of Santiago, 
and the loss of Cervera s vessels 
convinced the Spanish authorities that further resistance was 
useless. A few days later (July 14) the Spanish com- The surre n- 
mander of the forces in Santiago, General Toral, der of San- 
surrendered. The capitulation of the city carried with tiago 
it the control of the eastern part of Cuba. About the same time 
General Nelson Miles, then commanding the army of the United 
States, began the military investment of Porto Rico, in which 
he encountered but little actual resistance. 


up the hill. His bravery that day made him the idol of the "cowboy contingent " 
of the West. 



Spain sues for Peace. 1898. A few weeks after the fall of 
Santiago, the Spanish government made overtures for peace 



through the French ambassador at Washington. A protocol, or 
preliminary agreement, was drawn up (August 12) by the secre 
tary of state and the French ambassador who acted for the 
Spanish government, and hostilities were suspended. 1 

The formal treaty was signed in Paris a few months later 
(December 10) and ratified by both nations. By its terms Spain 
gave up all rights to Cuba. Porto Rico and the Phil- 
^PP" 16 Islands were regarded as the rightful conquest 
of war ; but the United States agreed to pay Spain the 
sum of $20,000,000, a sum equal to the amount that Spain had 
expended in the way of public improvements in the islands. 
Spain also ceded to the United States the island of Guam, one of 
the Ladrone group in the Pacific, which was needed as a naval 
and coaling station. 

Territorial Expansion; the Reconstruction of Cuba and Porto 
Rico. At the beginning of the war, Alaska was practically the 
only territorial possession of the United States that was not a 
part of the main body of the country. At the close of the war, 
the twentieth parallel of latitude passed through or near two large 

1 The orders for the cessation of hostilities did not reach Admiral Dewey for 
several days, and the attack on Manila by the fleet and General Merritt s forces 
occurred August 13, a few hours after the signing of the protocol. 



groups and several important islands that were possessions of the 
United States or held by this country under protection. 

The island of Cuba was held for about three years under mili 
tary control. It was a mortifying fact that the scandalous con 
duct of some of the officials in high positions led to Thereor ani 
unpleasant criticism from abroad. Nevertheless, under zation of 
the direction of the United States authorities the gov- Cuba 
eminent of the island was organized and put on a good finan- 


cial basis. Not the least important feature was the organization 
and equipment of a most excellent department of public instruc 
tion under a distinguished educator, Alexis E. Frye. When the 
Cuban government had been put in running order, the United 
States gave back the island to the Cubans, and the Cuban republic 
was launched. The United States authorities reserved the right 
to disapprove any foreign policy that might menace the peace 
of either Cuba or the United States. 


Porto Eico was one of the spoils of war. A stable government 
was organized and put into operation as soon as possible. The 
The govern- establishment of public schools and the construction 
ment of of good roads and other much-needed public improve 
ments were quickly begun. Since the acquisition of the 
island, the people have proved themselves loyal, and the officers 
elected by them have shown themselves upright and capable. 


The Annexation of Hawaii. 1898. The Hawaiian Islands 1 
occupy a most important midocean position in the Pacific. 
Because of their geographic position, their capital, 
Honolulu, has been an ocean post office, supply station, 
and general exchange station for half a century. 
About 1865 it was found that the volcanic lavas of the islands 
quickly decomposed and formed excellent soil for the cultivation 
of the sugar cane. Sugar growing became the chief industry of 
the islands, and San Francisco was the chief market for the sugar. 
As far back as 1870 the islands were commercially in close rela 
tions with the United States. 

In 1851 a French naval force threatened to take possession of 
the islands, and King Kamehameha III, then the sovereign, in 

1 The islands consist of a partly submerged range, whose surface is composed 
of volcanic rock. Eight of the islands are inhabited, but five of them contain 
practically all of the population. Nearly 25,000 of the people are Americans and 
Europeans, 75,000 are native Hawaiians, and 40,000 are Chinese and Japanese. 


order to forestall the possibility of becoming a subject of France, 
executed a deed delivering the islands to the United States. 
The deed was placed in the possession of the United R elat i ons 
States commissioner, to become effective in the case w ith the 
that hostile action should be taken against the king- United 
dom by a European power. After that time American 
influence was regarded as paramount, and practically, though not 
nominally, the kingdom was under the protection of the United 

In 1892 Queen Liliuokalani endeavored to overthrow the con 
stitutional government. A revolution resulted. The United 


States warship Boston was at Honolulu at the time, and her sail 
ors were sent ashore to preserve order. During the revolution the 
American flag was hoisted over the government building by order 
of the Boston 7 s commander. President Cleveland believed that 
this officer had exceeded his orders, and disapproved the proceed 
ings. The queen was deposed, however, and a provisional repub 
lic was formed (July 4, 1894). 

At the time of the Spanish-American War, the value of the 
Hawaiian Islands to the United States for strategic purposes 




became so apparent that the question of annexation was again 
opened, with the result that the formalities were quickly com 
pleted (July 6, 1898). President McKinley imme 
diately reappointed the officers then in office, and the 
laws of the provisional republic were ordered enforced until they 
might be changed by the Congress. The Territory of Hawaii was 
created April 30, 1900. 

The Problem of the Philippine Islands. The management and 
organization of affairs in the Philippine Islands proved a most 


difficult task. Before the American occupation of the islands, 

a revolutionary government had been established by 

the natives, but it actually amounted to little. Just 

after the American occupation, the native organization, under the 

leadership of Aguinaldo, took up arms against the Americans and 

several years of bush fighting followed in consequence. A great 

many natives were killed, and not until nearly every part of the 



island of Luzon had been occupied by American troops, was the 
revolt quelled. Aguinaklo was finally captured by General Fun- 
ston, and hostilities ceased soon afterward. Since that time the 
native peoples have loyally supported the government. 

There were many people in the United States who were opposed 
to the occupation of the islands, believing that they should have 
been left to the native 

Theques- peoples and 
tion of self- that the 

fully capable of self- 

government. The ma 

jority of Americans, 

however, held that such 

an act would have been 

cowardly, inasmuch as 

the condition of an 

archy into which the 

islands were drifting 

would have resulted in 

civil war, loss of life, 

and dangerous foreign 

complications. They 

believed that, having 

taken the islands, it 

was the sacred duty of 

the American people 

to establish a stable 

government there, and 

to teach the people 

the art and science of 

self-government. This was the opinion of President McKinley 

and President Roosevelt. 

Under Governor (afterwards Secretary of War) William H. Taf t 
this policy was carried out, and in many districts the government 
is now administered by native officials. A system of public 
schools was established soon after the American occupation. 



That many unwise and some ludicrous things were done in the 
first attempts to organize" a government in the islands is certainly 
true; nevertheless, the final results are deserving of praise and 

Some Lessons taught by the War. The direct cost of the war 
to the United States was not far from $150,000,000 ; l the indirect 
cost was much greater, for it involved the necessity of 
increasing the regular army and the building of a 
much stronger navy. The navy had been adequate for the war in 
which it took part, but thoughtful people saw plainly that it must 
be made equal in effectiveness to the navy of any other nation in 
the world. They realized that moral rights are respected by for 
eign nations only when there are battleships in the background, 
and that " battleships are cheaper than war." The policy of a 
strong navy now meets opposition only on moral grounds ; in 
the light of civilization it can be regarded only as a temporary 

At the beginning of the war the coast defenses of the country 
were ridiculous. There was not a single modern gun or a forti 
fication that for a moment would resist projectiles 
defenses fired from the guns of a warship eight miles distant. 
Moreover, it was learned that more than one European 
nation had the ..exact information that would enable their war 
ships to drop shells into the arsenals, arms factories, and maga 
zines near the coast. The construction of first-class coast defenses 
was immediately taken in hand, and the work upon them has 
steadily progressed. 

Before the, war it was generally believed by military and naval 
authorities in Europe that the American army and navy could 
not hold out against a second-rate power; indeed, they were a 
laughing-stock to most Europeans. The sea fight at Santiago 
was a breath-taking shock, for it had been predicted in every 

1 This expense was met by an internal tax on various articles of use, by a tax 
on bank checks and various legal documents, and by borrowing money from the 
people. The United States Treasury was empowered to issue three per cent bonds 
to the amount of $400,000,000, and to borrow to the amount of $100,000,000 on 
certificates of indebtedness. 




European capital that with evenly 

matched forces the Spanish fleet 

would easily win. 1 

By far the greatest result of the 

war, however, was the patriotic 

feeling developed throughout the 

nation. Young men in every walk 

of life rushed to the recruiting office. 
Rich and poor, highborn 

count 6 anc ^ lowborn, for the mo 
ment forgot everything 

but their country s call. 2 Prominent 

among the men who volunteered were General Joseph Wheeler 

and General Fitzhugli Lee, distinguished Confederate soldiers. It 

was quickly manifest that the 
chase for wealth and social posi 
tion had not seriously warped the 
character of the younger element 
of American citizenship. For the 
first time in nearly a century all 
parts of the country were united 
and sectional feeling was probably 
forever buried. It is sad that, in 
the history of any nation, such a 
lesson should ever have been 
needed ; it is equally gratifying 
that America, young and old, 

was ready to receive and to abide by it. * 


1 The splendid gunnery of the navy was due in no small degree to Theodore 
Roosevelt, former assistant secretary of the navy. While connected with that 
branch of the service, Mr. Roosevelt insisted on the most thorough drills in target 
practice. As a result but few shots in battle wei-e wasted. No other gunners in 
the world could show such wonderfully accurate firing. 

2 On one of the vessels that had been converted into a very good armed cruiser, 
a young sailor, serving as steersman, was complimented for his skill in handling 
the vessel. The young man was the former owner of the cruiser. He had pre 
sented the vessel to the government, had enlisted in the navy, and was serving as 
an able seaman on what had been his property. 



At various times there had been friction between American merchants 
and Spanish officers in Cuba, owing to the evasion of neutrality laws or 
to trade regulations. 

Up to 1895 the policy of the United States government had been 

In 1895 the Cubans rebelled against Spain and declared themselves 
independent. In three years time two hundred thousand Spanish troops 
failed to restore order. The cruel treatment of the Cubans aroused 
general indignation. 

Several million dollars worth of American property was either de 
stroyed or impaired in value. 

In 1898 the United States battleship Maine was blown up in Havana 
Harbor. Shortly afterwards the United States demanded that Spain 
evacuate her possessions in the West Indies. 

War being declared, a force of troops was sent to invest Santiago, 
where a Spanish fleet had taken refuge. In an attempt to escape the 
fleet was destroyed. Santiago was then surrendered. 

Porto Rico was captured without opposition. 

A fleet entered Manila Bay, Philippine Islands, and sunk the Span 
ish war vessels there. The Spanish force in the islands capitulated a few 
days afterward. 

A treaty of peace was signed in Paris in December, 1898. 

The territory of the United States was enlarged by (1) the Hawaiian 
Islands, annexed by treaty ; (2) Porto Rico and the Philippine Islands, 
conquests of war; (3) the island of Guam, purchased from Spain. Cuba 
became an independent republic. 


Advanced Civics Forman. Chapter XXV. 





United States Dependencies thus: PORTO RICO 

ANUA I. (To U.S.I. 

NOTE The total distance from San Francisco 

to Manila, via Hawaii and Guam, is 8100 
Statute Miles. 

orto -Rico to the Philippines, Is 180, 
or half around th Globe. 
The total distance from San Jusn, Puert&Ri 
to Manil,via New York & San Francisco,! 
13,000 miles. 

60 s 4<K- 20 

40 60 


The New Epoch. With the beginning of the twentieth century 
the Unijbed States began a new epoch in its history. The most 
important geographical positions in the Pacific Ocean are con 
trolled by it. Its territory is in a direct line between the centers 
of commerce and population of Europe and Asia. The line of 
intercommunication across the continent lies up the Hudson, 
through the Mohawk Valley, along the Great Lakes, and thence 
to the ports of Puget Sound. Before many years this will be 
one of the greatest trade routes of the world. 

McKinley reflected. 1900. In the presidential campaign of 
1900, the great parties nominated the same candidates that had 
been pitted against each other four years before William McKin 
ley and William J. Bryan. The platforms of the two were also 
essentially the same as before on the money question. The Demo 
crats declared again for free coinage of silver, denounced the 
corrupting influence of trusts, and advocated giving independence 
to the Philippine Islands. The Kepublicans again stood for the 
gold standard and declared that all forms of money should be 
redeemable in gold; they favored retaining possession of the 
Philippine Islands. McKinley was reflected by a large majority, 
and Theodore Roosevelt l of New York was elected Vice-President. 

i THEODORE ROOSEVELT was born in New York in 1858. He was graduated 
from Harvard University. He entered politics as a vigorous advocate of civil 
service principles. In 1889 President Harrison appointed him United States civil 
service commissioner. Later he was appointed New York police commissioner. 
At the outbreak of the war with Spain he resigned his post as assistant secre 
tary of the navy to enter the army. Together with Colonel Leonard Wood, he 
led a force of volunteer cavalry in Cuba. His regiment, composed mainly of 
Western cowboys and college men, was known as Roosevelt s Rough Riders. In 
1899 he was chosen governor of New York State. In 1900 he was elected Vice- 




The Philippine Policy. President McKinley very quickly made 
it known that he intended to establish a stable government in the 
Philippine Islands. Little by little, as peace was established 
in the provinces, civil government was substituted for military 
rule. Under the wise administration of Governor William H. 
Taft, peace came to the islands so long rent by war and 

The Murder of McKinley. 1901. Of seven men elected to the 
presidency since 1864, three have died by the hand of the assassin. 

In September, 1901, while 
President McKinley was hold 
ing a public reception within 
the grounds of the Pan- 
American Exposition at Buf 
falo, he was shot clown by an 
anarchist who approached him 
as if to shake hands. As he 
sank to the ground he said, 
" It is God s will." The Pres 
ident lingered for several 
days, and then his life went 
out. To his great statesman 
ship there was added a most 
beautiful character. 

Vice-President Eoosevelt 
immediately took Roosevelt 
the oath of office, becomes 
and his adminis- President 
tration was continued under 
practically the same cabinet, following the policy of McKinley. 
The Department of Commerce. A new executive department, the 
need of which had long been felt, was established by the Congress 
in 1903 the Department of Commerce and Labor. The secre 
tary of the new department became a member of the President s 

President, and on the death of President McKinley, in September, 1901, he suc 
ceeded to the presidency. He was nominated for a second term, and in 1004 was 
elected the twenty-sixth President. 

Copyright, 1!K)2, by Roekwood, N.Y. 



cabinet. The various existing bureaus that pertained to com 
merce and labor were placed in the control of the department, and 
the Bureau of Corporations was created. To the latter bureau 
was given the power to investigate the workings of great cor 
porations doing an interstate business, the railways excepted. 

The Reclamation of Arid Lands. About twenty years before 
the close of the century, the government had undertaken the 
reclamation of certain arid lands in the Western highlands. 
There are about one hundred million acres of waste lands that 
can be reclaimed and made productive by storing and distributing 
the waters of stream and storm. In years past the building of 
reservoirs and ditches depended upon the uncertain action of the 
Congress, and the 
work, though well 
planned, was not 
well carried out. In 

1902 the Congress ordered that the money received from the 
sales of public lands in the arid section should be set apart 
for use in reclaiming such lands as might be made suitable for 
cultivation. * 

The Panama Canal. The necessity of a canal to connect the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans has been recognized for upwards of 
four hundred years, having been advocated in Spain just after 
the discovery of the Pacific Ocean. It has been made the sub 
ject of two treaties between the United States and Great Britain. 1 
Surveys were made for a canal to cross the Central American 
state Nicaragua, and work upon a canal at that point was about 
to be undertaken by the United States government. 

In 1902 the French owners of a franchise for a canal across 
the Isthmus of Panama, in the republic of Colombia, offered to 
sell the franchise to the United States, and the offer was taken. 
The Colombian government, however, refused to make a treaty 
with the United States. The state of Panama then seceded 
from Colombia and became independent. A treaty between 
Panama and the United States was concluded (1904) in which 
the right of way and a bordering strip ten miles wide was ceded 
1 See p. 281. The second treaty (Hay-Pauncefote) was made in December, 1901. 


to the United States. To the United States was given also the 
sanitary regulation of Colon and Panama. 

Roosevelt elected President. 1904. The years of Roosevelt s 
first administration were a period of great prosperity and there 
was general satisfaction with his straightforward policy. In the 
three years that he had been President, he had proved a most 
capable chief executive. In the election of 1904 it was a foregone 
conclusion that the Republicans would nominate him to succeed 
himself. Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana was the candidate for 
Vice-President. The Democrats nominated Alton B. Parker of 
New York and Henry G-. Davis of West Virginia. The Repub 
lican ticket swept the country. 

The American Nation among the World Powers. The close of 
the Spanish- American war marked the increased importance of 
the American nation in world politics. This step came about, 
not from military or naval feats, but because of the fact that 
American possessions in the Pacific Ocean to a certain extent 
involved the nation in the events that concerned China, Japan, 
and Russia. 

Just after the war with Spain, Czaf Nicholas of Russia suggested 
(February, 1899) through his ministers the excellent proposi- 
Intemational ^ on of submitting international disputes to a peace 
Peace tribunal. The proposition was favorably received, 

Conference and t k e international Peace Conference met at the 
Hague, in Holland, on the anniversary of the birthday of the 
Czar, May 18. Twenty-one nations were represented, the United 
States and Mexico being the only American nations. 1 The results 
achieved were twofold. Practically all that could be done to re 
lieve war of unnecessary cruelties was agreed upon by the states 
represented. A permanent International Court of Arbitration, 
commonly known as the Hague Tribunal, was established also. 
To this court international disputes may be brought. 

1 The American members of the Peace Conference were Ambassador Andrew 
White, Seth Low (then President of Columbia University), Ambassador Stan 
ford Newell, Captain Alfred T. Mahan, U.S.N., Captain William Crozier, U.S.N. 
(inventor of the disappearing gun carriage), and Frederick W. Holls, a noted 



It was an odd circumstance that war came almost immediately 
to harass the Czar. During the Boxer troubles in China, 1 Russian 
troops were stationed in Manchuria, a province of The Russian- 
China, for the protection of the Chinese Eastern Rail- Japanese 
way. At the close of the uprising in China the Rus- ar 
sians refused to withdraw the troops. The Japanese considered 
this a menace both to their commerce and to the safety of their 
empire. War was declared against Russia (February, 1904), 
and this war proved to be the most bloody and destructive of 
modern times. 

The war was likely to involve other nations, and cool and 
wise counsel was necessary. One of the responsible men of 

the hour was Secretary of State _ 

John Hay. To Mr. Hay, quite 
as much as to any other diplo 
mat, belongs the credit of main 
taining the peace of both America 
and Europe. The peace that came 
to the two combatants was the 
work of President Roosevelt, 
after Mr. Hay s death. After six 
months of effort, President Roose 
velt persuaded Russia and Japan 
to join in a conference. This 
conference of the two powers was 
held nominally at Washington 
(really at Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire), and terms of peace 
were agreed upon (September, 
1905). 2 

Progress of Civilization in the American States. Students of 
history have always found much to commend in the general char- 

1 See page 372. 

2 The Russians were represented by M. (now Count) Witte and Ambassador 
Rosen, the Japanese by Baron Komura and Minister Takahira. Under the terms 
Russia agreed to surrender Manchuria to the Chinese, and to cede to Japan the 
southern half of the island of Sakhalin, which formerly belonged to Japan. It 
was agreed that trade in Korea and Manchuria should be unrestricted and free. 



acter of the American people ; they have also found much to 
condemn. Many years ago, when Mr. Charles Dickens in his 
" American Notes " described our bad manners in public, popular 
indignation at once rose high. The great author told some un 
pleasant truths in a painfully blunt way. But foreign critics 
almost always give us credit for trying to be fair, and this trait in 
a people is always the open door to a better civilization. 

But whatever may be either the virtues or the shortcomings 
of the American people, the traits that distinguish them from 
other English-speaking people are due mainly to geographic envi 
ronment. Their environment has been powerful enough to modify 
and even to overcome many of the race tendencies inherited from 
English ancestors. There are several powerful agents through 
which the conditions of geographic environment have operated ; 
these are chiefly the political system, the literature, the system of 
public education, and church organizations. 

The Political System. The organization of political parties is 
in many ways founded on the township meeting ; from this form 
of political meeting are descended the district primaries and ward 
associations in which political parties now generally meet. In 
such meetings all citizens stand upon equal footing, and these 
meetings are the foundation of all political measures, national and 
state. The political work of the primaries has not been always 
creditable, but the fault lies with the people themselves. Foreign 
critics have told us in very plain terms that the indifference of the 
American citizen to political duties is a marked weak spot in the 
American system of government, and this is undoubtedly true. 
The leadership of the political "boss" is, in many respects, a 
necessary element in American politics ; therefore it devolves 
upon the people at the primaries to see to it that he shall be a 
leader of sterling character. When great moral questions are 
at issue, the people may be depended upon to do the right 

The Newspapers. It is claimed by many critics of American 
literature that only a few American writers belong in the same 
class with the best English writers, and perhaps this is true. But 
there is one form Of literature that has always been a tremendous 


power for good, whatever its literary merit, namely the news 
paper. Granting that many newspapers are not up to the stand 
ard of the best literature, there are two features about them that 
make them mighty in their effect : they print news, and they stand 
invariably for good against evil. Let an act be committed against 
the public welfare, and in less than twelve hours the whole world 
knows it. With the searchlight of a good newspaper turned upon 
it, the days of an evil are numbered. 

The newspapers have been a strong ally of the people in the 
fight against the domination of party " machines " and political 
corruption. When it has been shown that a man has used his 
public office for unrighteous gains, the newspapers have united 
their forces and forgotten their political differences in order to 
enforce the demand of the people for exposure and punishment. 
The elections of 1905 showed notable examples of this spirit and 
of the success which may reward the fight against disgraceful 
political machines. 

Education. The public schools of the country also have 
wrought a wonderful work. Every state in the Union supports 
schools that are free. In many localities books, transportation to 
and from school, and medical attendance are furnished in addition 
to tuition. Education is recognized as a necessity for the de 
velopment of good citizenship, and the Americans pay yearly 
more than a quarter of a billion dollars for it more, in fact, 
than is paid by any other people in the world. 1 

One effect of this widely diffused system of education has been 
more important than its founders dreamed. The emigration from 
European states to America is very great, and includes yearly 
not far from one hundred thousand children. The immigrants of 
mature age do not materially change their manners and habits; 
some of them, indeed, never learn to speak the English language. 
With the young children, however, the case is different ; they are 
at once sent to school, and when their school life is finished, they 

1 Most states have provided for higher instruction by establishing universities. 
Most universities, however, have been endowed by private benefactions. The 
gifts of three men, Leland Stanford, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Car 
negie, in this direction, have aggregated about fifty millions of dollars. 


are "Americanized." As a result, there is only one generation 
of foreign people in the country at a time. 

Religion. The religious life of the American people is broad. 
It has been asserted that the people as a whole are skeptical in 
belief and irreverent in their lives; nevertheless, there is no 
other country in the world in which the religious life is more 
practically lived. Three classes of religious associations 
Catholics, Protestants, and Jews comprise the greater part of 
the population, so far as religious belief is concerned. Their 
creeds and teachings are diverse, but in one respect they are a 
unit they stand for righteousness against evil and for strict 
duty. For these essentials they have ever battled fiercely ; 
without such foundations, what hope could there be for the 
future of the Eepublic ? 




Ix CONGRESS, July 4, 1776. 


WHEN, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with 
another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and 
equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature s God entitle 
them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they 
should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self -evident: That all men are created 
equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights ; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 
That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, 
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed ; that, when 
ever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the 
right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new gov 
ernment, laying its foundation on such principles, and organising its 
powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments 
long established should not be changed for light and transient causes ; 
and, accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more dis 
posed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by 
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a long 
train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, 
evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their 
right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new 
guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance 
of these colonies ; and such is now the necessity that constrains them to 
alter their former systems of government. The history of the present 



King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, 
all having, in direct object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny 
over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid 

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary 
for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and press 
ing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should 
be obtained ; and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend 
to them. 

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of 
representation in the legislature a right inestimable to them, and for 
midable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the 
sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measure. 

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing, with 
manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others 
to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, 
have returned to the people at large for their exercise ; the State remain 
ing, in the meantime, exposed to all dangers of invasion from without, 
and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States ; for that 
purpose obstructing the laws for the naturalization of foreigners ; refus 
ing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the 
conditions of new appropriations of lands. 

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent 
to laws for establishing judiciary powers. 

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of 
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of 
officers to harass our people and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us in times of peace, standing armies, without the 
consent of our legislatures. 

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, 
the civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to 
our constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws ; giving his assent 
to their acts of pretended legislation : 


For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us ; 

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any mur 
ders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States ; 

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world ; 

For imposing taxes on us without our consent ; 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury; 

For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended offences ; 

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring 
province, establishing there an arbitrary government, and enlarging its 
boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for 
introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies ; 

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and 
altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments ; 

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested 
with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protec 
tion, and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and 
destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to 
complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with 
circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most bar 
barous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas, 
to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their 
friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us, and has endeavored 
to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, 
whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all 
ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress, in 
the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been answered only 
by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every 
act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in our attentions to our British brethren. 
We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their leg 
islature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have 
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement 
here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity; and 
we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow 
these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and 



correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of 
consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which 
denounces our separation ; and hold them, as we hold the rest of man 
kind, enemies in war, in peace friends. 

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in 
General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the 
world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the 
authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and 
declare, That these united Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free 
and independent states ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the 
British crown, and that all political connection between them and the 
state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved ; and that, as 
free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude 
peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts 
and things which independent states may of right do. And, for the 
support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of 
Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our 
fortunes, and our sacred honor. 

The foregoing Declaration was, by order of Congress, engrossed and 
signed by the following members : 

John Hancock. 

Josiah Bartlett, 
William Whipple, 
Matthew Thornton. 

Samuel Adams, 
John Adams, 
Robert Treat Paine, 
Elbridge Gerry. 


Stephen Hopkins, 
William Ellery. 


Roger Sherman, 
Samuel Huntington, 
William Williams, 
Oliver Wolcott. 


William Floyd, 
Philip Livingston, 
Francis Lewis, 
Lewis Morris. 

Richard Stockton, 
John Witherspoon, 
Francis Hopkinson, 
John Hart, 
Abraham Clark. 


Robert Morris, 
Benjamin Rush, 
Benjamin Franklin, 
John Morton. 

George Clymer, 
James Smith, 
George Taylor, 
James Wilson, 
George Ross. 

Caesar Rodney, 
George Read, 
Thomas M Kean. 


Samuel Chase, 
William Paca, 
Thomas Stone, 
Charles Carroll, of Car- 


George Wythe, 
Richard Henry Lee, 
Thomas Jefferson, 
Benjamin Harrison, 
Thomas Nelson, Jr., 
Francis Lightfoot Lee, 
Carter Braxton. 


William Hooper, 
Joseph Hewes, 
John Penn. 

Edward Rutledore. 

Thomas Heyward, Jr., 
Thomas Lynch, Jr., 
Arthur Middleton. 


Button Gwinnett, 
Lyman Hall, 
George Walton. 

Resolved that copies of the Declaration be sent to the several assem 
blies, conventions, and committees, or councils of safety, and to the 
several commanding officers of the continental troops; that it be pro 
claimed in each of the United States, at the head of the army. 


WE the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect 
Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the 
common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Bless 
ings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish 
this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America. 


[In reprinting the Constitution here, the spelling, punctuation, and capitaliza 
tion of the original have been preserved.] 

Section i. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House 
of Representatives. 

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Mem 
bers chosen every second year by the People of the several States, and 
the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for 
Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to 
the Age of twenty five years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the 
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that 
State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within this Union, according to 
their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the 
whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a 
Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other 
Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years 
after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within 
every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by 
Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for 
every Thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Repre 
sentative ; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New 



Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode- 
Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, 
New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Vir 
ginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
officers ; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six 
Years ; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at 
the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration 
of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth 
Y r ear, so that one -third may be chosen every second Year ; and if 
Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of 
the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary 
Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall 
then fill such Vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age 
of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, 
and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for 
which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro 
tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise 
the Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall 
preside : And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of 
two thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to 
removal from Office, and Disqualification to hold and en-joy any Office of 
honour, Trust or Profit under the United States : but the Party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment 
and Punishment, according to Law. 


Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for 
Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the 
Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or 
alter such Regulations, except as to the places of chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such 
Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
Law appoint a different Day. 

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns 
and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall con 
stitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may -adjourn 
from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of 
absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each 
House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its 
Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two 
thirds, expel a Member. 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment 
require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House 
on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be 
entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Com 
pensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of 
the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except 
Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest 
during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and 
in going to and returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate 
in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he 
was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the 
United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments 
whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person 
holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either 
House during his Continuance in Office. 

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House 
of Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amend 
ments as on other Bills. 


Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of 
the United States ; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return 
it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who 
shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to recon 
sider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shaft 
agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the 
other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved 
by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such 
cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, 
and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be 
entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not 
be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it 
shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like Manner 
as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment pre 
vent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the 
United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved 
by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and 
Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section 8. The Congress shall have Power 

To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the 
Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the 
United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform 
throughout the United States ; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian Tribes ; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws, on . 
the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and 
fix the Standard of Weights and Measures ; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and 
current Coin of the United States ; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads ; 

To promote the progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for 
limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their re 
spective Writings and Discoveries ; 


To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations ; 

To declare War, grant letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water ; 

* To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that 
Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years ; 

To provide and maintain a Navy ; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and 
naval Forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the 
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and 
for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of 
the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment 
of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to 
the Discipline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such 
District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particu 
lar States, arid the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Gov 
ernment of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all 
Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in 
which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, 
Dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings ;. And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this 
Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Depart 
ment or Officer thereof. 

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of 
the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be pro 
hibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred 
and eight, but a Tax or Duty may be imposed on such Importation, not 
exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may 
require it. 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion 
to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 


Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another : nor shall Vessels 
bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties 
in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of 
Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of 
the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published 
fro ni time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no 
Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without 
the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, 
or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. 

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confed 
eration ; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal ; coin Money ; emit Bills 
of Credit ; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Pay 
ment of Debts ; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law 
impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts 
or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely neces 
sary for executing it s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties 
and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the 
Use of the Treasury of the United States ; and all such Laws shall be 
subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any 
Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or 
engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as 
will not admit of Delay. 


Section i. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of 
four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same 
Term, be elected, as follows 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress : 
but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or 
Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

1 The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot 

1 This clause has been superseded by the 12th amendment, see page 21. 


for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the 
same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the 
Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each ; which List they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Govern 
ment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The 
President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House 
of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be 
counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the 
President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Elec 
tors appointed ; and if there be more than one who have such Majority 
and have an equal number of Votes, then the House of Representatives 
shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President ; and if 
no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the 
said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing 
the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation 
from each State having one Vote; a Quorum for this Purpose shall 
consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a 
Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every Case, 
after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number 
of Votes of the "Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there 
should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse 
from them by Ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and 
the Day on which they shall give their Votes ; which Day shall be the 
same throughout the United States. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United 
States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the Office of President ; neither shall any Person be eligible to that 
Office who shall not have attained to the Age of Thirty five Years, and 
been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, 
Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said 
office the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress 
may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation, or 
Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what 
Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act ac 
cordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his services, a Com 
pensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the 
Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 


within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any 
of them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the follow 
ing Oath or Affirmation : 

11 1 do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my 
Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United 

Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army 
and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, 
when called into the actual Service of the United States ; he may require 
the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive 
Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective 
Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for 
Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present 
concur ; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Con 
sent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers 
and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the 
United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, 
and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law 
vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the 
President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may hap 
pen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which 
shall expire at the End of their next Session. 

Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Informa 
tion of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration 
such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may, on 
extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and 
in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the time of 
Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think 
proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he 
shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Com 
mission all the officers of the United States. 

Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment c for, 
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Mis 



- Section i. The Judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested 
in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may 
from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the 
supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Be 
havior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compen 
sation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in 

Section 2. The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and 
Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, 
and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; 
to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls ; 
to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction ; to Controver 
sies to which the United States shall be a Party ; to Controversies 
between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another 
State ; between Citizens of different States, between Citizens of the 
same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and be 
tween a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens 
or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Con 
suls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall 
have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the 
supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and 
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress 
shall make. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by 
Jury ; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes 
shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any State, 
the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law 
have directed. 

Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in 
levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them 
Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on 
the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession 
in open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, 
but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeit 
ure except during the Life of th.3 Person attainted. 



Section i. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the 
public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And 
the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in whichNsuch 
Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. 

Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privi 
leges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, 
who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on De 
mand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be 
delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regu 
lation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be 
delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may 
be due. 

Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdic 
tion of any other State ; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two 
or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legisla 
tures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful 
Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belong 
ing to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so 
construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any par 
ticular State. 

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this 
Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of 
them against Invasion, and on Application of the Legislature, or of the 
Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic 


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
Application of the Legislatures of tvvo thirds of the several States, shall 
call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, 


shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, 
when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, 
or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode 
of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no 
Amendment which may be made prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses 
in the Ninth Section of the first Article ; and that no State, without its 
Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. 


All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adop 
tion of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States 
under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof ; and all Treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme 
Law 7 of the Land ; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, 
any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Mem 
bers of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial 
Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be 
bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no 
religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or 
public Trust under the United States. 


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient 
for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratify 
ing the Same, 

DONE in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present 
the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thou 
sand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the Twelfth. En S23ttness whereof We have 
hereunto subscribed our Names, 

Presidt and deputy from Virginia 

John Langdon Nicholas Gilman 



Nathaniel Gorhain Rufus King 

Wm Saml Johnson Roger Sherman 


Alexander Hamilton 

Wil Livingston 
Win Paterson 

B Franklin 
Robt Morris 
Tho Fitzsimons 
James Wilson 

Geo Read 
John Dickinson 
Jaco Broom 

James M Henry 
Danl Carroll 

John Blair 

Wm Blount 
Hu Williamson 

J Rutledge 
Charles Pinckney 

William Few 



David Brearley 
Jona Dayton 


Thomas Mifflin 
Geo Clymer 
Jared Ingersoll 
Gouv Morris 


Gunning Bedford, Jun r 
Richard Bassett 


Dan of St Thos Jenifer 


James Madison, Jr 


Rich d Dobbs Spaight 


Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 
Pierce Butler 


Abr Baldwin 



Proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several 
States, pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 


Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 


A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, 
the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 


No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without 
the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be 
prescribed by law. 


The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be 
violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, sup 
ported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to 
be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 


No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual 
service in time of War or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a witness against himself, nor 
be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; 
nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just 



In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature 
and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against 
him; to have Compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favour, 
and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. 


In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 
tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United 
States, than according to the rules of the common law. 


Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor 
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 


The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 


The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, 
or to the people. 


The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or 
Subjects of any Foreign State. 


The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 


inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the per 
son voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all 
persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
Preside nt, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall 
sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of 
the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; The Presi 
dent of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Repre 
sentatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted ; 
The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall 
be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the 
persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of 
those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose 
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the Presi 
dent, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each 
state having one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a mem 
ber or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the 
states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representa 
tives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall de 
volve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the 
Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other 
constitutional disability of the President. The person having the great 
est number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if 
such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, 
and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on 
the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President ; a quorum for the 
purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and 
a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no 
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be 
eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 


Section i. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their 

Section. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro 
priate legislation. 



Section i. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any 
law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the 
United States ; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or 
property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its 
jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 

Section. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
States, according to their respective numbers, counting the whole num 
ber of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when 
the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for president 
and vice-president of the United States, representatives in Congress, the 
executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legisla 
ture thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, 
being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in 
any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, 
the basis of representation shall be reduced in the proportion which the 
number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male 
citizens, twenty-one years of age, in such State. 

Section. 3. No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, 
or elector of president or vice-president, or hold any office, civil or mili 
tary, under the United States or under any State, who having pre 
viously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an execu 
tive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against 
the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress 
may by a vote of two-thirds of each house remove such disability. 

Section. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall 
not be questioned. But neither the United States, nor any State, shall 
assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or 
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emanci 
pation of any slave ; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be 
held illegal and void. 

Section. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate 
legislation the provisions of this article. 



Section i. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 


1. DELAWARE. Named in honor of Lord De la Warr. Swedish 
settlement near Wilmington, 1638 ; admitted to the Union, 1787. (For 
history, see p. 57.) 

2. PENNSYLVANIA. Name given by Charles II, meaning Perm s 
woods. First settlement, 1683; admitted, 1787 (p. 54). 

3. NEW JERSEY. Named after the island of Jersey (Csesarea), in 
honor of its governor, Sir George Carteret. Settlement at Bergen, 1617 ; 
admitted, 1787 (p. 52). 

4. GEORGIA. Named in honor of George II. Settlement at Savan 
nah, 1733; admitted, 1788 (p. 41). 

5. CONNECTICUT. Indian name meaning river of long reaches. Set 
tlement at Wethersfield about 1634; admitted, 1788 (p. 76). 

6. MASSACHUSETTS. Indian name probably meaning country of the 
hills. Settlement at Plymouth, 1620; admitted, 1788 (p. 65). 

7. MARYLAND. Named in honor of Henrietta Maria, wife of 
Charles I. Settlement at St. Marys, 1634; admitted, 1788 (p. 35). 

8. SOUTH CAROLINA. Named in honor of Charles II (Latinized form, 
Carolus). Settlement at Charleston, 1670; admitted, 1788 (p. 38). 

9. NEW HAMPSHIRE. Named in honor of Hampshire, England. 
Settlement at Dover, 1627; admitted, 1788 (p. 78). 

10. VIRGINIA. Named in honor of Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen. 
Settlement at Jamestown, 1607; admitted, 1788 (p. 26). 

11. NEW YORK. Named in honor of the Duke of York (afterward 
James II). Dutch trading post at Manhattan, 1613 ; trading post, Fort 
Orange, at Albany, 1623; Dutch colony at New Amsterdam, 1626; ad- 

L ted, 1788. French fur traders had established posts along Hudson 
.ver before the founding of Fort Orange (p. 45). 

12. NORTH CAROLINA. Named in honor of Charles II. Settlements 
on Chowan River and Albemarle Sound about 1663; formally separated 
from South Carolina, 1729; admitted? 1789 (p. 38). 

13. RHODE ISLAND. Named from the Dutch rood eylandt, or red 
island, from the color of the cliffs. Settlement at Providence, 1636; 
admitted, 1789 (p. 73). 




14. VERMONT. Named from the French verde mont, or green moun 
tain. Trading post at Fort Dummer, near Brattleboro, 1724 ; admitted, 

15. KENTUCKY. Indian name whose meaning is not with certainty 
known possibly dark and bloody battle-grounds, but more probably the 
barrens, as descriptive of the large treeless area in the central part. 
Explored by La Salle along the Ohio River, and by Daniel Boone in 
1769. Settlement by James Harrodsburg about 1774, and by Boone 
at Boonesboro about the same time. County of Kentucky (then a part 
of Virginia) established through efforts of George Rogers Clark, 1776. 
Formally separated from Virginia, 1792. Much of the area of the state 
was purchased from the Cherokee Indians by the Transylvania Company, 
a land-exploiting corporation. Admitted, 1792. 

16. TENNESSEE. Indian name meaning river of the great bend. 
Present site of Memphis visited by De Soto, 1541, and fort built on or 
near the same site by La Salle about 1682. French trading post near 
Nashville built by Charleville, 1714. Explored by Thomas Walker, who 
discovered the mountain range and pass now called Cumberland Range 
and Gap, 1748. Fort Loudon built in 1756. Watuga settled by immi 
grants from Virginia and Carolina, 1769. State of Franklin formed, 
1784; organized as Territory South of the Ohio, 1790; admitted, 1792. 

17. OHIO. Indian name meaning beautiful valley. Claimed by France 
on account of explorations by La Salle about 1760 ; claimed also by Con 
necticut, Virginia, Massachusetts, and New York. Territorial organiza 
tion formed in 1787. Association of Boston caj!lfe,lists formed Ohio 
Company about 1787, and made settlement at Marietta, 1788. Troubles 
with Indians were settled by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, who 
severely punished them at a battle on the Maumee, 1794. Territorial 
legislature met at Cincinnati, 1799. Chillicothe state capital, 1800- 
1810; Zanesville, 1810-1812; Columbus, since 1816. Admitted, 1803. 

18. LOUISIANA. Named in honor of Louis XIV of France. Lower 
Mississippi visited by Pineda, 1519, who reported that the Indians had 
established several large pueblos. Probably visited by De Soto also 
about 1541. Visited in 1682 by La Salle, who took possession of the 
territory for Louis XIV of France. Explored also by the brothers Le 
Moyne (Bienville and Iberville). Settlement founded near the head of the 
Mississippi delta about 1700. Trading franchises which were granted to 
Crozat, 1712, and to John Law about 1718, led to the settlement of New 
Orleans, 1718. Made a royal province, 1731, and surrendered to Great 


Britain, 1763. New Orleans and the mouth of the river were excepted 
from the treaty, and were secretly given by Napoleon to Spain, but again 
were restored to France. The whole territory was sold to the United 
States, 1803. State of Louisiana admitted, 1812. 

19. INDIANA. Adapted from the word Indian. A part of the terri 
tory claimed by France and transferred to Great Britain, 1763. Visited 
about 1669 by La Salle, who induced the Indians to join in a confedera 
tion against the Iroquoians. French settlement at Vincennes about 
1702 (?), designated a military post, 1731. In 1778 the country including 
the present state of Indiana was surrendered to George Rogers Clark, 
and came under the control of the Americans, and in 1787 became a 
part of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio. Indiana Territory was 
formed, 1800, and from its area Michigan was set off, 1805, and Illinois, 
1809. Tecumseh, a chief of the Shawnee Indians, attempted to form a 
federation of Indian tribes for the purpose of driving the white settlers 
from the territory, but was defeated (1811) by General Harrison at 
Tippecanoe Creek. In 1820 the site of Indianapolis, then a small village, 
was selected for the state capital. The sect of Harmonists, or Rappites, 
settled at New Harmony about 1815. Admitted to the Union, 1816. 

20. MISSISSIPPI. Indian name meaning master stream, or father of 
waters. Explored by De Soto from Columbus to Chickasaw Bluffs, 1541 ; 
by Marquette and Joliet southward to the mouth of the Arkansas, 1673 ; 
and by La Salle in 1682. Colony established at Biloxi by Iberville (Le 
Moyne), 1699. Settlement at Natchez about 1716. Territory established 
with capital at Natchez, 1798. Boundaries fixed practically as at present, 
1804-1812. Admitted to the Union, 1817. 

21. ILLINOIS. French form of an Indian name meaning the tribes, or 
people. Traversed by Joliet and Marquette, 1673, La Salle, 1679, and 
Tonti a few years later. Settlements at Cahokia probably in 1682, and at 
Kaskaskia about 1700. Area comprised in the state was part of French 
Louisiana until 1763, when it was ceded to Great Britain. Captured 
from Great Britain by George Rogers Clark during the War of the 
Revolution. A part of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio, 1787, and 
set off from Indiana Territory in 1809. Kaskaskia the capital, 1700-1778. 
Fort Dearborn, founded in 1803-1804, was the beginning of Chicago. 
Admitted to the Union, 1818. 

22. ALABAMA. Indian name meaning resting place. French settle 
ment on Mobile Bay, 1702, by Bienville (Le Moyne) ; Mobile founded, 
1711-1713. A part of Louisiana until 1783; later a part of Georgia 
and South Carolina; then a part of Mississippi Territory until 1817. 
Admitted as a state, 1819. 


23. MAINE. Named possibly from the long stretch of " main," or 
coast, near which vessels kept in following the new route to the Ameri 
can colonies. Settlement at Pemaquid, 1625. Admitted, 1820 (p. 78). 

24. MISSOURI. Indian name meaning muddy water. A part of 
French Louisiana. A part was acquired in 1763, the rest in 1803; the 
first by British conquest, the rest by purchase. French fort and trading 
post at Fort Orleans, near Jefferson City, about 1719 ; at Ste. Genevieve 
about 1735 ; New Madrid was founded probably about the same time. 
The site of St. Louis was chosen by Pierre Laclede Liguest, 1763. The 
"upper," or northern, and the "lower," or southern, parts were united 
as a territory in 1812 and admitted as a state in 1821. 

25. ARKANSAS. Indian name " Kansas," meaning misty water, and 
^possibly French "arc," a bow. A part of Louisiana Purchase and of 

Louisiana Territory, 1803 ; of Missouri Territory, 1812 ; and of Arkansas 
Territory in 1819. Indian Territory set off in 1836, leaving Aakansas in 
its present form. French settlement, in 1686, at Arkansas Post, near 
the mouth of the Arkansas River. Peopled mainly from Southern states. 
Admitted as a state, 1836. 

26. MICHIGAN. Indian name meaning fish weir. French settlement 
at Mackinac about 1680 ; at Sault Ste. Marie (St. Mary s Falls) about ten 
years previously. Detroit founded for strategic purposes, 1701. A part 
of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio. Set off from Indiana and organ 
ized as a territory, 1805 ; admitted as a state, 1837. 

27. FLORIDA. Spanish name " Pasqua Florida," meaning flowery 
Easter. Visited by Ponce de Leon in 1513, on Easter Sunday ; by 
Narvaez at Tampa Bay, 1528; and at Tampa Bay by De Soto, 1539. 
Fort at St. Augustine built, 1565, for the purpose of preventing French 
aggressions. After being possessed by Spain, Great Britain, and the 
United States (the latter holding the eastern part), the whole territory 
was formally ceded to the United States. Organized as a territory, 1822 ; 
admitted to the Union, 1845. 

28. TEXAS. Probably the Spanish form of an Indian name whose 
meaning is not known. Visited as early as 1528 by Cabeza de Vaca ; 
Spanish missions organized for the purpose of preventing French occupa 
tion as early as 1715, one being established at San Antonio, at the old 
mission house known as the Alamo. Remained a Spanish possession 
until the Republic of Texas was formed. French settlement at Lavaca, 
1685. Admitted to the Union, 1845 (p. 273). 

29. IOWA. French form of an Indian name meaning sleepyheads 
a term applied by the Sioux to the Gray Snow Indians. Visited by 
Marquette and Joliet about 1673. Settlement made at present site of 


Dubuque by Julien Dubuque, for the purpose of working the lead mines. 
A part of the Louisiana Purchase. In turn it was attached to Louisiana, 
Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Became a separate terri 
tory in 1838 ; admitted as a state, 1846. 

30. WISCONSIN. Indian name meaning rushing waters, in descrip 
tion of the dalles of Wisconsin River. Visited by Jean Nicolet at 
Green Bay and the Fox River, 1634-1635, and by Radisson and Groseil- 
lers about 1658-1659, when, near Ashland, they built a stockade and 
fort. St. Xavier Mission established by Allouez, at Depere, about 1563. 
Permanent white settlement at Green Bay about 1750, at Prairie du 
Chien about 1781, and at Milwaukee, Portage, and La Pointe about 1795- 
1800. A part of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio. Made a terri 
tory in 1836 ; admitted as a state, 1848. 

31. CALIFORNIA. Spanish name occurring in a work of fiction, 
applied to an island in which gold was very plentiful. Visited at Cape 
Mendoza (Mendocino) by Cabrillo, 1542 ; at Drake s Bay by Sir Francis 
Drake, 1578; and by Viscayno in 1602. Mission settlement established 
by Franciscan Fathers at San Diego, 1769, and elsewhere ; Mission Do 
lores established at San Francisco, 1776. A Spanish possession until the 
independence of Mexico ; a conquest of the Mexican War in 1847, when 
Commodore Stockton took possession for the United States. Gold dis 
covered by John Marshall, 1848. Admitted as a state, 1850 (p. 277). 

32. MINNESOTA. Indian name meaning white water, applied to Min 
nesota River. Explored by Father Hennepin, who discovered falls which 
he named St. Anthony. 1680 ; also by Captain Jonathan Carver. Area 
east of Mississippi River acquired by conquest from France, 1763, becom 
ing a part of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio; area west of Missis 
sippi River a part of Louisiana Purchase ; subsequently a part in turn of 
Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin territories. Fort Snelling established, 
1819, and settled by Swiss from Pembina. St. Paul founded by Father 
Galtier, 1841. Organized as a separate territory, 1849; admitted as a 
state, 1858. 

33. OREGON. French name meaning wind, applied to the Rocky 
(Wind River) Mountains and to the Columbia River. Coast visited by 
Ferrelo, 1543 ; by Sir Francis Drake, 1578 ; and by Captain Cook, 
1777. Mouth of the Columbia explored by Captain Robert Gray, 1792. 
Acquired by purchase, treaty, and discovery. Astoria fur-trading post 
established, 1811. Made a territory in 1848, from which Washington and 
Idaho were afterward set off; admitted as a state, 1859 (p. 267). 

34. KANSAS. Indian name meaning misty waters. Area east of 
100th meridian, a part of Louisiana Purchase ; the remainder a disputed 


territory claimed by Spain. Visited by Coronado, and explored by Pike 
and others. The famous Santa Fe trail extended from Independence, 
Missouri, across the state to Santa Fe. Border settlements established in 
various places, 1859. Organized as a territory, 1854; admitted as a state, 

35. WEST VIRGINIA. Set off from Virginia during the Civil War ; 
admitted, 1863. 

36. NEVADA. Spanish name applied to the Sierras, meaning snowy 
peaks. A part of the California territory acquired as a result of the 
war with Mexico. Mining settlement at Genoa, 1850. Made a separate 
territory, 1861 ; admitted as a state, 1864. 

37. NEBRASKA. Indian name meaning shallow water, applied to the 
Platte, which has been described as " a mile wide, an inch deep, with 
the bottom on top." Visited by Coronado, 1541 ; part of Platte River 
surveyed and mapped by Father Marquette, 1673 ; held by French, 1634- 
1673, by British, 1673-1816; fur-trading post at Bellevue about 1810; 
Old Fort Atkinson established, 1820; Mormon settlement near Omaha, 
1846 ; a part of Louisiana Territory until 1805, of Missouri until 1812 ; 
a separate territory from 1854 to 1867 ; admitted as a state, 1867. 

38. COLORADO. Spanish name meaning red, applied to the deep color 
of the water of the Colorado River. Explored in 1776 by Francisco 
Escalante in the region of Gunnison, by Zebulon Pike, 1806-1807, and 
by civilized Cherokees in 1857. Area included in Spanish territory of 
Mexico and also in Louisiana Purchase. Mission established at Conejos, 
1854 ; Denver and most of the mining centers resulted from the dis 
covery of gold near Pikes Peak about 1857-1858. Made a territory, 
1861 ; admitted to the Union, 1876. 

39. NORTH DAKOTA. Indian name of a Sioux confederacy. Lord 
Selkirk s fur-trading post at Pembina established, 1810 ; Lewis and 
Clark s winter camp at Mandan Indian village, now Mandan, 1804-1805 ; 
a part of Louisiana Purchase ; Dakota set off from Minnesota Territory, 
1849 ; created a territory, 1861 ; set off as a separate body and admitted 
as a state, 1889. 

40. SOUTH DAKOTA. Fur-trading post at Fort Pierre about 1830- 
1831, afterward a military post ; settlement at Sioux Falls, 1856, and at 
Yankton, 1859 ; other settlements exploited by Dakota Land Company 
about same time; a part of Dakota Territory; made a state, 1889. 

41. MONTANA. Name adapted from a Spanish word (derived from 
Latin mons, a mountain) meaning land of mountains. Explored along 
Missouri River by Verendrye as early as 1745; a part of the Louisiana 
Purchase; a part of both Oregon and Idaho territories; trading post at 


mouth of Big Horn River, 1807, followed by others in next twenty years; 
Fort Union built on Missouri River, 1829, a steamboat route thereto 
being established in 1832 ; Fort Benton built, 1846 ; St. Mary s Mission 
established at Stevensville, 1845 ; gold discovered about 1861, and 
Helena built at " Last Chance " gulch a few years later; made a separate 
territory, 1864; admitted as a state, 1889. 

42. WASHINGTON. Named in honor of George Washington. Strait 
of Juan de Fuca explored by Greek sailor of that name, 1592. Spanish 
navigator Bruno Heceta explored coast about seventeen years prior to 
Gray s discovery of the Columbia River, 1792. Vancouver, in the service 
of Great Britain, explored Puget Sound about 1792. Fur-trading posts 
established as early as 1811 ; white settlement made at Turnwater, near 
Olympia, 1845, and at Walla Walla by Marcus Whitman, 1846. A part 
of Oregon Territory until 1853 ; a separate territory until admitted as 
a state in 1889. 

43. IDAHO. Indian name meaning approximately choicest part of the 
mountains. A part of the Oregon country acquired by discovery and ex 
ploration ; explored by Lewis and Clark, 1804-1805 ; Coeur d Alene Mis 
sion established by Father de Smet, 1842, where gold was subsequently 
discovered, 1882 ; set off from Oregon and made a separate territory, 
1863; admitted as a state, 1890. 

44. WYOMING. Indian name meaning land of open plains. Trav 
ersed by Verendrye as early as 1743. Yellowstone region discovered by 
John Colter, 1807; explored later by Captain Bonneville. Most of the 
area was included in the Louisiana Purchase, the southwestern part 
belonging to the Spanish (Mexican) possession. Settlement at Fort 
Laramie, 1834, established by fur- trading company, became a military 
post, 1849 ; Bozeman trail was an important trade route as late as 1865. 
Made a territory comprising areas set off from Utah, Idaho, and Dakota, 
1868 ; admitted as a state, 1890. . 

45. UTAH Named after Ute Indian tribe; uncertain meaning. 
Mormon settlement at Salt Lake City, founded by Brigham Young, 
184 7 Organized as a territory, 1850; admitted as a state, 1896. 

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A review is most effective when, in place of the sequence of mixed events, 
the events pertaining to a single phase of development are studied in their 
order. The following topical analysis is arranged especially for review work ; 
it includes the subjects that have had most to do with the making of Ameri 
can history. 


The voyage of Hwui Shan, p. 1. 

The case of Jean Cousin Fiske s Discovery of America, Vol. I, p. 150 ; 
Higginson s Larger History of America, p. 24. 

The Norse in America. 

The colonization of Greenland, p. 2 ; Discovery of America, Vol. I, p. 159. 
Leif Ericson s lumber camp in Vinland, p. 3. 

The effect of the blockade of trade routes between Europe and India. 

Location of trade routes, p. 5. 

Prince Henry founds a school of navigation, p. 6. 

Vasco da Gama discovers a route around Africa, p. 7. 

Columbus searches for a westward passage to India, p. 7. 

Discovery of the West Indies, p. 10. 

Discovery of South America, p. 11. 

The line of demarcation, p. 12. 

Exploration prompted by the discoveries of Columbus. 
The Cabots land on the coast of North America, p. 13. 
Vespucci and the naming of the New World, p. 14. 
The voyage of Magellan, p. 15. 
Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean, p. 14. 

Spanish discovery and exploration. 

The work of Pinzon, Solis, Ponce de Leon, Alvarez de Pineda, Cortez, 
Panfilo de Narvaez, Cabeza de Vaca, Fray Marcos (Brother Mark), p. 16. 
Brother Mark and Coronado search for the Seven Cities of Cibola, p. 17. 
De Soto explores the lower Mississippi, p. 17. 
The mission at Santa Fd, p. 17. 



French discovery and exploration. 

Cartier explores the St. Lawrence to the site of Montreal, p. 106. 

Ribault s unsuccessful attempt to colonize Port Royal, p. 25. 

Laudonniere builds Fort Caroline at the mouth of St. Johns River, p. 25 

Champlain founds Quebec, p. 106. 

Acadia settled, p. 107. 

Joliet and Marquette explore the upper Mississippi, 107. 

La Salle completes the work of Joliet and Marquette, p. 108. 

The work of Jesuit missionaries, p. 107. 

English discovery and exploration. 

The Cabots, John and Sebastian, land on the coast of North America, p. 1 

Drake sails along the Pacific coast of North America, p. 15. 

Gilbert s unsuccessful colony at Newfoundland, p. 26. 

The work of Frobisher, Davis, Baffin, and Hudson, p. 16. 

Gosnold sails a new route to America, p. 27. 

Smith charts the Virginia coast, p. 29. 

Other voyagers and their work. 

Bering enters the strait that separates America and Asia, p. 16. 

Block explores the Massachusetts coast. 

Franklin and others search for a northwest passage. 

Recent endeavors to reach the north pole. 

Recent voyages to the Antarctic continent. 


Forms of colonial government, p. 101. 

Raleigh s first attempt to found a colony, p. 26. 

Raleigh s second attempt Ooatan, p. 26. 

The London company founds Jamestown, p. 29. 

Smith s leadership, p. 29. 

The House of Burgesses, pp. 30, 103. 

Tobacco cultivation and industrial affairs, pp. 31, 97. 

Labor and social problems the redemptioners slavery, pp. 31, 94-97. 

The Cavaliers, p. 33. 

Trade restrictions the navigation laws, pp. 33, 100. 

Political affairs government Bacon s rebellion, pp. 32, 34. 

Indian troubles, pp. 34, 91. 


Character of Lord Baltimore s charter, pp. 35, 104. 
A colony for persecuted Catholics, p. 36. 


The Toleration Act, p. 36. 

Overthrow of Catholic power, p. 37. 

Political affairs Claiborne s rebellion Mason and Dixon s line, pp. 37, 38. 
The Carolinas. 

First settlements, p. 38. 

Political affairs the Grand Model the division of the colony, p. 40. 

Tendencies to democracy, p. 40. 

Indian troubles, pp. 91, 92. 

Industrial features, p. 40. 

Socially philanthropic, politically a "buffer" colony, p. 41. 

Character of settlers various settlements, pp. 41, 42. 

Industrial affairs silk cultivation, p. 42. 

Political affairs warfare with Spanish in Florida, p. 42. 

Indian troubles, pp. 91, 92. 
New York. 

Verrazano enters New York Bay, p. 45. 

Hudson explores New York Bay and Hudson River, p. 46. 

The Dutch found New Netherlaud, p. 47. 

The patroons, p. 49. 

Stuyvesant s administration, p. 50. 

Social and industrial life, pp. 98, 101. 

Uprising of Algonquian Indians, p. 88. 

Conflict over English claims, p. 50. 

Legislative assembly, pp. 50, 104. 

New Netherland becomes an English colony, p. 50. 

Comparison of the West India Company s rule and English rule, pp. 51, 52. 
New Jersey. 

Governor Winthrop and Governor Nichols deceived, p. 53. 

The wearisome task of Sir George Carteret two Jerseys Penn s pur- 
chase, p. 54. 

The Jerseys become a royal province, p. 54. 


William Perm and the Society of Friends, p. 54. 
The Pennsylvania grant and the colony, p. 55. 
The policy of honesty and liberality, p. 56. 
The industrial prosperity of the colony, p. 56. 


The Swedes in America, p. 57. 
* Governor Stuyvesant s capture of the region, p. 57. 

Annexation to Pennsylvania, p. 57. 


Massachusetts the Plymouth Colony. 
Religious persecution in England Catholics, Puritans, and Separatists, 

p. 59. 

Scrooby Separatists emigrate to Holland, p. 61. 
The emigration from Holland to America, p. 61. 
The compact made on the Mayflower, p. 62. 
The industrial features of the Plymouth Colony, p. 63. 
Indian troubles, p. 64. 

The beginnings of the town meeting, pp. 64, 103. 
The Plymouth Colony merged into Massachusetts Bay Colony, p. 65. 

Massachusetts the Massachusetts Bay colonies. 

Persecution of the Puritans and the wealth of the fisheries bring many 
immigrants to Massachusetts, p. 65. 

The Gorges-Mason and the Endicott land grants, p. 66. 

Endicott usurps the Gorges-Mason land the Massachusetts Bay Com 
pany, pp. 66, 67. 

The settlement at Salem at Boston other villages, pp. 67, 68. 

The Puritan theocracy, p. 69. 

Social features public schools religious worship religious persecution 
witchcraft, pp. 68-72, 94-97. 

Industrial life commerce, pp. 99-100. 

The fall of the Puritan theocracy, p. 72. 

King Philip s War, p. 89. 

The Massachusetts charter annulled, p. 73. 

Rhode Island. 

The heresy of Roger Williams, p. 73. 

Williams expelled from Massachusetts, flees to Narragansett Bay, p. 75. 
The founding of Providence a " do-as-you-please " settlement, p. 75. 
A model democracy whose principles became the law of the land, p. 75. 
A royal province, p. 75. 

Connecticut colonies. 

The outposts on the Connecticut River, p. 76. 
The New Haven settlements, p. 77. 
The union of the Connecticut colonies, p. 78. 
Social and religious features, pp. 77, 78, 95-97. 
Indian troubles the Pequot War, p. 87. 

New Hampshire. 

The Gorges-Mason land grant, p. 78. 

Settlements Dover, Portsmouth, Exeter, and Hampton, p. 79. 
Industrial features of the Londonderry settlement, p. 80. 
Union with Massachusetts and separation therefrom, pp. 79, 80. 



The unsuccessful Popham colony on Kennebec River, pp. 28, 81. 
Settlements at Pemaquid, Saco, and Biddeford, p. 81. 
Purchased from heirs of Gorges by Massachusetts, p. 81. 

The New England Confederacy. 
Reasons for the exclusion of Maine and Rhode Island, p. 82. 

The Indians. 

Unknown origin of, p. 19. 

Character of their civilization war the chief employment, p. 20. 

Tribes and families with whom the colonists dealt, p. 84. 

Social position of women, p. 21. 

Tools and weapons, p. 21. 

Iroquois Confederacy Five Nations Six Nations, pp. 22, 23. 

Hostility to white men due to land barter, p. 84. 

Indian Wars. 

Uprising of the Algonquians, p. 88. 

The Pequot War, p. 87. 

King Philip s War, p. 89. 

Uprising of the Tuscaroras and Yamassees in the South, p. 91. 

Pontiac s conspiracy, p. 92. 


French explorations and settlements. (See p. 34 of this analysis.") 
New France and Louisiana, location of, pp. 107-109. 
The line of French forts, pp. 108, 109. 
The colonies indifferent to French intrusion, p. 110. 

King William s War. 
European politics, p. 111. 

Destruction and massacre of colonial settlements, p. 111. 
Capture of Port Royal, Acadia, p. 111. 

Queen Anne s War. 

Gain of Port Royal, Acadia, and Newfoundland, p. 111. 
King George s War. 

Capture of Louisburg, p. 112. 
The struggle for the possession of the continent. 

Military and commercial gateways, pp. 113, 114. 

Attitude of the colonies Albany Congress, pp. 114, 177. 


Governor Dinwiddie sends Washington to Fort Le Bo3uf, p. 115= 

The war begins plans of attack, p. 116. 

Braddock s defeat, p. 116. 

The campaign in Canada, p. 117. 

The turning point of the war Bradstreet destroys French supplies, p. 118. 

Final campaign fall of Fort Duquesne, Louisburg, Quebec, p. 119. 

The French expelled from America, p. 120. 

The treaty of Paris, p. 120. 


The estrangement of the colonies. 
The king decides to tax the colonies, p. 122. 
The Stamp Act, p. 122. 

The colonists refuse to pay taxes that are not levied by themselves, p. 123, 
The Stamp Act Congress, p. 125. 
The Declaration of Rights, p. 126. 
Repeal of the Stamp Act, p. 127. 
Declaratory Act, p. 128. 

British troops quartered in the colonies the Boston Riot, p. 129. 
The tea tax and the " tea party," pp. 130, 131. 
The Boston Port Bill and its effects, p. 132. 
First Continental Congress, p. 133. 
The English view, p. 135. 

The revolt of the colonies. 

Royal government set aside in Massachusetts, p. 138. 

The skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, p. 139. 

The Second Continental Congress assumes government, p. 141, 

The battle of Bunker Hill, p. 142. 

Washington organizes the Continental army, p. 144. 

Canada invaded, p. 144. 

The British escape from Boston, p. 145. 

Washington transfers his army to New York, p. 146. 

Fighting in North Carolina, Virginia, and South Carolina, pp. 146-148, 

Independence declared the " United Colonies," p. 150. 

The war in New York and the Middle colonies. 

The Tories, pp. 148, 152. 

Battle of Long Island the British occupy New York, p. 153. 

The king s plans for carrying on the war, p. 154. 

Washington s retreat through New Jersey, p. 154. 

Trenton and Princeton, p. 156. 


The campaign about Philadelphia, p. 157. 

Burgoyne s invasion and surrender, pp. 158, 159. 

St. Leger s fright and retreat, p. 100. 

Why General Howe did not go to Albany, p. 100. 

Sullivan punishes the Iroquoians and the Tories, p. 101. 

Clark takes possession of the Northwest, p. 102. 

The British evacuate Philadelphia the battle of Monmouth, p. 164. 

Arnold s treason his escape the capture of Andre", pp. 105, 100. 

Effect of Arnold s treason on Continental troops, p. 107. 

The war in the South. 

The king s revised plans, p. 104. 

The British advance capture of Savannah and Charleston, p. 104. 

New army under Gates battle of Camden Gates s downfall, p. 105. 

General Greene in command Morgan Steuben, p. 107. 

Cornwallis lured from his supplies Cowpens Guilford Courthouse 

Eutaw Springs, p. 108. 

Cornwallis penned in Yorktown the coup of Washington, p. 109. 
The British leave the continent Washington s farewell, p. 170. 
The treaty of Paris, p. 174. 

The navy of the Revolution. 

The Continental Congress orders cruisers letters of marque, p. 170. 

John Barry, " merchant-commodore," p. 170. 

John Paul Jones Serapis and Bonhomme Richard, p. 172. 

Financing the Revolutionary War. 

Continental currency money borrowed from the people, p. 173. 
The patriotism and ability of Robert Morris, p. 174. 


Colonial attempts at confederation. 
The New England Confederacy, pp. 81, 177. 
Franklin s plan at the Albany Congress, pp. 114, 177. 
Continental Congresses, pp. 133, 141. 

Confederation of the Revolutionary War. 
The Articles of Confederation, p. 178. 
The Congress of the Confederation and its powers, p. 179. 
Weakness of the Confederation financial commercial, pp. 180, 181. 
Conventions called for revising the Articles, p. 182. 



The Federal Convention. 
Virginia plan South Carolina plan New Jersey plan Hamilton s 

plan, p. 183. 

The ground plan finally adopted, p. 184. 
People s conventions in each state, p. 184. 
Ratification by states, p. 185. 

The tariff. 

First tariff for the support of the government and for the protection of ship 
building, p. 191. 

Tariff of 1816, for protection of manufactures, p. 252. 

Tariff of 1824, to give greater protection to manufactures, p. 254. 

Tariff of 1828, for increased protection, creates bitter feeling in the South, 
p. 255. 

Tariff of 1832 lowers the rates at the demand of Southern states, p. 257. 

The nullification controversy, p. 258. 

The Force Bill, p. 259. 

Clay brings about a gradual reduction of the tariff, p. 259. 

Tariff of 1842, p. 265. 

Tariff of 1857, p. 266. 

Tariff revision of 1890, p. 367. 

Tariff revision of 1894, p. 369. 


Slaves sold in Virginia first slave ship in America, p. 31. 
The redemptioners, p. 31. 
The slave-holding law of Massachusetts, p. 69. 
First fugitive-slave law, p. 198. 

Effects of cotton growing on the distribution of slaves, p. 234. 
The balance between slave states and free states, p. 250. 
The Missouri Compromise, p. 251. 
Slavery in Illinois, p. 270. 
The Gag Rule, p. 271. 

Texas encouraged to secede from Mexico, p. 272. 
Slavery abolished and forbidden in Mexico, p. 272. 
Possible effects of admission of Texas on slavery, p. 274. 
The Wilmot Proviso, p. 276. 
The doctrine of popular sovereignty, p. 283. 
Why the South opposed the admission of California, p. 283. 
Slavery abolished in the District of Columbia, p. 284. 
The Omnibus Bill, p. 283. 
The Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850, p. 285. 
The slave struggle in Kansas and Nebraska, p. 288. 
John Brown, pp. 288, 291. 


The Dred Scott decision, p. 289. 

The slavery question grows very bitter, p. 290. 

Northern and Southern views of the question, p. 299. 

The "underground railway," 301. 

Lincoln s attitude toward slavery, 306. 

Lincoln s emancipation of slaves, p. 322. 

Slavery abolished by constitutional amendment, p. 323, 


Causes leading to the Civil War. 
Southern view of slavery, p. 299. 
Northern view of slavery, p. 300. 
Fugitive-slave laws, pp. 198, 284. 
The tariff question, p. 300. 
The question of state rights, p. 300. 
The question of railway communication, p. 301. 
The secession of the Southern states, pp. 301 , 303. 
Formation of the Confederate government, p. 303. 
Efforts toward compromise, pp. 304, 306. 

Beginning of the conflict First year of the war. 

Seizure of forts, arsenals, and military supplies by Confederates, p, 305. 

The Confederates capture Fort Sumter, p. 307. 

Both sides call to arms first bloodshed, p. 308. 

The Confederates driven from West Virginia, p. 309. 

The movement of Federal troops toward Richmond battle of Bull Run, 

p. 309. 
Operations in Missouri and Kentucky Missouri kept in the Union, 

p. 311. 

Operations against the coast capture of Port Royal, p. 311. 
The Trent affair, p. 312. 

The campaign in the West Opening the Mississippi. (January to May, 

Tennessee opened Mill Springs, Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 

Island Number Ten, Memphis, pp. 313-316. 
Pushing the fighting line southward, p. 316. 

General Bragg breaks through the line Perryville, Murfreesboro, p. 316. 
The Confederates again attempt to break the line Corinth and luka, 

p. 316. 

Operations in Arkansas Pea Ridge, p. 316. 
Commodore Farragutand General Butler open the lower Mississippi New 

Orleans captured, p. 316. 


The war in the East. (January, 1802, to July, 1863.) 
Plans of operation, p. 317. 
General McClellan s peninsular campaign operations on York peninsula 

Federal troops in sight of Richmond Fair Oaks, p. 319. 
General Jackson raids the Shenandoah Valley, thereby calling back reen- 

forcements for McClellan, p. 320. 
General Lee and the Seven Days Battles, p. 320. 
General Lee invades the North second battle of Bull. Hun Antietam, 

p. 321. 

General Lee again invades the North Chancellorsville, p. 323. 
Lee is driven back at Gettysburg with heavy losses, p. 323. 

Opening the middle stretch of the Mississippi River. (January to July, 1863. ) 
Plans of Generals Grant and Sherman and Admiral Porter to capture 

Vicksburg, p. 325. 

Loss of supplies at Holly Springs, p. 325. 
General Sherman at Chickasaw Bayou, p. 325. 
Amateur generals plans for the capture of Vicksburg, p. 326. 
Grant and Sherman attack the city from the west fall of Vicksburg, 

p. 327. 
General Banks captures Port Hudson the entire river open, p. 328. 

The campaign in Tennessee and Georgia. (July, 1863, to July, 1864.) 
Chattanooga the key to the military situation, p. 328. 
General Rosecranz forces his way toward Chattanooga Chickamauga, 

p. 329. 
The capture of Chattanooga Missionary Ridge Lookout Mountain, 

p. 329. 
Capture of Atlanta Dalton Resaca Dallas Kenesaw Mountain, 

p. 330. 

General Sherman marches from Atlanta to Savannah, p. 330. 
General Thomas destroys Hood s army at Nashville, p. 331. 

The closing campaign in the East. (May, 1864, to April, 1865.) 
General Grant moves south into the Wilderness, p. 331. 
Grant and Lee at Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg, p. 332. 
General Early raids the Shenandoah, p. 332. 

Early and Sheridan at Cedar Creek, Fishers Hill, and Winchester, p. 333. 
Grant closes in upon Lee at Petersburg, p. 333. 
General Lee evacuates Petersburg, and surrenders at Appomattox, p. 335. 

Naval work of the war. 
The blockading of the Southern coast, p. 336. 
Blockade runners, p. 336. 


Confederate commerce destroyers the Swn/iter, Alabama, Shenandoah, 

and Florida, p. 337. 
The origin of the ironclad, p. 339. 
The duel between the Virginia and the Monitor, p. 340. 

Financing the war. 

The cost of four years of fighting, p. 342. 
Bond issues, p. 343. 
Notes and currency, p. 343. 
Internal revenue taxes, p. 344. 
National banks chartered, p. 344. 
Finances of the Confederate states, p. 344, 


President Lincoln s plan, p. 345. 
The plan of the Congress, p. 346. 

President Johnson attempts to carry out a plan of reconstruction, p. 348. 
The Congress refuses to adopt Johnson s plan, p. 349. 
The quarrel between the President and the Congress, p. 349. 
Reconstruction policy of the Congress, p. 349. 

The Tenure of Office Bill and the impeachment of the President, p. 350. 
Disfranchisement of Southern officers leads to carpet-bag rule, p. 350. 
The Amnesty Proclamation, p. 352. 

The foregoing analyses represent the more difficult subjects of American 
history ; they may be amplified at the discretion of the teacher. The topicali- 
zation of other events will be necessary, but these analyses may be prepared 
by the teacher or by the pupils themselves under the teacher s direction. In 
making the analyses it is necessary only to look over the pages of the book, 
noting the events in their order. For this work the teacher may dictate 
various subjects ; the following are suggested : 

Treaties of the United States. 

Territorial acquisitions of the United States. 

Political parties and their platforms. 

Industrial inventions and their effect. 

Growth and development of railroads. 

International events that have led to congressional enactments. 

Methods of transportation and their development. 

Events involving American Indians. 

A chronology of events in connection with each administration. 



Bancroft s History of the United 

Higginson s Larger History of the 

United States. 
Hildreth s United States. 
Scribner s American History Series. 
Winsor s Narrative and Critical 

History of America. 
Lossing s (Harper s) Cyclopedia of 

United States History. 
Smith s (Goldwin) United States. 

McMaster s History of the People 

of the United States. 
Schouler s History of the United 


Rhodes s United States. 
Hart s Epochs of American History. 
Andrews s History of Our Own 


Hart s Source Readers in History. 
Scudder s American Commonwealth. 
Forman s Advanced Civics. 


Fiske s Discovery of America. 

Shaler s The United States. 

Scaife s Geographic History of 

Redway s First Landfall of Colum 

Parkman s (Francis) The Oregon 

Hakluyt s Divers Voyages. 

Gannett s Boundaries of the States 
and the United States. 

MacCoun s Historical Geography 01 

the United States. 
Markham s Sea Fathers. 
Lewis and Clarke s Expedition. 
Schoolcraft s Narrative. 
Whitney s United States. 
Roosevelt s Winning of the West. 
Hinsdale s Old Northwest. 
Irving s Columbus. 
Statesman s Year Book. 


Fiske s Beginnings of New Eng 

Fiske s New France and New Eng 

Fiske s Old Virginia and her 

Fiske s Dutch and Quaker Colonies. 
Palfrey s New England. 
Lodge s English Colonies. 
Parkman s Wolfe and Montcalm. 
Adams s The Emancipation of 





Lecky s American Revolution. 
Fiske s The American Revolution. 
Winsor s Handbook of the Revolu 


Lossing s (Harper s) Cyclopedia of 

United States History. 
Lodge s American Revolution. 

Scudder s America 
Years Ago. 

One Hundred 


Fiske s Critical Period of American 

Story s Constitution of the United 


Curtis s History of the Constitution. 
Bryce s American Commonwealth. 


Wilson s The State. 
Elaine s Twenty Years in 


Johnson s American Politics. 
Holl s Peace Conference at The 



Comte de Paris s Civil War in 


Greeley s The American Conflict. 
Fiske s The Mississippi Valley in 

the Civil War. 
Draper s Civil War. 
Dana s Recollections of the Civil 

Ropes s Civil War. 

Stephens s (Alexander) War be 
tween the States. 

Davis s Rise and Fall of the Con 
federate Government. 

Grant s Personal Memoirs. 

McClellan s Own Story. 

Sherman s Memoirs. 

Cooke s Life of Robert E. Lee. 

Cooke s Life of " Stonewall " Jack 

Shaler s The United States. 
Adams s (Brooks) New Empire. 
Wright s Industrial Evolution 
the United States. 


Monograph Bureau of American 



Consular Reports. 

Publications of Department of Com 


Abbot s Battlefield of 61. 
Abbot s Blue Jackets of 61. 
Coffin s Redeeming the Republic. 
Coffin s Drumbeat of the Nation. 

Coffin s The Story of Liberty. 

Brumbaugh and Walton s Stories 
of Pennsylvania. 

Chandler s Makers of Virginia His 



a as a in fat. 
a as a in fate. 
a as a in far. 
a as a in sofa. 
as a in fall. 
a as a in fare. 

e as e in met. 
e as e in meet. 
e as e in her. 
e as e in prudent. 

i as i in pin. 
1 as i in .pine. 

Aguinaldo, a/ge-nal-do. 
Alamo, a la-mo. 
Aleut, al e-ot. 
Algonquian, al-gon ki-an. 
Amu Darya, a-mo dar ya. 
Antietam, an-te tam. 
Appomatox, ap-o-mat oks. 
Azores, a-zorz . 

Beauregard, bo re-gard. 

Bessemer, bes e-mer. 

Bienville, byan-vel . 

Biloxi, bi-lok si. 

Bonhomme Richard, bo-nom re-shar . 

Bonneville, bon vil. 

Breton (Cape), brit on or bret on. 

Buell, bu el. 

Buena Vista, bwa ua ves ta. 

Burgoyne, ber-goin . 

o as o in not. 
o as o in note. 
o as o in move. 
o as o in idiot. 
6 as o in song. 

u as u in tub. 

u as u in mute. 

ii as French u, German u. 

h as French nasal w, in en, ton. 
fh as th in then. 

Cabeza de Vaca, ka-ba tha da va ka. 

Cabral, ka-bral . 

Canonicus, ka-non i-kus. 

Cartier, Jacques, zhak kar-tya . 

Catawba, ka-ta ba. 

Cavite, ka-ve-ta . 

Cayuga, ka-yo ga. 

Cerro Gordo, ser ro gor do. 

Cervera, thar-va ra. 

Chapultepec, cha-pol-te-pek 7 . 

Chattanooga, chat-a-no ga. 

Cherbourg, sher berg. 

Chicasa, chik a-sa. 

Chickamauga, chick-a-ma ga. 

Chickasaw Bayou, chik a-sa bi o. 

Chippewa, chip e-wa. 

Chowan, cho-wan . 

Cibola, se bo-la. 

Colon, kO-16n . 



Contreras, kon-tr5/ras. 
Cousin, Jean, zhori ko-zan . 
Croghan, kro gan. 
Cunard, ku-nard . 


Dalles, dalz. 
Decatur, de-ka/ter. 
Dias, de as. 
Dieppe, de-ep . 
Duquesne, dii-kan . 

Eads, edz. 

El Caney, el ka/na. 

Espagnola, es-pan-y5 la. 

Ferrar, fer ar. 

Erelinghuysen, fre ling-hu-zen. 
Fusang, fo sang. 

Gansevoort, gans vort. 

Genet, zhe-na . 

Gila, he la. 

Gorges, gCr jez. 

Gourges, gorg. 

Guadalquiver, g,-dal-kuiv er. 

Guadalupe Hidalgo, gwa-fha-16 pa 

e-dal go. 
Guam, gwam. 
Guanahani, gwa-na-a-ne . 
Guerriere, gar-ryar. 
Guiana, ge-a na. 
Gunnbyorn, gon byorn. 

Harve de Grace, a/vr-de-graV. 
Hawaii, ha-wi e. 
Hawaiian, ha-wl yan. 
Herjulf, her-olf . 
Hindu Rush, hin do kosh. 
Honolulu, ho-no-lo 16. 
Houston, hus ton or hous ton. 
Hwui Shan, hwe shan. 

Troquoian, ir-o-kwoi an. 
luka, !-u ka. 

Jalapa, ha-la pa. 

Joliet, zho-lya . 

Juan de Fuca, jo an da fu ka. 

Kameharneha, ka-ma ha-ma ha. 
Kankakee, kang-ka-ke . 
Kaskaskia, kas-kas ki-a. 
Kearney, kar ni. 
Kearsarge, ker sarj. 
Kenesaw, ken-e-sS, . 

Ladrone, la-dron . 

Laudonni^re, lo-do-nyar . 

Le Boeuf, le-bef . 

Ley den, It den. 

Liliuokalani, le-le-wo-ka-la ne. 

Lopez, lo path. 

Luzon, lo-zon . 

Magruder, ma-gro der. 
Malvern, mal vern. 
Manassas, ma-nas as. 
Mankato, man-ka to. 
Marquette, mar-ket . 
Massasoit, mas a-soit. 
Matainoros, mat-a-m5 ros. 
Mauch Chunk, mak chungk. 
McCullough, ma-kul pk. 
McDonough, mak-don o. 
Meigs, megz. 
Menendez, ma-nan dath. 
Mesilla, ma-sel ya. 
Miquelon, mek-loh . 
Modoc, mo dok. 
Mohegan, mo-he gan. 
Molino del Key, mo-le n5 del ra . 
Moluccas, mo-luk az. 
Monterey, mon-ta-ra . 
Montezuma, mon-te-zo ma. 
Moultrie, mol tri. 
Murfreesboro, mer frez-bur-o. 
Muskhogean, musk-ho gp-an. 



Narvaez, nar-va-eth . 
Nina, nen ya. 
Nipmuck, nip muk. 
Nueces, nwa ses. 

Oneida, o-ni da. 
Onondaga, on-on-da ga.. 
Oriskany, o-ris ka-ni. 

Palo Alto, pa lo al-to. 

Pequot, pe kwot. 

Perote, pa-ro ta. 

Pineda, Alvarez de, Al va-reth da 

Pin-a fha. 
Pinzon, pen-thon . 
Pitcairn, pit-karn . 
Powhatan, pow-ha-tan . 
Presque Isle, pres kel. 
Puebla, pweb la. 

Resaca de la Palma, ra-sa ka da la 

pal ma. 

Ribault, re-bo . 

Rio de la Plata, re o da la pla ta. 
Rio Grande, re o grand. 

Samana, sa-ma-na . 

San Antonio, san an-to ni-o. 

Sanchez, Alonzo, al-on so san ; cheth. 

San Jacinto, san ja-sin to. 

San Juan, san hwan . 

San Salvador, san sal-va-fhor . 

Santa F6, san ta fa. 

Santa Maria, san ta ma-rg a. 

Schley, shla. 

Schuyler, ski ler. 

Seminole, sem i-n5l. 

Semmes, semz. 

Seneca, sen e-ka. 

Serapis, se-ra pis. 
Sigel, se gel. 
Siouan, so an. 
Sioux, so. 
Slidell, sli-del . 

Spottsylvania, spot-sil-va ni-a. 
Staunton, stan ton. 
Steuben, stu ben. 
Stuyvesant, sti ve-sant. 
Surinam, so-ri-nam . 

Ticonderoga, ti-kon-de-ro ga. 
Toscanelli, tos-ka-nel le. 
Tremont, tre-mont . 
Tuscarora, tus-ka-ro ra. 
Tutelo, to-ta lo. 

Valladolid, val-ya-fho-lefh . 
Van Rensselaer, van ren se-ler. 
Vasco da Gama, vas ko da ga ma. 
Venezuela, ven-e-zwe la. 
Vera Cruz, ve ra kroz. 
Vergennes, ver-jenz . 
Verrazano, ver-rat-sa no. 
Vespucci, ves-po che. 

Waldseemuller, valt za-mlil-ler. 
Wampanoag, wam-pa-no ag. 
Weyler, wa ler. 
Woccon, wok on. 

Yamassee, yam a-se. 
Yazoo, ya zo. 

Zipango, si-pang go. 
Zollicoffer, zol i-kof-er. 
Zuni, zo nye. 
Zuyder Zee, zi der ze. 


Acadia, 107. 

Adams, John, 190, 198, 202. 

Adams, John Quincy, 255, 271. 

Alabama admitted, 249. 

Alabama, the, 338. 

Alaska, purchase of, 356. 

Alhany, founded, 48; plan, 114, 177. 

Albemarle, the, 342. 

Algerine piracy punished, 227. 

Algonquiau uprising, 88. 

Alien Law, 203. 

America, naming of, 14. 

American Desert, 280. 

Amnesty proclamations, 340, 352. 

Anderson, Major Robert, 307. 

Andros, Sir Edmund, 52, 73, 75, 102. 

Annapolis convention, 182. 

Antietam," battle of, 321. 

Anti-federalist party, 195. 

Antislavery sentiment, growth of, 271. 

Anti-trust legislation, 391. 

Appomattox, Lee surrenders at, 335. 

Arid lands, 415. 

Arkansas admitted, 2(54. 

Army, organization of, 308. 

Arnold, Benedict, 144, 158; treason of, 


Arthur, Chester A., 363. 
Articles of Confederation, 178, 183. 
Astor, John Jacob, 211. 
Atlanta, operations at, 330. 
Atlantic cable, 294. 
Averysboro, skirmish at, 334. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, 34. 
Baffin, William, voyage of, 16. 
Baker, Colonel, 311. 
Balboa discovers Pacific Ocean, 14. 
Balls Bluff, skirmish at, 311. 
Baltimore, Lord, 35, 37. 
Bank, National Act, 344 ; United States, 
194, 230, 261 ; wildcat, 344. 

Barry, Commodore John, 170. 

Bayonne, 48. 

Beauregard, General P. G. T., 307, 308. 

Bennington, battle of, 158. 

Bentonville, skirmish at, 334. 

Bering, Veit, voyage of, 16. 

Berkeley, Sir William, 32. 

Bill of Rights, 134. 

Elaine, James G., 364. 

Bland-Allison Act, 384. 

Blockade, of 1812, 225; of 1861, 336; 

paper, 220 ; runners, 336. 
Blockhouse forts, 110. 
Blue laws of Connecticut, 78. 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 203, 214, 217. 
Bonds, Confederate, 345; United States, 

Boston, fire, 359; origin of name, 68; 

Port Bill, 132 ; settlement of, 67. 
Boundary, British-American, 226, 360; 

Louisiana, 247 ; Oregon, 267. 
Braddock s defeat, 116. 
Bradford, William, 63, 66. 
Bradstreet, Colonel John, 118. 
Bragg, General Braxton, 316, 329. 
Brandywine Creek, 157. 
Brazil discovered, 8, 13. 
Breckenridge, John C., 292. 
Brewster, William, 61. 
British troops in America, 129, 
Brooklyn founded, 48. 
Brooklyn Heights, 152. 
Brown, B. Gratz, 360. 
Brown, John, 291. 
Bryan, William J., 371. 
Buckner, General, 314. 
Buell, General D. C., 316. 
Bull Run, battle of, 309; second battle 

of, 321. 

Bunker Hill, 142. 
Burgoyne, General John, 158 159. 
Burnside, General A. E., 321 




Burr, Aaron, 213. 

Butler, General B. F., 311, 317. 

Cabot, voyages of, 12. 

Cabral blown across the Atlantic, 8, 13. 

Calhoun, John C., 218, 255. 

California, 277, 278, 280, 282, 285. 

Calvert, Cecil, 36 ; George, 35. 

Camden, battle of, 165. 

Canada, invasion of, 144. 

Canal, Delaware and Hudson, 243; Erie, 
241, 295; Nicaragua, 281; Panama, 
415 ; Pennsylvania, 242. 

Cape of Good Hope rounded, 7. 

Carpet-bag rule, 350. 

Cartier, Jacques, in Canada, 106. 

Caswell, Richard, 147. 

Cass, Lewis, 281. 

Catholics in Maryland, 37. 

Cavaliers, 33. 

Cedar Creek, battle of, 333. 

Chadds Ford, battle of, 157. 

Chambersburg destroyed, 332. 

Champlain, Samuel, 106. 

Chancellorsville, battle of, 323. 

Charleston, founded, 39; attacked by 
British, 147 ; captured by British, 164. 

Chattanooga, battle of, 329. 

Cherry Valley massacre, 161. 

Chesapeake affair, 216. 

Chicago, fire, 359; site of, 109. 

Chickamauga, battle of, 329. 

Chinese, Exclusion Act, 372; uprising, 

Chippewa, battle of, 224. 

Christiansen, Hendrick, 47. 

Civil Rights Bill, 349. 

Civil Service Reform, 261, 363. 

Civil War, beginning of, 299. 

Claiborne, William, 37. 

Clark, George Rogers, 162, 187; Lieu 
tenant William, 210. 

Clay, Henry, 218, 252, 259, 284. 

Clearing House, 389. 

Clermont, the, 240. 

Cleveland, Grover, 364, 407. 

Clinton, Sir Henry, 147. 

Coal mining, early, 244. 

Coinage, ratio of gold to silver, 195. 

Cold Harbor, battle of, 332. 

Colonial government, forms of, 101. 

Colorado admitted, 362. 

Columbia River explored, 210. 

Columbian Exposition, 369. 

Columbus, burial place of, 12 ; vessels 
of, 9 ; voyages of, 7, 10, 11. 

Commerce destroyers, Confederate, 337. 

Compromise Bill of 1850, 284. 

Comstock lode, 355. 

Concord, skirmish at, 139. 

Conditions of living in 1840, 293. 

Confederacy, beginning of, 303. 

Congress, Albany, 177 ; Continental, 133, 
141, 178; of Confederation, 179. 

Congress, the, 340. 

Connecticut, colonies united,78 ; founded, 

Constitution, adoption of, 186; amend 
ments to, 192, 207, 323, 349, 352; 
making of, 184 ; various plans of, 183. 

Continental Congress, First, 133; Sec 
ond, 141. 

Convention, Annapolis, 182; Federal, 
183; Hartford, 225. 

Conway Cabal, 167. 

Cooke, Jay, 383. 

Cooper, Peter, 243. 

C.orinth, battle of, 316. 

Cornwallis, General, 154, 156, 165, 168; 
surrender of, 169. 

Coronado, Francisco, explores Colo 
rado, 16, 17. 

Cortez, Hernando, invades Mexico, 16. 

Cotton, cultivation, 233; gin, 233; manu 
facture, 236, 381. 

Courts, federal, 192. 

Cowpens, battle of, 168. 

Crittenden Compromise, 304. 

Croatan, 27. 

Cromwell, Oliver, 33. 

Cuba, American trade in, 398; annex 
ation of, 286, 292, 395 ; civil war in, 
399 ; independence of, 398. 

Culpeper, John, 40. 

Cumberland, the, 340. 

Cumberland, Gap, 113; Road, 212. 

Currency, Continental, 173; issued by 
states, 180; of United States, 343. 

Cushing, William Barker, 342. 

Custer, General George A., 359. 

Dale, Sir Thomas, 30. 
Dallas, battle of, 330. 
Davenport, Rev. John, 77. 



Davis, Jefferson, 335. 

Debt, public, 192. 

Debtor s prisons, 41. 

Declaration of, Independence, 149 ; 

Rights, 126. 
Declaratory Act, 128. 
De Kalb, Baron, 157, 1(55. 
Delaware, Lord, 30. 
Delaware and Hudson Canal, 243. 
Delaware founded, 57. 
Democracy in America, 238. 
Democratic party, origin of, 255. 
Denver, 355. 

Department of Commerce, 414. 
Detroit surrendered, 220. 
Dewey, Admiral George H., 400, 401. 
Dias, Bartholomew, voyage of, 7. 
Dinwiddie, Governor, 115. 
Dongan, Thomas, 52, 104. 
Douglas, Stephen A., 287, 292, 304. 
Draft riots, 328. 

Drake, Sir Francis, voyage of, 15. 
Dred Scott case, 289, 292. 

Eads, Captain James B., 314. 

Early, General Jubal, 332. 

Eleanor Dare, 26. 

Electoral Commission, 361. 

Electrical inventions, 293, 382. 

Elkins Rebate Act, 392. 

Embargo Act, 216. 

Emigration to the West, 232, 237. 

Endicott, John, 66. 

Eratosthenes computes dimensions of 

earth, 7. 

Eric the Red, voyage of, 2, 
Ericson, Leif, 3. 
Ericsson, John, 340. 
Erie Canal, 241. 
European trade with India, 4. 
Eutaw Springs, battle of, 168. 

Farragut, Commodore D. G., 317. 
Federalist party, 195. 
Field, Cyrus, 294. 
Fifteenth Amendment, 352. 
Fifty-four-forty controversy, 267. 
Fillmore, Millard, 283. 
Finances of Revolution, 172. 
Financial panic, 383, 387. 
Fisheries, 99; dispute, 360. 
Fishers Hill, battle of, 333. 

Fitch, John, builds steam packet, 240. 

Five Nations, 23. 

Flag, Commodore Barry s, 170; national, 

163; rattlesnake, 170. 
Florida, accession of, 246; admitted, 


Florida, the, 338. 
Foote, Commodore, 314, 316. 
Fort, Carolina, 25; Crown Point, 113, 
* 117, 144; Donelson, 313; Duquesne, 

115, 119; Edward, 117; Frontenac, 

117; Henry, 313; Le Bceuf, 113, 115; 

Lee, 152; Meigs, 221; Nassau, 47; 

Necessity, 116 ; Orange, 48; Oswego, 

117 ; Sumter, 306, 342 ; Ticonderoga, 

113, 145; Washington, 154; William 

Henry, 117. 

Fourteenth Amendment, 349. 
France aids Americans, 163; interferes 

with American commerce, 214. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 123, 141, 172, 177. 
Fredericksburg, battle of, 321. 
Free silver party, 371, 388. 
Free-Soil party, 276, 281. 
Fre mont, John C., 280, 347. 
French, expelled from America, 120; 

posts in America, 109; Revolution, 


French town, battle of, 220. 
Frobisher, Martin, voyage of, 16. 
Fugitive-slave laws, 198, 284, 285. 
Fulton, Robert, builds Clermont, 240. 
Fusang, location of, 2. 

Gadsden purchase, 287. 
G:ig rule, the, 271. 
Gage, General, 138, 139, 142. 
Gama, Vasco da, 7. 
Garfield, James A, 363. 
Gates, General, 159, 165, 167. 
Gateways of Appalachians, 113. 
Genet affair, 199. 
Geneva award, 360. 

Georgia, founding of, 41; silk cultiva 
tion, 42; trade restrictions in, 42. 
Germantown, battle of, 157. 
Gettysburg, battle of, 324. 
Glover s fishermen, 154. 
Gold discoveries, 282, 355 ; reserve, 386. 
Gorges, Ferdinando, 66, 78, 79. 
Gourges, Dominique de, 25. 
Grand model, the, 40. 



Grant, General U. S., 314, 325, 326, 327, 

333 ; President, 358. 
Great Britain interferes with American 

commerce, 215. 
Greeley, Horace, 360. 
Greenbacks, issues of, 343. 
Greene, General Nathanael, 167. 
Greenland discovered, 2. 
Guilford Courthouse, 168. 
Guimbjorn, voyage of, 2. 

Hague Tribunal, 416. 

Haiti discovered, 10. 

Halleck, General, 319. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 191, 194. 

Hampton Roads, 333, 340. 

Hancock, John, 140. 

Hancock, General Winfield S., 363. 

Harrison, Benjamin, 366. 

Harrison, General William Henry, 218, 

221, 223, 262, 264. 
Haverhill massacre, 111. 
Hawaii, 370, 406. 
Hay, John, 417. 
Hayes, Rutherford B., 361. 
Hayne, Robert Y., 256. 
Hendricks, Thomas A., 361. 
Henry affair, 219. 
Herodotus quoted, 14. 
Hessian mercenaries, 156. 
Hobson, Captain Richmond P., 402. 
Holly Springs raided, 325. 
Hood, General, 330. 
Hooker, General Joseph, 329. 
House of Burgesses, 30, 104, 124. 
Howe, General, 145, 153, 157, 161. 
Hudson, Henry, 16, 46. 
Huguenot, 25, 39. 
Hull, General, 220. 
Hutchinson, Anne, 70, 75, 89. 
Hwui Shan, voyage of, 1. 

Idaho admitted, 368. 

Illinois, admitted, 249; Territory, 228. 

Impressment of seamen, 220. 

Independent treasury, 263. 

Indian, civilization, 20; confederations, 

22 ; lands, how acquired, 48, 85 ; 

tribes in America, 19, 84. 
Indian wars, Algonquian, 88; King 

Philip s, 89; Modoc, 358; Pequot, 87; 

Pontiac s, 92 ; Sioux, 359 ; Tusca- 
rora, 91 ; Yamassee, 92. 

Indiana admitted, 249; Territory, 228. 

Indigo, cultivation of, 40. 

Industries, colonial, 97 ; geographic dis 
tribution of, 374. 

Inflation Act, 384. 

International Peace Conference, 416. 

Interstate Commerce Commission, 392. 

Invasion of Mexico, 276. 

Iowa, 283. 

Ironclad gunboats, 314, 339. 

Iroquois confederacy, 22. 

Island Number Ten, battle of, 315. 

luka, battle of, 316. 

Jackson, Andrew 255, 256. 

Jackson, General " Stonewall," 309, 319. 

Jamestown, founding of, 29. 

Japan, 1, 10. 

Jay, Chief Justice John, 200, 202. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 188, 191, 206, 212. 

Jesuits in America, 107. 

Johnson, Andrew, 348 ; impeachment 

of, 350. 

Johnson, Sir William, 85, 158. 
Johnston, General Albert Sidney, 315. 
Johnston, General Joseph E., 319, 330, 

334, 335. 

Joliet, Louis, 107. 
Jones, John Paul, 170, 172. 

Kansas admitted, 312. 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill, 287. 
Kearsarge, the, 338. 
Kenesaw Mountain, battle of, 330. 
Kenuebec River Colony, 28. 
Kentucky, 196. 
Kieft, William, 49. 
King George s War, 112. 
King s plan, the, 158, 160. 
King William s War, 111. 
Know-nothing party, 286. 
Knox, General Henry, 191. 
Ku Klux Klan, 351. 

Labor party, 358. 
Lafayette, Marquis de, 157. 
Lake Erie, naval battle on, 223. 
La Salle, Robert, 108. 
Lascell, William B., 294. 
Laurens, Henry, 39. 



Lee, General Charles, a traitor, 155. 

Lee, Richard Henry, 149. 

Lee, General Robert E., 319, 320, 323; 

surrender of, 335. 

Legislative assemblies in colonies, 103. 
Leif Ericson, lands in North America, 3. 
Leon, Ponce de, discovers Florida, 16. 
Letter postage reduced, 3(54. 
Lewis, Captain Meriwether, 210. 
Lexington, skirmish at, 139. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 291 ; debates with 

Douglas, 290; inaugural address of, 

306; murder of, 347; reelection of, 


Line of demarcation, 11, 12, 13. 
Locke, John, 40. 

London and Plymouth companies, 27. 
Londonderry settled, 80. 
Long Island, battle of, 153. 
Lookout Mountain, battle of, 329. 
Lopez Expedition, 285. 
Louisburg, fall of, 119. 
Louisiana, admitted, 228 ; Purchase, 208 ; 

Territory, 227. 
Lundys Lane, battle of, 224. 
Lyon, General Nathaniel, 311. 

McClellan, General George B., 309, 318, 

319, 321, 347. 
McCormick, Cyrus, 296. 
McDowell, General Irwin, 308. 
McKinley, William, 371, 400, 408, 409, 

413, 414. 

Madison, James, 217, 223. 
Magellan, voyage of, 14. 
Maine admitted, 249 ; settlements in, 81. 
Maine, the, destroyed, 399. 
Manhattan Island, 48. 
Manila Bay, battle of, 401. 
Manor system, 49. 
Manufactures, 80, 99, 235. 
Marcos, Fray, 16. 
Marquette, Father, 107. 
Marshall, James, 281. 
Maryland, charter of, 35. 
Mason and Dixon s line, 38. 
Mason, John, 66, 78, 79. 
Mason and Slidell, 312. 
Massachusetts, beginnings of, 65 ; public 

schools in, 69; resists the king, 138. 
Massasoit, chief, 64. 
Mather, Cotton, 72; Increase, 72. 

Maximilian in Mexico, 356. 

Mayflower, the, 61, 62, 63. 

Meade, General, 323, 324. 

Menendez massacres Huguenot settle 
ment, 25. 

Merrimac, the, 339. 

Mexican War, battles of, 278. 

Mexico declares war, 275. 

Michigan, admitted, 264 ; Territory, 

Miles, General Nelson, 404. 

Mill Springs, battle of, 313. 

Miuuit, Peter, 49. 

Mint, United States, 194. 

Missionary Ridge, battle of, 329. 

Mississippi, admitted, 249; Territory, 

Mississippi River explored, 107. 

Missouri admitted, 249; compromise, 

Mohawk Gap, 113. 

Monitor, the, 340. 

Monmouth, battle of, 164. 

Monroe Doctrine, 248, 356, 370. 

Monroe, James, 209, 246. 

Montana admitted, 368. 

Montcalm, Marquis de, 117. 

Montgomery, Richard, 144. 

Moores Creek, battle of, 147. 

Morgan, .Colonel Daniel, 144, 158, 167. 

Mormons, 239. 

Morris, Robert, 174. 

Morristown, mutiny at, 167. 

Murfreesboro, battle of, 316. 

Murray, Mrs., strategy of, 154. 

Narvaez, Panfilo de, explores Gulf 

coast, 16. 

Nashville, battle of, 331. 
National domain, 186. 
Naval operations, Barbary coast, 212, 

227; Civil War, 335; Revolutionary 

War, 170; Spanish-American War, 

395; War of 1812, 221. 
Navigation Laws, 33, 100. 
Navy, beginning of, 146 ; department of, 

203; gunboat, 214; new, 365, 410. 
Nebraska admitted, 356. 
Nevada admitted, 35(5. 
New Amsterdam founded, 48. 
New England Confederacy, 81, 177. 
New France, 107. 



New Hampshire, founded, 79; industries 
of, 80. 

New Haven, founded, 77; theocracy, 

New Jersey, settlement of, 53. 

New Netherland, Dutch in, 47; fall of, 

New Orleans, 208; battle of, 226; in 
Civil War, 316. 

New route to America, 27. 

Newspapers, 418. 

New York Bay discovered, 46. 

New York, colony of, 51. 

Nicollet, Jean, 107. 

Non-importation agreement, 134. 

Non-intercourse Act, 217. 

Norfolk burned by British, 147. 

North Carolina, founded, 38; revolu 
tionary operations, 147. 

North Dakota admitted, 368. 

Northwest Territory, 186. 

Nullification controversy, 258, 260. 

Oglethorpe, James, 41. 
Oklahoma Territory, 368. 
Omnibus Bill, 284. 
Ordinance of 1787, 187. 
Oregon country, 211, 266. 
Ostend Manifesto, 395. 
Otis, James, 124. 

Paine, Thomas, 149. 

Palatine Village destroyed, 118. 

Palisade forts, 110. 

Panama Canal, 415. 

Parris, Samuel, 71. 

Patroons, the, 49. 

Pea Kidge, battle of, 316. 

Pelham, skirmish of, 154. 

Pell, Thomas, defies Stuyvesant, 50. 

Penn, William, 55, 85. 

Pennsylvania, founded, 54; canal, 242; 

industries of, 56. 
Pensions, 368. 

Perry, Captain Oliver Hazard, 223. 
Perryville, battle of, 316. 
Persecution of Non-Puritans, 70. 
Petersburg, operations about, 332, 333. 
Philippine Islands, 404, 408. 
Pierce, Franklin, 286. 
Pike, Zebulon, 211. 
Pilgrims, the, 61. 

Pineda, Alvarez de, explores Gulf coast, 

Pine tree shilling, 72. 

Pinzon, Vicente, explores South Atlantic 
coast, 16. 

Pitt, William, 118, 127, 135. 

Plymouth colony, 59, 62, 65. 

Political parties, rise of, 195. 

Polk, James K., 266, 275. 

Pools, 391, 393. 

Poor Richard, 172. 

Pope, Alexander VI divides world, 25; 
Eugenius IV divides the world, 6. 

Pope, General, 321. 

Popular sovereignty, 283. 

Port Hudson, capture of, 327. 

Porter, Admiral, 325. 

Porto Rico, 404, 406. 

Portugal, place of, in discovery, 6, 7. 

Presidential succession, 365. 

Prince Henry, the Navigator, 9. 

Printing, effect of invention, 59. 

Privateers, 170. 

Public lands, sale of, 196. 

Public schools in Massachusetts, 69. 

Puritan theocracy, 69, 72, 77. 

Puritans, emigration of, 65; in Mary 
land, 37 ; persecution of, 59. 

Quakers, the, in Massachusetts, 70; in 

Pennsylvania, 54. 

Quebec, founded, 106; storming of, 119. 
Queen Anne s War, 110. 
Queenston, attack upon, 221. 

Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio, 113; Cen 
tral Pacific, 371; Great Northern, 
379; Illinois Central, 301; New York 
Central, 238, 376 ; Pennsylvania, 238 ; 
Southern Pacific, 379; Union Pacific, 

Railways, building of, 242, 377; land 
grants to, 379 ; trunk lines, 376 ; un 
derground, 301. 

Raisin River, battle of, 220. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, founds colonies, 26. 

Reconstruction, policy of the Congress, 
349; policy of Johnson, 349; policy 
of Lincoln, 346. 

Redemptioners, 31. 

Republican party, 288. 

Republican-Democratic party, 255. 



Resaca, battle of, 330. 

Rhode Island, founding of, 73. 

Ribault, settlement of, at Port Royal, 25. 

Richmond, fall of, 333. 

Right of search, 312. 

Robinson, John, 01. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 402, 413-417. 

Rosecrans, General, 301), 329. 

Rotation in office, 260. 

Rotundity of the earth, notions about, 7. 

Rumsey s, James, steamboat, 239. 

St. Augustine founded, 25. 

Salem, settled, 67; witchcraft at, 71. 

Salmon Falls massacre, 111. 

Sampson, Admiral William, 401. 

Sanchez, Alonzo, story concerning, 8. 

San Juan Hill, battle of, 402. 

Santa Fe , Spanish mission of, 17. 

Santa Maria, wrecking of, 10. 

Santiago, naval battle, 403. 

Saratoga, battle of, 159. 

Savannah, captured, 164; founded, 42. 

Savannah crosses the Atlantic, 240. 

Saybrook founded, 76. 

Schenectady massacre, 111. 

Schley, Admiral W. S, 402. 

Schuyler, General Philip, 158. 

Scotch-Irish, 42, 80. 

Scott, General \Vinfield, 224, 278, 280, 

308, 309. 

Secession, events leading to, 301. 
Sedition law, 203. 
Semmes, Captain, 338. 
Separatists, 59. 
Seven days battles, 320. 
Shafter, General William R., 402, 404. 
Shenandoah, the, 338. 
Shenandoah Valley, 310, 319, 332. 
Sheridan, General Philip, 333. 
Sherman Act, 368, 369, 385, 388, 392. 
Sherman, General W. T., 311, 315, 325, 


Shiloh, battle of, 315. 
Shipbuilding, 99. 
Sigel, General Franz, 311. 
Silk cultivation, 42. 
Silver demonetized, 384. 
Six Nations, 23, 162. 
Slavery, agitation, 283, 290 ; first in 

America, 31 ; forbidden in Northwest 

Territory, 188 ; in Illinois, 270 ; in 

Virginia, 31, 96; Northern view of, 
300; Southern view of, 299; Wilmot 
Proviso, 276. 

Slaves, emancipation of, 321 ; importa 
tion of, forbidden, 212. 

Smith, Captain John, 29, 47, 62. 

Social life in the colonies, 68, 94. 

Socialism in America, 238. 

Solis, Juan, explores South Atlantic 
coast, 16. 

Soto, Hernando de, explores Mississippi 
River, 16. 

South America discovered, 11. 

South Carolina, 38. 

South Dakota admitted, 368. 

Spanish territorial claims, 201. 

Spoils system, 261. 

Spottsylvania, battle of, 332. 

Stamp Act, 123, 127. 

Standish, Captain, 64. 

Stantou, Edwin M., 350. 

Starving time, 29. 

State, banks, 229; claims ceded, 187; 
rights, 300. 

Steam engine perfected, 232. 

Steam navigation, 239, 294. 

Steel, Bessemer process. 377, 380. 

Steuben, Baron von, 157, 164, 167, 168. 

Stevens, John C., 240. 

Stillwater, battle of, 159. 

Strike, Chicago, 365; Pittsburg, 362; 
Pullman, 370. 

Stuyvesant, Peter, 50, 104. 

Subtreasury plan, 264. 

Sullivan s expedition, 161. 

Sumter, the, 337. 

Swedes, in Delaware, 57 ; in Pennsyl 
vania, 56. 

Taft, William H., 409. 

Taney, Roger B., 262. 

Tariff, first, 191; for protection, 252; 
of 1824, 254; of 1828, 255; of 1832, 
257 ; of 1833, 259 ; of 1842, 265 ; effect 
on South, 300; of 1890, 368; of 1894, 

Taxation of the colonies, 122. 

Taylor, Zachary, 276, 281, 283. 

Tea, party, Boston, 131 ; tax, 130. 

Telegraph, electric, 293. 

Telephone, 382.. 

Tennessee admitted, 196. 



Tenure of Office Bill, 350. 
Texas, admitted, 275; and Mexico, 272; 
annexation of, 274; republic of, 

Thames, battle of, 224. 
Thirteenth Amendment, 323. 
Thomas, General G. H., 329, 330, 331. 
Ticonderoga, 145. 
Tidyman, 104. 
Tilden, Samuel J., 361. 
Tippecanoe, battle of, 218. 
Tobacco, cultivation of, 31, 98 ; trade, 33. 
Toleration Act, 36, 38. 
Tompkins, Daniel, 246. 
Tories, 152, 156. 
Toscanelli, opinions of, 8. 
Town meeting, 64. 
Townshend Acts, 1-29. 

Trade routes between Europe and 
India, 4. 

Treasury notes, 343. 

Treaty, Clayton-Bulwer, 281 ; fisheries 
246 ; Ghent, 226 ; Guadalupe-Hidalgo 
280; Jay s, 200; Paris, 174, 186 
Webster-Ashburton, 266. 

Trent affair, 312. 

Trenton, battle of, 156. 

Trial by jury, 136. 

Trusts, 390. 

Tyler, John, 265. 

Underground railway, 301. 
Underbill, Captain John, 89. 

Valley Forge, 157. 

Van Buren, Martin, 258, 262, 281. 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 375. 

Van Dorn, General, 325. 

Van Twiller, Wouter, 49. 

Vasco da Gama, voyage of, 6. 

Venezuela boundary, 370. 

Vera Cruz, battle of, 278. 

Vermont, 196. 

Verrazano, Giovanni da, 45. 

Vespucci, Amerigo, journal of, 14; voy 
age of, 13. 

Vicksburg, siege of, 325. 

Vinland, settlement of, 4. 
Virginia, 26; becomes a royal colony, 
32; Claiborne s rebellion, 37; prog 
ress of, 35. 

^irginia, the, 339. 
irginia City, 355. 

Var, Algerine, 227 ; Civil, 299 ; Mexican, 
275; Revolutionary, 152; Spanish- 
American, 395 ; Tripolitaii, 212 ; 1812, 

Vashington, George, mission to Fort Le 
Bceuf, 115; in command of army, 
142; at New York, 152; retreats 
across New Jersey, 154 ; at Yorktown, 
169; disbands army, 170; elected 
President, 190; retires from public 
life, 202. 
Washington admitted, 368. 
Washington burned, 225. 
Wealth in the colonies, 96. 
Weathersfield founded, 77. 
Webster, Daniel, 256. 
Wesley, John and Charles, 42. 
West India Company, 47. 
West Virginia admitted, 324. 
Wheat growing transferred to the West, 


Wheeler, William A., 361. 
Whig party, origin of, 263. 
Whisky Insurrection, 201 . 
White Plains, battle of, 154. 
Whitman, Marcus, 267. 
Whitney, Eli, 233. 
Wilderness, battle of, 331. 
William and Mary College, 35. 
Williams, Roger, 70, 73, 75, 
Wilmot Proviso, 276. 
Wilson, Henry, 360. 
Wilsons Creek, battle of, 311. 
Winchester, battle of, 333. 
Windsor founded, 76. 
Winthrop, governor of Connecticut, 53 
Winthrop, John, 67, 68. 
Wolfe, General James, 119. 
Wyoming admitted, 368. 
Wyoming Valley massacre, 161. 

XYZmission, 203. 

Yeardley, Sir George, 30. 
Yorktown, operations at, 169. 

Zollicoffer, General, 313. 
Zipango, 10. 








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